vesicular glutamate transport protein 1


Summary: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang G, Geller A. A helper virus-free HSV-1 vector containing the vesicular glutamate transporter-1 promoter supports expression preferentially in VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons. Brain Res. 2010;1331:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..VGLUT1-specific expression may benefit specific experiments on learning or specific gene therapy approaches, particularly in the neocortex. ..
  2. Tordera R, Pei Q, Sharp T. Evidence for increased expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, by a course of antidepressant treatment. J Neurochem. 2005;94:875-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a course of antidepressant drug or ECS treatment increases expression of VGLUT1, a key gene involved in the regulation of glutamate secretion. ..
  3. Lacey C, Boyes J, Gerlach O, Chen L, Magill P, Bolam J. GABA(B) receptors at glutamatergic synapses in the rat striatum. Neuroscience. 2005;136:1083-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data indicate that GABA may also affect the excitability of striatal neurons via postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. ..
  4. Wilson N, Kang J, Hueske E, Leung T, Varoqui H, Murnick J, et al. Presynaptic regulation of quantal size by the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6221-34 pubmed
  5. Moutsimilli L, Farley S, Dumas S, El Mestikawy S, Giros B, Tzavara E. Selective cortical VGLUT1 increase as a marker for antidepressant activity. Neuropharmacology. 2005;49:890-900 pubmed
  6. Nakamura K, Hioki H, Fujiyama F, Kaneko T. Postnatal changes of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)1 and VGluT2 immunoreactivities and their colocalization in the mouse forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 2005;492:263-88 pubmed
  7. Anlauf E, Derouiche A. Astrocytic exocytosis vesicles and glutamate: a high-resolution immunofluorescence study. Glia. 2005;49:96-106 pubmed
    ..However, since vGluTs and exocytosis markers are classically restricted to nerve terminals in the CNS, glutamate release from astrocytes in the CNS remains to be studied. ..
  8. Raju D, Shah D, Wright T, Hall R, Smith Y. Differential synaptology of vGluT2-containing thalamostriatal afferents between the patch and matrix compartments in rats. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:231-43 pubmed
    ..These observations pave the way for understanding differential regulatory mechanisms of striatal outflow from the patch and matrix compartments by thalamostriatal afferents. ..
  9. D Sa C, Gross J, Francone V, Morest D. Plasticity of synaptic endings in the cochlear nucleus following noise-induced hearing loss is facilitated in the adult FGF2 overexpressor mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:666-80 pubmed
    ..These molecules may contribute to the synaptic reorganization after noise damage; they may protect and/or aid recovery of synapses after overstimulation. ..

More Information


  1. Barroso Chinea P, Castle M, Aymerich M, Lanciego J. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the cells of origin of the rat thalamostriatal pathway. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;35:101-7 pubmed
  2. Elizalde N, Pastor P, Garcia Garcia A, Serres F, Venzala E, Huarte J, et al. Regulation of markers of synaptic function in mouse models of depression: chronic mild stress and decreased expression of VGLUT1. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1302-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies should investigate whether these changes are associated to depressive-like behaviour both in animal models and in depressed patients. ..
  3. Zeng C, Nannapaneni N, Zhou J, Hughes L, Shore S. Cochlear damage changes the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters associated with auditory and nonauditory inputs to the cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4210-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Balschun D, Moechars D, Callaerts Vegh Z, Vermaercke B, Van Acker N, Andries L, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 has a role in hippocampal long-term potentiation and spatial reversal learning. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a functional role of VGLUT1 in forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that are required to adapt and modify acquired spatial maps to external stimuli and changes. ..
  5. Villalba R, Smith Y. Differential structural plasticity of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal axo-spinous synapses in MPTP-treated Parkinsonian monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:989-1005 pubmed publisher
  6. Doyle S, Pyndiah S, De Gois S, Erickson J. Excitation-transcription coupling via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase/ERK1/2 signaling mediates the coordinate induction of VGLUT2 and Narp triggered by a prolonged increase in glutamatergic synaptic activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14366-76 pubmed publisher
  7. Tordera R, Totterdell S, Wojcik S, Brose N, Elizalde N, Lasheras B, et al. Enhanced anxiety, depressive-like behaviour and impaired recognition memory in mice with reduced expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:281-90 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that a VGLUT1-mediated presynaptic alteration of the glutamatergic synapses, in specific brain regions, leads to a behavioural phenotype resembling certain aspects of psychiatric and cognitive disorders. ..
