glucose transporter type 1


Summary: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.

Top Publications

  1. Steinberg F, Gallon M, Winfield M, Thomas E, Bell A, Heesom K, et al. A global analysis of SNX27-retromer assembly and cargo specificity reveals a function in glucose and metal ion transport. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify the SNX27-retromer as a major endosomal recycling hub required to maintain cellular nutrient homeostasis. ..
  2. Izuishi K, Yamamoto Y, Sano T, Takebayashi R, Nishiyama Y, Mori H, et al. Molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colorectal cancer by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, for assessing the efficacy of chemotherapy using FDG-PET, we must keep in mind that SUV does not indicate the tumor growth directly. ..
  3. Saigusa S, Toiyama Y, Tanaka K, Okugawa Y, Fujikawa H, Matsushita K, et al. Prognostic significance of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) gene expression in rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Surg Today. 2012;42:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An elevated GLUT1 expression may be a useful predictor of distant recurrence and poor prognosis in rectal cancer patients after preoperative CRT. ..
  4. Harris V, Bendre S, Gonzalez De Los Santos F, Fite A, El Yaman El Dandachli A, Kurenbekova L, et al. GnRH increases glucose transporter-1 expression and stimulates glucose uptake in the gonadotroph. J Endocrinol. 2012;212:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, regulation of glucose metabolism by GnRH via changes in Gluts expression and subcellular location in the pituitary gonadotroph reveals a novel response of the gonadotroph to GnRH. ..
  5. Krzeslak A, Wójcik Krowiranda K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, Romanowicz H, Bienkiewicz A, et al. Expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 glucose transporters in endometrial and breast cancers. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GLUT1 and GLUT3 seem to be important markers in endometrial and breast tumors differentiation. ..
  6. Loisel Meyer S, Swainson L, Craveiro M, Oburoglu L, Mongellaz C, Costa C, et al. Glut1-mediated glucose transport regulates HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies reveal the Glut1-mediated metabolic pathway as a critical regulator of HIV-1 infection in human CD4 T cells and thymocytes. ..
  7. Shen W, Cheng K, Bao Y, Zhou S, Yao H. Expression of Glut-1, HIF-1?, PI3K and p-Akt in a case of ceruminous adenoma. Head Neck Oncol. 2012;4:18 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of choice is wide local excision with clear margins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Glut-1 expression and the PI3K/Akt pathway in ceruminous adenoma of the EAC. ..
  8. Kornegoor R, Verschuur Maes A, Buerger H, Hogenes M, de Bruin P, Oudejans J, et al. Fibrotic focus and hypoxia in male breast cancer. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:1397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers seem to have similar clinical importance as previously reported in female breast cancer. ..
  9. Brauer H, Makowski L, Hoadley K, Casbas Hernandez P, Lang L, Roman Perez E, et al. Impact of tumor microenvironment and epithelial phenotypes on metabolism in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:571-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Warburg-like metabolism is influenced by changes in stromal-epithelial interactions, including altered expression of HGF/Met pathway and GLUT1 expression. ..

More Information


  1. Piotrowski J, Gomez T, Schoon R, Mangalam A, Billadeau D. WASH knockout T cells demonstrate defective receptor trafficking, proliferation, and effector function. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:958-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant trafficking of these key T cell proteins may potentially lead to attenuated proliferation and effector function. ..
  2. Eckert A, Kappler M, Schubert J, Taubert H. Correlation of expression of hypoxia-related proteins with prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;16:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, a marker panel is proposed to allow a more individualized prognosis in OSCC patients. This marker panel should include beside HIF-1?, pVHL, and GLUT-1. ..
  3. Xu Y, Bao Y, Zhou S, Fan J. Effect on the expression of MMP-2, MT-MMP in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line by antisense glucose transporter-1. Arch Med Res. 2012;43:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Glut-1 AS-ODN also decreased the expression of MT1-MMP mRNA. Co-expression of Glut-1 and MMP-2 in Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells and Glut-1 may regulate MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. ..
