facilitative glucose transport proteins


Summary: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.

Top Publications

  1. Faiyaz Ul Haque M, Zaidi S, Al Sanna N, Alswaid A, Momenah T, Kaya N, et al. A novel missense and a recurrent mutation in SLC2A10 gene of patients affected with arterial tortuosity syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:466-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Zaidi S, Meyer S, Peltekova V, Lindinger A, Teebi A, Faiyaz Ul Haque M. A novel non-sense mutation in the SLC2A10 gene of an arterial tortuosity syndrome patient of Kurdish origin. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:867-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that patients of Kurdish origin who display arterial tortuosity associated with skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features may carry mutations in the SLC2A10 gene. ..
  3. Matsuo H, Chiba T, Nagamori S, Nakayama A, Domoto H, Phetdee K, et al. Mutations in glucose transporter 9 gene SLC2A9 cause renal hypouricemia. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;83:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption in which GLUT9 regulates serum urate levels in humans and can be a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases. ..
  4. Flessner L, Moley K. Similar [DE]XXXL[LI] motifs differentially target GLUT8 and GLUT12 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Traffic. 2009;10:324-33 pubmed publisher
  5. Gomez O, Ballester B, Romero A, Arnal E, Almansa I, Miranda M, et al. Expression and regulation of insulin and the glucose transporter GLUT8 in the testes of diabetic rats. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also suggest that testicular production of insulin could play a role in regulating spermatogenesis and/or glucose metabolism in these organs. ..
  6. Schmidt S, Joost H, Schurmann A. GLUT8, the enigmatic intracellular hexose transporter. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The links between molecular function, cellular localization and phenotype of the knockout mouse is unclear and remains to be determined. ..
  7. Patterson B, Fields A, Shannon R. New insights into myocardial glucose metabolism: surviving under stress. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data underscore the need for additional agents that affect both outcomes. ..
  8. Houlihan L, Wyatt N, Harris S, Hayward C, Gow A, Marioni R, et al. Variation in the uric acid transporter gene (SLC2A9) and memory performance. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These associations were not replicated in ET2DS (all P > 0.1). If the positive associations withstand, then this study could suggest that higher uric acid levels may be associated with increased performance on memory-related tasks. ..
  9. Roy M, Hallman D, Fu Y, Machado M, Hanis C. Assessment of 193 candidate genes for retinopathy in African Americans with type 1 diabetes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the role of genetic factors to account for severity and/or progression of DR in African Americans with type 1 diabetes and to identify several prime genes that likely contribute to the risk of DR. ..

More Information


  1. Blume M, Rodriguez Contreras D, Landfear S, Fleige T, Soldati Favre D, Lucius R, et al. Host-derived glucose and its transporter in the obligate intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii are dispensable by glutaminolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12998-3003 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that glucose is nonessential for T. gondii tachyzoites, underscore glutamine is a complement substrate, and provide a basis for understanding the adaptation of T. gondii to diverse host cells. ..
  2. Thorens B, Mueckler M. Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide a very brief summary of the known properties of the 14 Glut proteins and suggest some avenues of future investigation in this area. ..
  3. Kim S, Moley K. Regulation of facilitative glucose transporters and AKT/MAPK/PRKAA signaling via estradiol and progesterone in the mouse uterine epithelium. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:188-98 pubmed publisher
  4. Rossi G, Sauer M, Porro D, Branduardi P. Effect of HXT1 and HXT7 hexose transporter overexpression on wild-type and lactic acid producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Microb Cell Fact. 2010;9:15 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that by modulating the first step of the pathway leading to lactic acid accumulation an improvement of about 15% in lactic acid production can be obtained in a yeast strain already developed for industrial application. ..
  5. Stuart C, Howell M, Zhang Y, Yin D. Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 12 parallels that of GLUT4 in normal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Translocation of GLUT12 in cultured myoblasts was dependent on activation of PI3-K. GLUT12 may have evolutionarily preceded GLUT4 and now provides redundancy to the dominant GLUT4 system in muscle. ..
  6. Allen V, Horne S, Penney L, Rapchuk I, Brock J, Thompson D, et al. Successful outcome in pregnancy with arterial tortuosity syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Concurrent molecular testing demonstrated homozygosity for the SLC2A10 gene. Optimal maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes were obtained with comprehensive multidisciplinary care and close maternal and fetal surveillance. ..
  7. Liu W, Hsin C, Tang F. A molecular mathematical model of glucose mobilization and uptake. Math Biosci. 2009;221:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, an increase of the GLUT4 internalization rate results in an elevated demand of insulin to stimulate the mobilization of GLUT4 from the intracellular store to the plasma membrane. ..
