vesicular neurotransmitter transport proteins


Summary: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that are INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES. They are ANTIPORTERS that exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic NEUROTRANSMITTER and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmission.

Top Publications

  1. Krantz D. Vesicular monogamy?. Neuron. 2006;49:1-2 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Neuron, a study by Daniels et al. using the Drosophila neuromuscular junction and mutations of the vesicular glutamate transporter suggests that one transporter may suffice to fill each vesicle. ..
  2. Henny P, Jones B. Vesicular glutamate (VGlut), GABA (VGAT), and acetylcholine (VACht) transporters in basal forebrain axon terminals innervating the lateral hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:453-67 pubmed
    ..The important inputs from glutamatergic and GABAergic BF cells could thus regulate LH neurons in an opposing manner to stimulate vs. suppress cortical activation and behavioral arousal reciprocally. ..
  3. Dyck B, Beyaert M, Ferro M, Mishra R. Medial prefrontal cortical synapsin II knock-down induces behavioral abnormalities in the rat: examining synapsin II in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011;130:250-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Owesson White C, Roitman M, Sombers L, Belle A, Keithley R, Peele J, et al. Sources contributing to the average extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2012;121:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, data presented here show that average extracellular dopamine in the NAc is low (20-30?nM) and largely arises from phasic dopamine transients. ..
  5. Amaral M, Pozzo Miller L. Intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ influx are both required for BDNF to rapidly increase quantal vesicular transmitter release. Neural Plast. 2012;2012:203536 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that BDNF increases mEPSC frequency by boosting vesicular fusion through a presynaptic, Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism involving TrkB receptors, Ca(2+) stores, and TRPC channels. ..
  6. Bogen I, Boulland J, Mariussen E, Wright M, Fonnum F, Kao H, et al. Absence of synapsin I and II is accompanied by decreases in vesicular transport of specific neurotransmitters. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1458-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, distinct vesicular transporters show a variable degree of colocalization with synapsin proteins and, hence, distinct sensitivities to inactivation of the genes encoding synapsin I and II. ..
  7. Chaudhry F, Edwards R, Fonnum F. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters as targets for endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;48:277-301 pubmed
    ..Thus, specific inhibitors have helped to characterize both the physiological role and mechanism of vesicular neurotransmitter transport. ..
  8. Klassen M, Wu Y, Maeder C, Nakae I, Cueva J, Lehrman E, et al. An Arf-like small G protein, ARL-8, promotes the axonal transport of presynaptic cargoes by suppressing vesicle aggregation. Neuron. 2010;66:710-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that arl-8 promotes a trafficking identity for presynaptic cargoes, facilitating their efficient transport by repressing premature self-association. ..
  9. Omote H, Miyaji T, Juge N, Moriyama Y. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporter: bioenergetics and regulation of glutamate transport. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a correlation between metabolic state and higher-order brain function. We propose a novel function for Cl(-) as a fundamental regulator for signal transmission. ..

More Information


  1. Miyaji T, Sawada K, Omote H, Moriyama Y. Divalent cation transport by vesicular nucleotide transporter. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42881-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7%. These results indicate that VNUT transports both nucleotides and divalent cations probably as chelating complexes and suggest that VNUT functions as a divalent cation importer in secretory vesicles under physiological conditions. ..
  2. Hnasko T, Edwards R. Neurotransmitter corelease: mechanism and physiological role. Annu Rev Physiol. 2012;74:225-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Corelease thus serves multiple roles in synaptic transmission. ..
  3. Lendvai D, Morawski M, Negyessy L, Gati G, J├Ąger C, Baksa G, et al. Neurochemical mapping of the human hippocampus reveals perisynaptic matrix around functional synapses in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:215-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the presynapse-driven formation of axonal coats is a candidate mechanism to maintain synapse integrity under neurodegenerative conditions. ..
  4. Moriyama S, Hiasa M. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in the Mouse Retina. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39:564-9 pubmed publisher