  4. Sun L, Zeng X, Yan C, Sun X, Gong X, Rao Y, et al. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of glucose transporters GLUT1-4. Nature. 2012;490:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural and biochemical information reported here constitutes an important framework for mechanistic understanding of glucose transporters and sugar porters in general. ..
  5. Matsushita K, Uchida K, Saigusa S, Ide S, Hashimoto K, Koike Y, et al. Glycolysis inhibitors as a potential therapeutic option to treat aggressive neuroblastoma expressing GLUT1. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assessed the efficacy of glycolysis inhibition as an anticancer treatment in neuroblastoma cell lines with altered expression of GLUT1...
  6. Ohno H, Nakatsu Y, Sakoda H, Kushiyama A, Ono H, Fujishiro M, et al. 4F2hc stabilizes GLUT1 protein and increases glucose transport activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;300:C1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that 4F2hc is likely to be involved in GLUT1 stabilization and to contribute to the regulation of not only amino acid but also glucose metabolism. ..
  7. Jin Q, Alkhatib B, Cornetta K, Alkhatib G. Alternate receptor usage of neuropilin-1 and glucose transporter protein 1 by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1. Virology. 2010;396:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..HTLV-1 Env forms complexes with both NP-1 and GLUT-1 in primary human astrocytes. The alternate usage of these two cellular receptors may have important implications regarding HTLV-1 neuro-tropism. ..
  8. Usuda K, Sagawa M, Aikawa H, Ueno M, Tanaka M, Machida Y, et al. Correlation between glucose transporter-1 expression and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography in lung cancer. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..There are similarities in cell differentiation and cell type between Glut1 expression and (18)F-FDG uptake. (18)F-FDG uptake correlates significantly with tumor size, but Glut1 expression does not. ..
  9. Luo X, Zhou S, Fan J. Glucose transporter-1 as a new therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:1885-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, the authors propose the suppression of SLC2A1 expression as a new therapeutic target for laryngeal carcinoma...
  10. Sokolovska J, Isajevs S, Sugoka O, Sharipova J, Lauberte L, Svirina D, et al. Correction of glycaemia and GLUT1 level by mildronate in rat streptozotocin diabetes mellitus model. Cell Biochem Funct. 2011;29:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Mildronate normalizes the GLUT1 expression up-regulated by streptozotocin diabetes mellitus in kidneys, heart, muscle and liver. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  11. Wang Y, Heilig K, Saunders T, Minto A, Deb D, Chang A, et al. Transgenic overexpression of GLUT1 in mouse glomeruli produces renal disease resembling diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F99-F111 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested GLUT1 may play an important role in the development of diabetic GS. ..
  12. Zhang H, Schin M, Saha J, Burke K, Holzman L, Filipiak W, et al. Podocyte-specific overexpression of GLUT1 surprisingly reduces mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic nephropathy in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F91-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Khandani A, Dunphy C, Meteesatien P, Dufault D, Ivanovic M, Shea T. Glut1 and Glut3 expression in lymphoma and their association with tumor intensity on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Commun. 2009;30:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Intensity of lymphoma on FDG PET is likely associated with Glut1 expression. The nonlymphomatous, benign cells may play an important role in visualization of lymphoma on FDG PET. ..
  14. Hao L, Ni Q, Jia G, Wang G, Qian K, Liu Y, et al. [Expression of glucose transporter 1 in human breast carcinoma and its clinical significance]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:44-7 pubmed
  15. Khandani A, Funkhouser W, Feins R, Socinski M. Simultaneous FDG PET+/Glut1+ lung and FDG PET-/Glut1- subcarinal lymph node metastases from prostate cancer. Ann Nucl Med. 2009;23:595-7 pubmed publisher
    ..30% of the carcinoma cells. The low Glut1 expression in the subcarinal lymph node is the most likely explanation for its non-visualization on PET. ..
