sodium calcium exchanger


Summary: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.

Top Publications

  1. Reuter H, Pott C, Goldhaber J, Henderson S, Philipson K, Schwinger R. Na(+)--Ca2+ exchange in the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;67:198-207 pubmed
  2. Li X, Kiedrowski L, Tremblay F, Fernandez F, Perizzolo M, Winkfein R, et al. Importance of K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger 2, NCKX2, in motor learning and memory. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6273-82 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the critical and non-redundant role of NCKX2 in the local control of neuronal [Ca2+] that is essential for the development of synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. ..
  3. Ifuku M, Färber K, Okuno Y, Yamakawa Y, Miyamoto T, Nolte C, et al. Bradykinin-induced microglial migration mediated by B1-bradykinin receptors depends on Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13065-73 pubmed
    ..These observations support the view that BK functions as a chemoattractant by using the distinct signal pathways in the brain and, thus, attracts microglia to the lesion site in vivo. ..
  4. Boyman L, Mikhasenko H, Hiller R, Khananshvili D. Kinetic and equilibrium properties of regulatory calcium sensors of NCX1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetically diverse Ca2+ sensors may sense differentially the dynamic swings in [Ca2+] within specific subcellular compartments (dyadic cleft, submembrane space, bulk cytosol, etc.). ..
  5. Besserer G, Ottolia M, Nicoll D, Chaptal V, Cascio D, Philipson K, et al. The second Ca2+-binding domain of the Na+ Ca2+ exchanger is essential for regulation: crystal structures and mutational analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18467-72 pubmed
    ..These are the first data defining the role of CBD2 as a regulatory domain in the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. ..
  6. Barth A, Kizana E, Smith R, Terrovitis J, Dong P, Leppo M, et al. Lentiviral vectors bearing the cardiac promoter of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger report cardiogenic differentiation in stem cells. Mol Ther. 2008;16:957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to accurately report cardiac fate and selectively enrich for cardiomyocytes and their precursors has important implications for drug discovery and the development of cell-based therapies. ..
  7. Lytton J. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers: three mammalian gene families control Ca2+ transport. Biochem J. 2007;406:365-82 pubmed
    ..The CCX (Ca2+/cation exchanger) branch has only one mammalian member, NCKX6 or NCLX (Na+/Ca2+-Li+ exchanger), whose physiological function remains unclear, despite a broad pattern of expression. ..
  8. Sasse P, Zhang J, Cleemann L, Morad M, Hescheler J, Fleischmann B. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, a potential pacemaking mechanism in early embryonic heart cells. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:133-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, Ca(2+) oscillations pace early embryonic heart cells and the ensuing activation of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger evokes small membrane depolarizations or action potentials. ..
  9. Walden A, Dibb K, Trafford A. Differences in intracellular calcium homeostasis between atrial and ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:463-73 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Hamming K, Riedel M, Soliman D, Matemisz L, Webster N, Searle G, et al. Splice variant-dependent regulation of beta-cell sodium-calcium exchange by acyl-coenzyme As. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2293-306 pubmed publisher
  2. Pyrski M, Koo J, Polumuri S, Ruknudin A, Margolis J, Schulze D, et al. Sodium/calcium exchanger expression in the mouse and rat olfactory systems. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:944-58 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Ca(2+)-extrusion by OSNs utilizes multiple different Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and that different subtypes are targeted to different subcellular compartments. ..
  3. Hilge M, Aelen J, Perrakis A, Vuister G. Structural basis for Ca2+ regulation in the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1099:7-15 pubmed
    ..Specific point mutations in either domain largely allow the interchange of their functionality and uncover the mechanism underlying Ca2+ sensing in NCX. ..
  4. Ruknudin A, Wei S, Haigney M, Lederer W, Schulze D. Phosphorylation and other conundrums of Na/Ca exchanger, NCX1. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1099:103-18 pubmed
  5. Iwamoto T. Na+/Ca2+ exchange as a drug target--insights from molecular pharmacology and genetic engineering. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1099:516-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, NCX inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as novel drugs for reperfusion injury and salt-dependent hypertension. ..