  8. Leo S, Moechars D, Callaerts Vegh Z, D Hooge R, Meert T. Impairment of VGLUT2 but not VGLUT1 signaling reduces neuropathy-induced hypersensitivity. Eur J Pain. 2009;13:1008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1, plays a role in neuropathy-induced allodynia and hypersensitivity, and might be a therapeutic target to prevent and/or treat neuropathic pain. ..
  9. Herzog E, Takamori S, Jahn R, Brose N, Wojcik S. Synaptic and vesicular co-localization of the glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1011-8 pubmed
    ..As the number of transporter molecules per vesicle affects quantal size, the developmental window where VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are co-expressed may allow for greater plasticity in the control of quantal release. ..
  10. Sosulina L, Meis S, Seifert G, Steinhäuser C, Pape H. Classification of projection neurons and interneurons in the rat lateral amygdala based upon cluster analysis. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:57-67 pubmed
    ..Morphologically, projection neurons were large, spiny cells, whereas the other neuronal classes displayed smaller somata and spine-sparse dendrites. ..
  11. Yelamanchili S, Pendyala G, Brunk I, Darna M, Albrecht U, Ahnert Hilger G. Differential sorting of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 into a defined vesicular pool is regulated by light signaling involving the clock gene Period2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15671-9 pubmed
    ..A reduced amount of VGLUT1 per vesicle is probably achieved by means of selective sorting controlled by clock genes. ..
  12. Massie A, Schallier A, Vermoesen K, Arckens L, Michotte Y. Biphasic and bilateral changes in striatal VGLUT1 and 2 protein expression in hemi-Parkinson rats. Neurochem Int. 2010;57:111-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Seabrook T, El Danaf R, Krahe T, Fox M, Guido W. Retinal input regulates the timing of corticogeniculate innervation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that retinal and cortical innervation of dLGN is highly coordinated and that input from retina plays an important role in regulating the rate of corticogeniculate innervation. ..
  14. Billups B. Colocalization of vesicular glutamate transporters in the rat superior olivary complex. Neurosci Lett. 2005;382:66-70 pubmed
    ..As the abundance of VGLUT determines the quantal size, this up-regulation will increase excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and have influences on synaptic physiology. ..
  15. He H, Mahnke A, Doyle S, Fan N, Wang C, Hall B, et al. Neurodevelopmental role for VGLUT2 in pyramidal neuron plasticity, dendritic refinement, and in spatial learning. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15886-901 pubmed publisher
  16. Fyk Kolodziej B, Shimano T, Gong T, Holt A. Vesicular glutamate transporters: spatio-temporal plasticity following hearing loss. Neuroscience. 2011;178:218-39 pubmed publisher
  17. Oliveira A, Hydling F, Olsson E, Shi T, Edwards R, Fujiyama F, et al. Cellular localization of three vesicular glutamate transporter mRNAs and proteins in rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Synapse. 2003;50:117-29 pubmed
    ..VGLUT1 is mainly present in primary afferents from large, CGRP-negative DRG neurons, VGLUT2 has mainly a local origin, and VGLUT3 fibers probably have a supraspinal origin. ..
  18. Bezzi P, Gundersen V, Galbete J, Seifert G, Steinhäuser C, Pilati E, et al. Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:613-20 pubmed
    ..These data document the existence of a Ca(2+)-dependent quantal glutamate release activity in glia that was previously considered to be specific to synapses. ..
  19. Herzog E, Gilchrist J, Gras C, Muzerelle A, Ravassard P, Giros B, et al. Localization of VGLUT3, the vesicular glutamate transporter type 3, in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2004;123:983-1002 pubmed
    ..The distribution of VGLUT3 in the rat brain suggests an unsuspected function of vesicular glutamate transport in subsets of interneurons and in neuromodulatory neurons. ..
  20. Wojcik S, Rhee J, Herzog E, Sigler A, Jahn R, Takamori S, et al. An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7158-63 pubmed
    ..These results show that the expression level of VGLUTs determines the amount of glutamate that is loaded into vesicles and released and thereby regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission. ..
  21. Alvarez F, Villalba R, Zerda R, Schneider S. Vesicular glutamate transporters in the spinal cord, with special reference to sensory primary afferent synapses. J Comp Neurol. 2004;472:257-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a diversity of VGLUT isoform combinations expressed in different spinal primary afferents. ..
  22. De Gois S, Schafer M, Defamie N, Chen C, Ricci A, Weihe E, et al. Homeostatic scaling of vesicular glutamate and GABA transporter expression in rat neocortical circuits. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7121-33 pubmed
  23. Ito T, Bishop D, Oliver D. Expression of glutamate and inhibitory amino acid vesicular transporters in the rodent auditory brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:316-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the expression of the VGLUT1/2 and VIAAT genes can identify different subsets of auditory neurons. This may facilitate the identification of different components in auditory circuits. ..