  16. FROLOVA A, Moley K. Quantitative analysis of glucose transporter mRNAs in endometrial stromal cells reveals critical role of GLUT1 in uterine receptivity. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2123-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Shimada H, Okazumi S, Koyama M, Murakami K. Japanese Gastric Cancer Association Task Force for Research Promotion: clinical utility of ¹?F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gastric cancer. A systematic review of the literature. Gastric Cancer. 2011;14:13-21 pubmed publisher
  18. Robichaud T, Appleyard A, Herbert R, Henderson P, Carruthers A. Determinants of ligand binding affinity and cooperativity at the GLUT1 endofacial site. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss this result within the context of models for GLUT1-mediated sugar transport and GLUT1 quaternary structure, and we evaluate the major determinants of ligand binding affinity and cooperativity. ..
  19. Carvalho K, Cunha I, Rocha R, Ayala F, Cajaiba M, Begnami M, et al. GLUT1 expression in malignant tumors and its use as an immunodiagnostic marker. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:965-72 pubmed
    ..The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined. ..
  20. Wincewicz A, Baltaziak M, Kanczuga Koda L, Koda M, Sulkowska U, Sulkowski S. GLUT1 and Bcl-xL in relation to erythropoietin in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Hepatogastroenterology. 2010;57:741-5 pubmed
    ..Concerning functional significance of these investigated factors, subsequent promotion of cell survival could be maintained thanks to mutual impact of EPO and Bcl-xL on cellular viability in hypoxic environment of colorectal cancer. ..
  21. Ghez D, Lepelletier Y, Jones K, Pique C, Hermine O. Current concepts regarding the HTLV-1 receptor complex. Retrovirology. 2010;7:99 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the most recent data, we propose a model of the HTLV-1 receptor complex and discuss its potential impact on HTLV-1 infection. ..
  22. Livshits L, Caduff A, Talary M, Lutz H, Hayashi Y, Puzenko A, et al. The role of GLUT1 in the sugar-induced dielectric response of human erythrocytes. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:2212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A simplified model of the membrane capacitance alteration with glucose uptake is proposed. ..
  23. Zhao D, Ishikawa T, Quan L, Michiue T, Yoshida C, Komatu A, et al. Evaluation of pulmonary GLUT1 and VEGF mRNA levels in relation to lung weight in medicolegal autopsy cases. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S290-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Different mechanisms might be involved in non-cardiogenic or neurogenic pulmonary congestion and edema for ICH/brain contusions and subdural hematoma. ..
  24. Jones K, Huang Y, Chevalier S, Afonso P, Petrow Sadowski C, Bertolette D, et al. The receptor complex associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3) Env-mediated binding and entry is distinct from, but overlaps with, the receptor complexes of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. J Virol. 2009;83:5244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the complex of receptor molecules used by HTLV-3 to bind to primary T lymphocytes differs from that of both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2...
  25. Zambrano A, Jara E, Murgas P, Jara C, Castro M, Angulo C, et al. Cytokine stimulation promotes increased glucose uptake via translocation at the plasma membrane of GLUT1 in HEK293 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:1471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these results show a role for non-insulin growth factors in the regulation of GLUT1 trafficking that has not yet been directly determined in non-hematopoietic cells. ..
  26. Ayala F, Rocha R, Carvalho K, Carvalho A, da Cunha I, Lourenço S, et al. GLUT1 and GLUT3 as potential prognostic markers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Molecules. 2010;15:2374-87 pubmed publisher
  27. Airley R, Evans A, Mobasheri A, Hewitt S. Glucose transporter Glut-1 is detectable in peri-necrotic regions in many human tumor types but not normal tissues: Study using tissue microarrays. Ann Anat. 2010;192:133-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Montel Hagen A, Sitbon M, Taylor N. Erythroid glucose transporters. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009;16:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify new arrangements of GLUT members in red cell metabolism. ..