  6. Yaradanakul A, Feng S, Shen C, Lariccia V, Lin M, Yang J, et al. Dual control of cardiac Na+ Ca2+ exchange by PIP(2): electrophysiological analysis of direct and indirect mechanisms. J Physiol. 2007;582:991-1010 pubmed
    ..We conclude that direct effects of PIP(2) to activate NCX1 can be strongly modulated by opposing mechanisms in intact cells that probably involve membrane cytoskeleton remodelling and membrane trafficking. ..
  7. Yaradanakul A, Wang T, Lariccia V, Lin M, Shen C, Liu X, et al. Massive Ca-induced membrane fusion and phospholipid changes triggered by reverse Na/Ca exchange in BHK fibroblasts. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:29-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results provide no support for any regulatory or modulatory role of phospholipids in Ca-induced membrane fusion in fibroblasts. ..
  8. Castillo K, Delgado R, Bacigalupo J. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons: possible role in Ca(2+) clearance. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2524-31 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that both Ca(2+) transporters contribute to re-establish resting Ca(2+) levels in the cilia following olfactory responses. ..
  9. Raina H, Ella S, Hill M. Decreased activity of the smooth muscle Na+/Ca2+ exchanger impairs arteriolar myogenic reactivity. J Physiol. 2008;586:1669-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are consistent with reverse mode activity of the NCX in arterioles and a contribution of this exchanger to myogenic vasoconstriction. ..
  10. Lee C, Dhalla N, Hryshko L. Therapeutic potential of novel Na+-Ca2+ exchange inhibitors in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury. Can J Cardiol. 2005;21:509-16 pubmed
    ..Novel NCX inhibitors discovered in recent years have shown great promise in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury. ..
  11. Lin X, Jo H, Sakakibara Y, Tambara K, Kim B, Komeda M, et al. Beta-adrenergic stimulation does not activate Na+/Ca2+ exchange current in guinea pig, mouse, and rat ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C601-8 pubmed
    ..We concluded that beta-adrenergic stimulation does not have significant effects on I(NCX) in guinea pig, mouse, or rat ventricular myocytes. ..
  12. Langenbacher A, Dong Y, Shu X, Choi J, Nicoll D, Goldhaber J, et al. Mutation in sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) causes cardiac fibrillation in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17699-704 pubmed
    ..These data signify the essential role of calcium homeostasis and NCX1h in establishing rhythmic contraction in the embryonic zebrafish heart. ..
  13. Ouardouz M, Zamponi G, Barr W, Kiedrowski L, Stys P. Protection of ischemic rat spinal cord white matter: Dual action of KB-R7943 on Na+/Ca2+ exchange and L-type Ca2+ channels. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:566-75 pubmed
  14. Maltsev V, Vinogradova T, Lakatta E. The emergence of a general theory of the initiation and strength of the heartbeat. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;100:338-69 pubmed
  15. Li X, Wu Y. Characteristics of lysophosphatidylcholine-induced Ca2+ response in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Life Sci. 2007;80:886-92 pubmed
    ..However, in digitonin-permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells, LPC could not induce any [Ca2+]i increase in Ca2+-free medium, suggesting that LPC may act indirectly on RyRs of ER. ..
  16. Ander B, Hurtado C, Raposo C, Maddaford T, Deniset J, Hryshko L, et al. Differential sensitivities of the NCX1.1 and NCX1.3 isoforms of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger to alpha-linolenic acid. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:395-403 pubmed
    ..1, but several classes of fatty acids inhibit NCX1.3. The differential sensitivity of NCX isoforms to fatty acids may have important implications as therapeutic approaches for hypertension, heart failure and arrhythmias. ..
  17. Riedel M, Baczkó I, Searle G, Webster N, Fercho M, Jones L, et al. Metabolic regulation of sodium-calcium exchange by intracellular acyl CoAs. EMBO J. 2006;25:4605-14 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our findings have broad implications for the coupling of Ca(2+) homeostasis to fat metabolism in a variety of tissues. ..