  8. Toschi A, Lee E, Thompson S, Gadir N, Yellen P, Drain C, et al. Phospholipase D-mTOR requirement for the Warburg effect in human cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;299:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that elevated PLD-mTOR signaling, which is common in human cancer cells, is critical for the metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. ..
  9. Yeung C. Aquaporins in spermatozoa and testicular germ cells: identification and potential role. Asian J Androl. 2010;12:490-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This would be crucial for the maintenance of a germinal epithelium functioning efficiently in the production of spermatozoa. ..
  10. Polakof S, Skiba Cassy S, Panserat S. Glucose homeostasis is impaired by a paradoxical interaction between metformin and insulin in carnivorous rainbow trout. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results make trout an attractive original model to study both insulin and metformin effect on biological systems. ..
  11. Dinour D, Gray N, Campbell S, Shu X, Sawyer L, Richardson W, et al. Homozygous SLC2A9 mutations cause severe renal hypouricemia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to clarifying renal handling of uric acid, our findings may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure, nephrolithiasis, hyperuricemia, and gout. ..
  12. Doblado M, Moley K. Facilitative glucose transporter 9, a unique hexose and urate transporter. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that GLUT9, which seems to be both a fructose and a uric acid transporter, plays an important role in these conditions associated with hyperuricemia. ..
  13. von Lewinski D, Rainer P, Gasser R, Huber M, Khafaga M, Wilhelm B, et al. Glucose-transporter-mediated positive inotropic effects in human myocardium of diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Metabolism. 2010;59:1020-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in functional effects or messenger RNA expression of glucose transporters were not detectable between patients with and without diabetes. ..
  14. Stuart C, Howell M, Baker J, Dykes R, Duffourc M, Ramsey M, et al. Cycle training increased GLUT4 and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin in fast twitch muscle fibers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed 6 wk of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling...
  15. Hollis Moffatt J, Xu X, Dalbeth N, Merriman M, Topless R, Waddell C, et al. Role of the urate transporter SLC2A9 gene in susceptibility to gout in New Zealand M?ori, Pacific Island, and Caucasian case-control sample sets. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..More extensive linkage disequilibrium in M?ori and Pacific Island samples suggests that Caucasian samples may be more useful for fine-mapping. ..
  16. Watanabe M, Masaoka N, Nakajima Y, Nagaishi M, Yamamoto T. Changes of expression of glucose transporters in the fetal lamb brain after MCI-186 administration to the maternal circulation with 10-min persistent umbilical cord occlusion. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..GLUT-5 was recognised only in Group B. On the basis of expression of GLUT, the protective effect of MCI-186 on brain injury resulting from hypoxia/ ischemia-reperfusion is documented. ..
  17. Malfitano C, Alba Loureiro T, Rodrigues B, Sirvente R, Salemi V, Rabechi N, et al. Hyperglycaemia protects the heart after myocardial infarction: aspects of programmed cell survival and cell death. Eur J Heart Fail. 2010;12:659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that greater plasticity and cellular resistance to ischaemic injury result from chronic diabetic hyperglycaemia in rat hearts. ..
  18. Zahed C, Gupta A. Optimizing cerebral glucose in severe traumatic brain injury: still some way to go. Crit Care. 2009;13:131 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the mechanisms of cerebral glucose control are explored, including the impact of intensive insulin therapy on cerebral metabolism. ..
  19. Gynther M, Ropponen J, Laine K, Leppänen J, Haapakoski P, Peura L, et al. Glucose promoiety enables glucose transporter mediated brain uptake of ketoprofen and indomethacin prodrugs in rats. J Med Chem. 2009;52:3348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the prodrugs were able to cross the BBB in a temperature-dependent manner, suggesting that the brain uptake of the prodrugs is carrier-mediated. ..
  20. Christen T, Sheikine Y, Rocha V, Hurwitz S, Goldfine A, Di Carli M, et al. Increased glucose uptake in visceral versus subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed by PET imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:843-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study tested the hypothesis that glucose utilization differs between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and investigated potential mechanisms for such a finding...
  21. Jiang Y, Chang Y, Chiu Y, Chang T, Li H, Lin W, et al. SLC2A10 genetic polymorphism predicts development of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. SLC2A10 and PAD in type 2 diabetes. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:126 pubmed publisher
    ..These associations remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors of PAD. Our data demonstrate that genetic polymorphism of the SLC2A10 gene is an independent risk factor for PAD in type 2 diabetes. ..
  22. Fatima J, Iqbal C, Houghton S, Kasparek M, Duenes J, Zheng Y, et al. Hexose transporter expression and function in mouse small intestine: role of diurnal rhythm. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hexose transporter expression and function vary diurnally with nocturnal feeding patterns of mice. ..