  29. Barta E, Drugan A. Glucose transport from mother to fetus--a theoretical study. J Theor Biol. 2010;263:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Parameters that await experimental determination are identified. ..
  30. Stuart C, Howell M, Baker J, Dykes R, Duffourc M, Ramsey M, et al. Cycle training increased GLUT4 and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin in fast twitch muscle fibers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed 6 wk of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling...
  31. Hresko R, Hruz P. HIV protease inhibitors act as competitive inhibitors of the cytoplasmic glucose binding site of GLUTs with differing affinities for GLUT1 and GLUT4. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25237 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides mechanistic insight into the basis for the clinical variation in drug-related metabolic toxicity. ..
  32. Lennon R, Welsh G, Singh A, Satchell S, Coward R, Tavare J, et al. Rosiglitazone enhances glucose uptake in glomerular podocytes using the glucose transporter GLUT1. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1944-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, rosiglitazone has a direct and protective effect on glucose uptake in wild-type human podocytes. This represents a novel mechanism by which PPARgamma agonists may improve podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy. ..
  33. Veggiotti P, Teutonico F, Alfei E, Nardocci N, Zorzi G, Tagliabue A, et al. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency: ketogenic diet in three patients with atypical phenotype. Brain Dev. 2010;32:404-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary results seem to demonstrate efficacy of KD on paroxysmal movement disorder while positive effect on cognitive impairment result less evident. ..
  34. Fenske W, Völker H, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, et al. Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..31 (1.80-15.62) in patients with metastatic ACC and in patients after radical resection the HR for disease-free survival was 6.10 (2.16-16.94). In conclusion, GLUT1 is a highly promising stage-independent, prognostic marker in ACC...
  35. Buller C, Heilig C, Brosius F. GLUT1 enhances mTOR activity independently of TSC2 and AMPK. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GLUT1 expression appears to augment mesangial cell growth and matrix protein accumulation via effects on glycolysis and decreased GAPDH interaction with Rheb. ..
  36. Kasahara T, Maeda M, Boles E, Kasahara M. Identification of a key residue determining substrate affinity in the human glucose transporter GLUT1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:1051-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ile(287) is a key residue for maintaining high glucose affinity in GLUT1 as revealed in Hxt2 and is located at or near the exofacial glucose binding site. ..
  37. Shim H, Lee W, Park S, Kim H, So Y, Kim S. Expressions of glucose transporter Types 1 and 3 and hexokinase-II in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HK-II and Glut-3 contribute significantly to FDG uptake in DLBCL. DLBCL may have higher FDG uptake because it expresses more HK-II, whereas Glut-1 appears to play no role in FDG uptake in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ..
  38. Rosa S, Gonçalves J, Judas F, Mobasheri A, Lopes C, Mendes A. Impaired glucose transporter-1 degradation and increased glucose transport and oxidative stress in response to high glucose in chondrocytes from osteoarthritic versus normal human cartilage. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R80 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired GLUT-1 downregulation may constitute an important pathogenic mechanism by which conditions characterized by hyperglycemia, like DM, can promote degenerative changes in chondrocytes that can facilitate the progression of OA. ..
  39. Young C, Lewis A, Rudolph M, Ruehle M, Jackman M, Yun U, et al. Modulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression levels alters mouse mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23205 pubmed publisher
  40. Yun J, Rago C, Cheong I, Pagliarini R, Angenendt P, Rajagopalan H, et al. Glucose deprivation contributes to the development of KRAS pathway mutations in tumor cells. Science. 2009;325:1555-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that glucose deprivation can drive the acquisition of KRAS pathway mutations in human tumors. ..