  18. Krasznai Z, Krasznai Z, Morisawa M, Bazsáné Z, Hernadi Z, Fazekas Z, et al. Role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in calcium homeostasis and human sperm motility regulation. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:66-76 pubmed
    ..Calcium homeostasis of human spermatozoa is maintained by several transport proteins among which the SOCC and the NCX may play a major role. ..
  19. Kim M, Korogod N, Schneggenburger R, Ho W, Lee S. Interplay between Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and mitochondria in Ca2+ clearance at the calyx of Held. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6057-65 pubmed
  20. Birinyi P, Acsai K, Banyasz T, Toth A, Horvath B, Virag L, et al. Effects of SEA0400 and KB-R7943 on Na+/Ca2+ exchange current and L-type Ca2+ current in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2005;372:63-70 pubmed
    ..At concentrations higher than 1 microM, however, I(Ca) is progressively suppressed by the compound. ..
  21. Ay B, Wallace D, Mantilla C, Prakash Y. Differential inhibition of neuronal Na+-Ca2+ exchange versus store-operated Ca2+ channels by volatile anesthetics in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:93-101 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that volatile anesthetics, especially halothane and isoflurane, interfere with neuronal [Ca2+]i regulation by inhibiting NCX but not SOCC-mediated Ca2+ influx (except high concentrations of halothane). ..
  22. Nicoll D, Sawaya M, Kwon S, Cascio D, Philipson K, Abramson J. The crystal structure of the primary Ca2+ sensor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger reveals a novel Ca2+ binding motif. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21577-81 pubmed
    ..This intricate coordination pattern for a Ca2+ binding cluster is indicative of a highly sensitive Ca2+ sensor and may represent a general platform for Ca2+ sensing. ..
  23. Kokubo Y, Inamoto N, Tomoike H, Kamide K, Takiuchi S, Kawano Y, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms of sodium-calcium exchanger 1 gene, NCX1, with hypertension in a Japanese general population. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:697-702 pubmed
    ..TC+TT: odds ratio=1.45; 95% confidence intervals: 1.04 to 2.02; p =0.03), respectively. Thus, our study suggests that NCX1 is one of the genes related to susceptibility to essential hypertension in the Japanese general population. ..
  24. Marshall C, Pan T, Le H, Omelchenko A, Hwang P, Hryshko L, et al. cDNA cloning and expression of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger from Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) reveal a teleost membrane transporter with mammalian temperature dependence. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28903-11 pubmed
    ..Tilapia NCX-TL1.0 represents the first non-mammalian NCX to exhibit a mammalian temperature dependence phenotype and will prove to be a useful model in defining the interplay between molecular flexibility and stability in NCX function. ..
  25. Hughes E, Lee A, Tse A. Dominant role of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump in Ca2+ homeostasis and exocytosis in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1396-407 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that in rat pancreatic beta-cells, the rapid uptake of Ca2+ by SERCA pump limits the peak amplitude of depolarization-triggered [Ca2+]i rise and thus controls the amount of insulin secretion. ..
  26. DiPolo R, Beaugé L. Sodium/calcium exchanger: influence of metabolic regulation on ion carrier interactions. Physiol Rev. 2006;86:155-203 pubmed
    ..A model integrating both ionic and metabolic interactions in the regulation of the exchanger is discussed in detail as well as its relevance in cellular Ca(i)(2+) homeostasis. ..
  27. Hurtado C, Prociuk M, Maddaford T, Dibrov E, Mesaeli N, Hryshko L, et al. Cells expressing unique Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX1) splice variants exhibit different susceptibilities to Ca2+ overload. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H2155-62 pubmed
    ..1 promotes Ca2+ overload in response to cardiac glycosides and ischemic challenges. These results highlight the importance of ionic regulation in controlling NCX1 activity under conditions that promote Ca2+ overload. ..
  28. Hilge M, Aelen J, Vuister G. Ca2+ regulation in the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger involves two markedly different Ca2+ sensors. Mol Cell. 2006;22:15-25 pubmed
    ..Specific point mutations in either domain largely allow the interchange of their functionality and uncover the mechanism underlying Ca2+ sensing in NCX. ..