  23. Augustin R. The protein family of glucose transport facilitators: It's not only about glucose after all. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:315-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The emphasis of the review will be on the potential functional role of the more recent isoforms. ..
  24. Polasek O, Gunjaca G, Kolcic I, Zgaga L, Dzijan S, Smolic R, et al. Association of nephrolithiasis and gene for glucose transporter type 9 (SLC2A9): study of 145 patients. Croat Med J. 2010;51:48-53 pubmed
    ..4% of nephrolithiasis variance. Development of nephrolithiasis may be associated with SLC2A9 gene. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of SLC2A9 gene as a link between uric acid and nephrolithiasis. ..
  25. Jeroncic I, Mulic R, Klismanic Z, Rudan D, Boban M, Zgaga L. Interactions between genetic variants in glucose transporter type 9 (SLC2A9) and dietary habits in serum uric acid regulation. Croat Med J. 2010;51:40-7 pubmed
    ..There is a certain extent of interaction between SLC2A9 and dietary patterns in serum uric acid determination. The metabolic effect of soft drinks seems to be determined by the underlying genotype of rs1014290. ..
  26. Wright A, Rudan I, Hastie N, Campbell H. A 'complexity' of urate transporters. Kidney Int. 2010;78:446-52 pubmed publisher
  27. Roche M, Neti P, Kemp F, Agrawal A, Attanasio A, Douard V, et al. Radiation-induced reductions in transporter mRNA levels parallel reductions in intestinal sugar transport. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the effect of radiation may be posttranscriptional, and radiation-damaged intestines can still respond to dietary stimuli. ..
  28. Shoghi K, Finck B, Schechtman K, Sharp T, Herrero P, Gropler R, et al. In vivo metabolic phenotyping of myocardial substrate metabolism in rodents: differential efficacy of metformin and rosiglitazone monotherapy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with rosiglitazone enhanced glucose utilization and diminished MFAO, thus reversing the metabolic phenotype of the diabetic heart. ..
  29. Jiang X, Kenerson H, Aicher L, Miyaoka R, Eary J, Bissler J, et al. The tuberous sclerosis complex regulates trafficking of glucose transporters and glucose uptake. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:1748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that mTORC1 activity is insufficient for increased glycolysis in tumors and that constitutive mTOR activity negatively regulates glucose transporter trafficking. ..
  30. Deshmukh A, Glund S, Tom R, Zierath J. Role of the AMPKgamma3 isoform in hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in glycolytic skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E1388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, hypoxia-mediated TBC1D1/D4 phosphorylation was uncoupled from glucose transport in AMPKgamma3-KO mice, indicating that TBC1D1/D4-independent mechanisms contribute to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. ..
  31. Izumi Y, Zorumski C. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying fructose utilization in rat hippocampal slices. Neuroscience. 2009;161:847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that neuronal fructose utilization differs from glucose and mannose and likely involves release of monocarboxylates from glia. ..
  32. Sakar Y, Nazaret C, Letteron P, Ait Omar A, Avenati M, Viollet B, et al. Positive regulatory control loop between gut leptin and intestinal GLUT2/GLUT5 transporters links to hepatic metabolic functions in rodents. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7935 pubmed publisher
    ..This loop appears to be a new mechanism (possibly pathogenic) by which fructose consumption rapidly becomes highly lipogenic and deleterious. ..
  33. Petit J, Tobler I, Kopp C, Morgenthaler F, Borbély A, Magistretti P. Metabolic response of the cerebral cortex following gentle sleep deprivation and modafinil administration. Sleep. 2010;33:901-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the existence of a metabolic adaptation of astrocytes aimed at maintaining brain energy homeostasis during the sleep-wake cycle. ..
  34. Naula C, Logan F, Logan F, Wong P, Barrett M, Burchmore R. A glucose transporter can mediate ribose uptake: definition of residues that confer substrate specificity in a sugar transporter. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The location of these residues in hydrophilic loops supports recent suggestions that substrate recognition is separated from substrate binding and translocation in this important group of transporters. ..
  35. Briski K, Cherian A, Genabai N, Vavaiya K. In situ coexpression of glucose and monocarboxylate transporter mRNAs in metabolic-sensitive caudal dorsal vagal complex catecholaminergic neurons: transcriptional reactivity to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and caudal hindbrain glucose or lactate rep. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1152-60 pubmed publisher
  36. Hong S, Hong S, Yoo J, Lee Y, Kim S, Lis J, et al. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by TFIIH kinase is not essential for transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, contrary to the current belief, our study points strongly toward a minor role of TFIIH kinase in Pol II transcription, and a more significant role in mRNA capping in budding yeast. ..