  41. Merlini M, Meyer E, Ulmann Schuler A, Nitsch R. Vascular ?-amyloid and early astrocyte alterations impair cerebrovascular function and cerebral metabolism in transgenic arcA? mice. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:293-311 pubmed publisher
  42. Li X, Ma Y, Sun X, Humm J, Ling C, O Donoghue J. High 18F-FDG uptake in microscopic peritoneal tumors requires physiologic hypoxia. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:632-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This enhanced uptake was abrogated by carbogen breathing, indicating that in the absence of physiologic hypoxia, high GLUT-1 expression, by itself, was insufficient to ensure high (18)F-FDG uptake. ..
  43. Yu Y, Maguire T, Alwine J. Human cytomegalovirus activates glucose transporter 4 expression to increase glucose uptake during infection. J Virol. 2011;85:1573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that HCMV-specific mechanisms are used to replace GLUT1, the normal HF GLUT, with GLUT4, the major glucose transporter in adipose tissue, which has a 3-fold-higher glucose transport capacity...
  44. Mayer A, Hockel M, Horn L, Schmidberger H, Vaupel P. GLUT-1 staining of squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix identifies a novel element of invasion. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:145-50 pubmed
  45. Wardell S, Ilkayeva O, Wieman H, Frigo D, Rathmell J, Newgard C, et al. Glucose metabolism as a target of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:388-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results, which implicate glucose metabolism as a target of HDACI, suggest that caution should be exercised in attributing effects of this class of drug to primary alterations in gene transcription. ..
  46. Carruthers A, DeZutter J, Ganguly A, Devaskar S. Will the original glucose transporter isoform please stand up!. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E836-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we review the role of GLUT1 in the absence or deficiency of a related isoform, GLUT3, toward establishing the physiological significance of coordination between these two isoforms. ..
  47. Schmidt M, Voelker H, Kapp M, Krockenberger M, Dietl J, Kammerer U. Glycolytic phenotype in breast cancer: activation of Akt, up-regulation of GLUT1, TKTL1 and down-regulation of M2PK. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, M2PK expression was highest in normal breast tissue. We found a glycolytic phenotype in a high percentage of breast cancer samples. Inhibition of glycolysis might evolve as a future option for breast cancer therapy. ..
  48. Egawa Takata T, Endo H, Fujita M, Ueda Y, Miyatake T, Okuyama H, et al. Early reduction of glucose uptake after cisplatin treatment is a marker of cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring glucose uptake might be useful as a rapid evaluation of cisplatin chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer patients. ..
  49. Amann T, Hellerbrand C. GLUT1 as a therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2009;13:1411-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and function of GLUT1 in HCC, available drugs/strategies to inhibit GLUT1 expression or function, and potential side effects of such therapeutic strategies. ..
  50. Flatt J, Guizouarn H, Burton N, Borgese F, Tomlinson R, Forsyth R, et al. Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis results from mutations in SLC2A1: a novel form of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. Blood. 2011;118:5267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular basis of the glut1DS, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, and sdCHC phenotypes are compared and discussed. ..
  51. Ilinskaya A, Heidecker G, Jones K. Interaction between the HTLV-1 envelope and cellular proteins: impact on virus infection and restriction. Future Med Chem. 2010;2:1651-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To facilitate both these steps, HTLV-1 encodes motifs that mimic cellular binding partners for the trafficking system and ligands for the receptors. Here we review the interactions between the HTLV-1 envelope and cellular proteins. ..
  52. Li L, Zhou S, Zhao K, Wang S, Wu Q, Fan J, et al. Clinical significance of FDG single-photon emission computed tomography: Computed tomography in the diagnosis of head and neck cancers and study of its mechanism. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008;23:701-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Glut-1 may largely mediate basal glucose transport in HNC cells. ..
  53. Sokolovska J, Isajevs S, Sugoka O, Sharipova J, Lauberte L, Svirina D, et al. Influence of metformin on GLUT1 gene and protein expression in rat streptozotocin diabetes mellitus model. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2010;116:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In the liver, diabetes triggered an increase in GLUT1 protein expression, which was normalized by metformin. Metformin is prospective for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. ..