  29. Smith G, Elliott E, Kettlewell S, Currie S, Quinn F. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger expression and function in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17 Suppl 1:S57-S63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, reduced sorcin expression may be linked to the lower NCX activity in the rabbit model of LVD. Reduced NCX activity during diastole increases SR Ca(2+) content and Ca(2+) transient amplitude. ..
  30. Hurtado C, Ander B, Maddaford T, Lukas A, Hryshko L, Pierce G. Adenovirally delivered shRNA strongly inhibits Na+-Ca2+ exchanger expression but does not prevent contraction of neonatal cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:647-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this approach provides a valuable means for assessing the role of NCX1 and could be utilized to examine other cardiac proteins in physiological and pathological studies. ..
  31. Bano D, Young K, Guerin C, Lefeuvre R, Rothwell N, Naldini L, et al. Cleavage of the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in excitotoxicity. Cell. 2005;120:275-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, proteolytic inactivation of NCX-driven neuronal Ca2+ extrusion is responsible for the delayed excitotoxic Ca2+ deregulation and neuronal death. ..
  32. Kuramochi T, Kakefuda A, Yamada H, Tsukamoto I, Taguchi T, Sakamoto S. Discovery of an N-(2-aminopyridin-4-ylmethyl)nicotinamide derivative: a potent and orally bioavailable NCX inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:4022-36 pubmed
    ..12 microM against reverse NCX. The inhibitory activities of our NCX inhibitors against cytochrome P450 were also evaluated. The effects on heart failure and the pharmacokinetic profile of compound 23 h are discussed. ..
  33. Yamauchi D, Raveendran N, Pondugula S, Kampalli S, Sanneman J, Harbidge D, et al. Vitamin D upregulates expression of ECaC1 mRNA in semicircular canal. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:1353-7 pubmed
    ..These observations provide evidence for the first time of an ECaC-based Ca2+ transport system in SCCD that could maintain the low Ca2+ concentration in vestibular endolymph. ..
  34. Kuramochi T, Kakefuda A, Yamada H, Ogiyama T, Taguchi T, Sakamoto S. Discovery of N-(3-{4-[(3-fluorobenzyl)oxy]phenoxy}propyl)-2-pyridin-4-ylacetamide as a potent and selective reverse NCX inhibitor. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005;53:1043-7 pubmed
    ..We have discovered a novel potent and selective reverse NCX inhibitor (12) with an IC50 value of 0.085 microM against reverse NCX. ..
  35. Vinogradova T, Maltsev V, Bogdanov K, Lyashkov A, Lakatta E. Rhythmic Ca2+ oscillations drive sinoatrial nodal cell pacemaker function to make the heart tick. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1047:138-56 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+) cycling via the SR Ca(2+) pump, RyR and NCX, and its modulation by beta-AR stimulation is, therefore, a general mechanism of cardiac chronotropy and inotropy. ..
  36. Dreval V, Dieterich P, Stock C, Schwab A. The role of Ca2+ transport across the plasma membrane for cell migration. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;16:119-26 pubmed
    ..We show that inhibition of NCX and PMCA strongly affects lamellipodial dynamics of migrating MDCK-F cells. Taken together, our results show that PMCA and in particular NCX are of critical importance for cell migration. ..
  37. Reppel M, Sasse P, Malan D, Nguemo F, Reuter H, Bloch W, et al. Functional expression of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the embryonic mouse heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:121-32 pubmed
    ..The functional and protein expression of NCX declines during further development. ..
  38. Iwamoto T, Kita S. Topics on the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger: role of vascular NCX1 in salt-dependent hypertension. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;102:32-6 pubmed
    ..This proposed pathway may have enabled us to explain how to link dietary salt to hypertension. ..
  39. Sarai N, Kobayashi T, Matsuoka S, Noma A. A simulation study to rescue the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice. J Physiol Sci. 2006;56:211-7 pubmed
    ..The source code of the model is available at ..