  37. Ueda H. Prothymosin alpha and cell death mode switch, a novel target for the prevention of cerebral ischemia-induced damage. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;123:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses in terms of the therapeutic time window and potency suggest that ProTalpha could be the prototypic compound to develop the medicine useful for treatment of stroke in clinics. ..
  38. Corti A, Casini A, Pompella A. Cellular pathways for transport and efflux of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;500:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, available data suggest that cellular efflux of ascorbic acid - besides its uptake - should be taken into account when evaluating the cellular homeostasis and functions of this important vitamin. ..
  39. Di Daniel E, Mok M, Mead E, Mutinelli C, Zambello E, Caberlotto L, et al. Evaluation of expression and function of the H+/myo-inositol transporter HMIT. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:54 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we observed that HMIT can transport inositol triphosphate, indicating unanticipated intracellular functions for this transporter that may be relevant to mood control. ..
  40. Kasahara T, Maeda M, Boles E, Kasahara M. Identification of a key residue determining substrate affinity in the human glucose transporter GLUT1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:1051-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ile(287) is a key residue for maintaining high glucose affinity in GLUT1 as revealed in Hxt2 and is located at or near the exofacial glucose binding site. ..
  41. Mangia S, Simpson I, Vannucci S, Carruthers A. The in vivo neuron-to-astrocyte lactate shuttle in human brain: evidence from modeling of measured lactate levels during visual stimulation. J Neurochem. 2009;109 Suppl 1:55-62 pubmed publisher
  42. Sterling K, Cheeseman C, Ahearn G. Identification of a novel sodium-dependent fructose transport activity in the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic lobster Homarus americanus. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:1912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of fructose and glucose uptake in the absence and presence of sodium by BBMV, BLMV and isolated cells indicated the presence of a distinct sodium-dependent transport activity for each sugar in the Atlantic lobster. ..
  43. Segade F. Glucose transporter 10 and arterial tortuosity syndrome: the vitamin C connection. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2990-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In ATS, loss of GLUT10 results in defective collagen and/or elastin. TGFbeta activation represents a secondary response to a defective extracellular matrix. ..
  44. Brandt N, De Bock K, Richter E, Hespel P. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, compared with previous studies of high-fat feeding, where insulin signaling is significantly impaired, the mechanism by which CAF diet induces insulin resistance seems different. ..
  45. Rodriguez Enriquez S, Marin Hernandez A, Gallardo Pérez J, Moreno Sanchez R. Kinetics of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GLUT seems a more adequate therapeutic target. ..
  46. Wu X, Wang X, Gao J, Yu Y, Jia S, Zheng J, et al. Glucose transporter 5 is undetectable in outer hair cells and does not contribute to cochlear amplification. Brain Res. 2008;1210:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e., nonlinear capacitance and electromotility) and normal cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity. We conclude that Glut5 is not required for OHC motility or cochlear amplification. ..
  47. Evans S, Doblado M, Chi M, Corbett J, Moley K. Facilitative glucose transporter 9 expression affects glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies confirm the expression of GLUT9a and GLUT9b in murine and human beta-cells and suggest that GLUT9 may participate in glucose-sensing in beta-cells. ..
  48. Weber S, Volynets V, Kanuri G, Bergheim I, Bischoff S. Treatment with the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron modulates glucose-induced obesity in mice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:1339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that 5-HT3R is a new target for the modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism and for the prevention of obesity. ..
  49. Wu K, Pan H, Yin H, Chen M, Lu S, Lin C. Change in P-glycoprotein and caveolin protein expression in brain striatum capillaries in New Zealand obese mice with type 2 diabetes. Life Sci. 2009;85:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the expression of P-gp and caveolins in brain striatum capillaries in inbred mice with type 2 diabetes...
  50. Kellner J, Coulombe P. Keratins and protein synthesis: the plot thickens. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200906094) expand our understanding of how keratin proteins participate in the regulation of protein synthesis through their analysis of mice lacking the entire type II keratin gene cluster. ..
  51. Bifano T, Alegria T, Terra W. Transporters involved in glucose and water absorption in the Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae) anterior midgut. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report showing the involvement of putative GLUT and SGLT in both water and glucose midgut absorption in insects...
  52. Ritelli M, Drera B, Vicchio M, Puppini G, Biban P, Pilati M, et al. Arterial tortuosity syndrome in two Italian paediatric patients. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2009;4:20 pubmed publisher
  53. Deng Y, Li B, Liu Y, Iqbal K, Grundke Iqbal I, Gong C. Dysregulation of insulin signaling, glucose transporters, O-GlcNAcylation, and phosphorylation of tau and neurofilaments in the brain: Implication for Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:2089-98 pubmed publisher