  24. Kashani A, Lepicard E, Poirel O, Videau C, David J, Fallet Bianco C, et al. Loss of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the prefrontal cortex is correlated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:1619-30 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that VGLUT1 expression in the prefrontal cortex could be used as a valuable neurochemical marker of dementia in AD. ..
  25. Zhang G, Li X, Cao H, Zhao H, Geller A. The vesicular glutamate transporter-1 upstream promoter and first intron each support glutamatergic-specific expression in rat postrhinal cortex. Brain Res. 2011;1377:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The VGLUT1 upstream promoter or the first intron, fused to the basal promoter, each supported glutamatergic-specific expression in POR cortex. ..
  26. Schuske K, Jorgensen E. Neuroscience. Vesicular glutamate transporter--shooting blanks. Science. 2004;304:1750-2 pubmed
  27. Boulland J, Qureshi T, Seal R, Rafiki A, Gundersen V, Bergersen L, et al. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters during development indicates the widespread corelease of multiple neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2004;480:264-80 pubmed
    ..In skeletal muscle, VGLUT3 localizes to granular organelles in the axon terminal as well as in the muscle sarcoplasm. The results suggest novel mechanisms and roles for regulated transmitter release. ..
  28. Chih B, Engelman H, Scheiffele P. Control of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation by neuroligins. Science. 2005;307:1324-8 pubmed
    ..Electrophysiological analysis revealed a predominant reduction of inhibitory synaptic function. Thus, neuroligins control the formation and functional balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in hippocampal neurons. ..
  29. Fremeau R, Kam K, Qureshi T, Johnson J, Copenhagen D, Storm Mathisen J, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 target to functionally distinct synaptic release sites. Science. 2004;304:1815-9 pubmed
    ..The loss of VGLUT1 also reduced the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. Thus, VGLUT1 plays an unanticipated role in membrane trafficking at the nerve terminal. ..
  30. Stella S, Li S, Sabatini A, Vila A, Brecha N. Comparison of the ontogeny of the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) with VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the rat retina. Brain Res. 2008;1215:20-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Miyazaki T, Fukaya M, Shimizu H, Watanabe M. Subtype switching of vesicular glutamate transporters at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in developing mouse cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:2563-72 pubmed
  32. Linhoff M, Lauren J, Cassidy R, Dobie F, Takahashi H, Nygaard H, et al. An unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins identifies the LRRTM protein family as synaptic organizers. Neuron. 2009;61:734-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a prevalence of LRR domain proteins in trans-synaptic signaling and provide a cellular basis for the reported linkage of LRRTM1 to handedness and schizophrenia. ..
  33. Li J, Xiong K, Dong Y, Fujiyama F, Kaneko T, Mizuno N. Vesicular glutamate transporters, VGluT1 and VGluT2, in the trigeminal ganglion neurons of the rat, with special reference to coexpression. J Comp Neurol. 2003;463:212-20 pubmed
    ..Some of these axon terminals were confirmed to form the central core of the synaptic glomerulus. These results indicated that VGluT1 and VGluT2 are coexpressed in the cell bodies and axon terminals in most trigeminal ganglion neurons. ..
  34. Shen Y, Liu X, Pleasure D, Deng W. Axon-glia synapses are highly vulnerable to white matter injury in the developing brain. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:105-21 pubmed publisher
    ..More broadly, the study of white matter development and injury has general implications for a variety of neurological diseases, including PVL, stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. ..
  35. Blaesse P, Ehrhardt S, Friauf E, Nothwang H. Developmental pattern of three vesicular glutamate transporters in the rat superior olivary complex. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;320:33-50 pubmed
    ..Our results imply a considerable amount of synaptic reorganization in the glutamatergic inputs to the SOC and suggest differential roles of VGLUTs during maturation and in adulthood. ..
  36. Barroso Chinea P, Castle M, Aymerich M, Perez Manso M, Erro E, Tuñon T, et al. Expression of the mRNAs encoding for the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the rat thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:703-15 pubmed
    ..These results call for a reappraisal of the previously held concept regarding the mutually exclusive distribution of VGLUT transporters in the central nervous system. ..
  37. Fremeau R, Voglmaier S, Seal R, Edwards R. VGLUTs define subsets of excitatory neurons and suggest novel roles for glutamate. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:98-103 pubmed
    ..VGLUT3 also differs from VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in its subcellular location, with somatodendritic as well as axonal expression. ..