  40. Marshall C, Fox J, Butland S, Ouellette B, Brinkman F, Tibbits G. Phylogeny of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) genes from genomic data identifies new gene duplications and a new family member in fish species. Physiol Genomics. 2005;21:161-73 pubmed
    ..These findings present a stronger foundation for our understanding of the molecular evolution of the NCX gene family and provide a framework for further NCX phylogenetic and molecular studies. ..
  41. Kim J, Nakajima K, Oomura Y, Wayner M, Sasaki K. Electrophysiological effects of ghrelin on pedunculopontine tegmental neurons in rats: An in vitro study. Peptides. 2009;30:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also support the notion that ghrelin plays a role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. ..
  42. Wang L, Sobie E. Mathematical model of the neonatal mouse ventricular action potential. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This new model can therefore be used for testing hypotheses and obtaining a better quantitative understanding of differences between neonatal and adult physiology. ..
  43. Levitsky D. Three types of muscles express three sodium-calcium exchanger isoforms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1099:221-5 pubmed
  44. Niu C, Watanabe Y, Ono K, Iwamoto T, Yamashita K, Satoh H, et al. Characterization of SN-6, a novel Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor in guinea pig cardiac ventricular myocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;573:161-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SN-6 inhibits NCX in a similar manner to that of KB-R7943. However, SN-6 at 10 microM affected other membrane currents less potently than KB-R7943. ..
  45. Dibb K, Graham H, Venetucci L, Eisner D, Trafford A. Analysis of cellular calcium fluxes in cardiac muscle to understand calcium homeostasis in the heart. Cell Calcium. 2007;42:503-12 pubmed
    ..How such diastolic release arises and potential mechanisms for controlling this will be discussed. ..
  46. Pulina M, Zulian A, Berra Romani R, Beskina O, Mazzocco Spezzia A, Baryshnikov S, et al. Upregulation of Na+ and Ca2+ transporters in arterial smooth muscle from ouabain-induced hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain the augmented myogenic responses and enhanced phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in OH arteries (83) as well as the high blood pressure in OH rats. ..
  47. Ragone M, Consolini A. CARDIAC role of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters in the high-[K+](o) cardioprotection of rat hearts under ischemia and reperfusion: a mechano-energetic study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009;54:213-22 pubmed publisher
  48. Chouabe C, Ricci E, Kurdi M, Legrand C, Bricca G, Bonvallet R. Evaluation of remodeling in left and right ventricular myocytes from heterozygous (mRen2)27 transgenic rats. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2009;28:24-38 pubmed
    ..3 mRNA levels was decreased only in left ventricle. Thus, a differential ventricular remodeling takes place in the TGR27 model. The possible cause of electrical remodeling in right ventricular myocytes of TGR27 is discussed. ..
  49. Kwon H, Koo J, Zufall F, Leinders Zufall T, Margolis F. Ca extrusion by NCX is compromised in olfactory sensory neurons of OMP mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4260 pubmed publisher
    ..Since CaM also binds to the Bex protein, an interacting protein partner of OMP, these observations strongly suggest that OMP can influence CaM efficacy and thus alters NCX activity by a series of protein-protein interactions. ..
  50. De Maria A, Zhao H, Bassnett S. Expression of potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger in the murine lens. Exp Eye Res. 2018;167:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite its relative abundance in the lens, Nckx4 does not appear to have an indispensable role in the maintenance of lens clarity. ..
  51. Bhosale G, Sharpe J, Koh A, Kouli A, Szabadkai G, Duchen M. Pathological consequences of MICU1 mutations on mitochondrial calcium signalling and bioenergetics. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1009-1017 pubmed publisher
    ..whereby continuous mitochondrial Ca2+ influx is balanced by Ca2+ efflux through the sodium calcium exchanger (NLCXm)...
  52. Hu R, He M, Hu H, Yuan B, Zang W, Lau C, et al. Characterization of calcium signaling pathways in human preadipocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that multiple Ca2+ signal pathways are present in human preadipocytes, and provides a basis for investigating how Ca2+ signals regulate biological and physiological activities of human preadipocytes. ..