  38. Stornetta R, Sevigny C, Schreihofer A, Rosin D, Guyenet P. Vesicular glutamate transporter DNPI/VGLUT2 is expressed by both C1 adrenergic and nonaminergic presympathetic vasomotor neurons of the rat medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2002;444:207-20 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that these neurons may be glutamatergic and that the C1 adrenergic phenotype is one of several secondary phenotypes that are differentially expressed by subgroups of these cells. ..
  39. Todd A, Hughes D, Polgar E, Nagy G, Mackie M, Ottersen O, et al. The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in neurochemically defined axonal populations in the rat spinal cord with emphasis on the dorsal horn. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:13-27 pubmed
    ..As all primary afferents are thought to be glutamatergic, this raises the possibility that unmyelinated afferents, most of which are nociceptors, express a different vesicular glutamate transporter. ..
  40. Ziegler D, Cullinan W, Herman J. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter mRNA in rat hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2002;448:217-29 pubmed
    ..Our data support a major role for hypothalamic glutamatergic neurons in regulation of all aspects of hypothalamic function. ..
  41. Kaneko T, Fujiyama F. Complementary distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the central nervous system. Neurosci Res. 2002;42:243-50 pubmed
    ..This complementary distribution might suggest that the two VGluTs have an as yet unknown difference in functions. ..
  42. Varoqui H, Schafer M, Zhu H, Weihe E, Erickson J. Identification of the differentiation-associated Na+/PI transporter as a novel vesicular glutamate transporter expressed in a distinct set of glutamatergic synapses. J Neurosci. 2002;22:142-55 pubmed
    ..Together, the two isoforms may account for the uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles from all central glutamatergic neurons. ..
  43. Hioki H, Fujiyama F, Taki K, Tomioka R, Furuta T, Tamamaki N, et al. Differential distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the rat cerebellar cortex. Neuroscience. 2003;117:1-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, it would be the next interesting issue to determine whether mossy-fiber terminals co-expressing VGluT1 and VGluT2 show synaptic facilitation or depression. ..
  44. Yamasaki M, Matsui M, Watanabe M. Preferential localization of muscarinic M1 receptor on dendritic shaft and spine of cortical pyramidal cells and its anatomical evidence for volume transmission. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecular-anatomical arrangements will provide the evidence for volume transmission, at least in M(1)-mediated cortical cholinergic signaling. ..
  45. Bragina L, Giovedi S, Barbaresi P, Benfenati F, Conti F. Heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery in cerebral cortex: analysis of synaptogyrin, vesicle-associated membrane protein, and syntaxin. Neuroscience. 2010;165:934-43 pubmed publisher
  46. Law A, Pei Q, Walker M, Gordon Andrews H, Weickert C, Feldon J, et al. Early parental deprivation in the marmoset monkey produces long-term changes in hippocampal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity and implicated in mood disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1381-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Equally, the negative results suggest that other features of mood disorder, such as decreased hippocampal volume and BDNF expression, are related to different aspects of the pathophysiological process. ..
  47. Cox H, Chao C, Patel S, Thompson C. Efficient digestion and mass spectral analysis of vesicular glutamate transporter 1: a recombinant membrane protein expressed in yeast. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a simple method to purify and digest a recombinant IMP for analysis by mass spectrometry. ..
  48. Dong Y, Zhang F, Pang Y, Li J. VGluT1- and GAD-immunoreactive terminals in synaptic contact with PAG-immunopositive neurons in principal sensory trigeminal nucleus of rat. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007;28:180-4 pubmed
  49. Holmseth S, Dehnes Y, Huang Y, Follin Arbelet V, Grutle N, Mylonakou M, et al. The density of EAAC1 (EAAT3) glutamate transporters expressed by neurons in the mammalian CNS. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6000-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise new questions about how so few transporters can influence the activation of NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses. ..
  50. Lacey C, Bryant A, Brill J, Huguenard J. Enhanced NMDA receptor-dependent thalamic excitation and network oscillations in stargazer mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11067-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that, in stg, a trafficking defect in synaptic AMPARs in RTN cells leads to a compensatory increase in synaptic NMDARs and enhanced thalamic excitability. ..
  51. Medina A, Burke S, Thompson R, BUNNEY W, Myers R, Schatzberg A, et al. Glutamate transporters: a key piece in the glutamate puzzle of major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:1150-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Canas P, Simões A, Rodrigues R, Cunha R. Predominant loss of glutamatergic terminal markers in a ?-amyloid peptide model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76 Pt A:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. ..
  53. Rotterman T, Nardelli P, Cope T, Alvarez F. Normal distribution of VGLUT1 synapses on spinal motoneuron dendrites and their reorganization after nerve injury. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3475-92 pubmed publisher