  53. Eisner D, Dibb K, Trafford A. The mechanism and significance of the slow changes of ventricular action potential duration following a change of heart rate. Exp Physiol. 2009;94:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These medium-term changes occur in isolated tissues and in the intact human heart. They may protect against cardiac arrhythmias. Finally, we discuss the cellular mechanisms responsible for these changes. ..
  54. Prasad A, Inesi G. Effects of thapsigargin and phenylephrine on calcineurin and protein kinase C signaling functions in cardiac myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C992-C1002 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, significant upregulation of transient receptor potential channel proteins is noted following PKC activation. The observed alterations of Ca(2+) homeostasis may contribute to development of contractile failure...
  55. Klose M, Boulianne G, Robertson R, Atwood H. Role of ATP-dependent calcium regulation in modulation of Drosophila synaptic thermotolerance. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the thermal limit of synaptic transmission may be directly linked to the stability of ATP-dependent mechanisms that regulate intracellular ion concentrations in the nerve terminal. ..
  56. Hund T, Wright P, Dun W, Snyder J, Boyden P, Mohler P. Regulation of the ankyrin-B-based targeting pathway following myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a logical, but unexpected, molecular mechanism underlying ion channel and transporter remodelling following MI. ..
  57. Haase A, Wood P, Pintschovius V, Bamberg E, Hartung K. Time resolved kinetics of the guinea pig Na-Ca exchanger (NCX1) expressed in Xenopus oocytes: voltage and Ca(2+) dependence of pre-steady-state current investigated by photolytic Ca (2+)concentration jumps. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:1031-42 pubmed
  58. Pan T, Neo K, Hu L, Yong Q, Bian J. H2S preconditioning-induced PKC activation regulates intracellular calcium handling in rat cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C169-77 pubmed
    ..Such PKC activation, in turn, protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion insults at least partly by ameliorating intracellular Ca(2+) handling. ..
  59. Hirota S, Janssen L. Store-refilling involves both L-type calcium channels and reverse-mode sodium-calcium exchange in airway smooth muscle. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:269-78 pubmed
    ..3, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that influx of calcium ions through both L-type calcium channels and the reverse-mode of the sodium-calcium exchanger is necessary for complete store-refilling in airway smooth muscle. ..
  60. Hansen M, Krabbe S, Ankorina Stark I, Novak I. Purinergic receptors stimulate Na+/Ca2+ exchange in pancreatic duct cells: possible role of proteins handling and transporting Ca2+. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;23:387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that pancreatic ducts express a number of Ca(2+)-handling/transporting proteins and we propose that these together with purinergic receptors play a role in regulation of duct lumen Ca(2+) content. ..
  61. Bano D, Munarriz E, Chen H, Ziviani E, Lippi G, Young K, et al. The plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is cleaved by distinct protease families in neuronal cell death. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1099:451-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the NCX can also be cleaved by caspases in neurons undergoing apoptosis, which suggests that cleavage of the main Ca2+ extrusion pathway is a lethal event in multiple forms of cell death. ..
  62. Kim M, Lee G, Jung E, Choi K, Jeung E. The negative effect of dexamethasone on calcium-processing gene expressions is associated with a glucocorticoid-induced calcium-absorbing disorder. Life Sci. 2009;85:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional regulation of TRPV6 and CaBP-9k in the duodenum seems complex given that there is an increase at 1-day treatment followed by a decrease at 5-day treatment. ..
  63. Poburko D, Liao C, van Breemen C, Demaurex N. Mitochondrial regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2009;104:104-12 pubmed publisher
  64. Luccini E, Romei C, Di Prisco S, Raiteri M, Raiteri L. Ionic dysregulations typical of ischemia provoke release of glycine and GABA by multiple mechanisms. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, ionic dysregulations typical of ischemia cause neurotransmitter release by heterogeneous mechanisms that differ depending on the transmitters and the CNS regions examined. ..
  65. Jung Y, Choi I, Kwon T. Altered expression of sodium transporters in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Neurosci Res. 2007;59:152-9 pubmed
  66. Iwamoto T, Watanabe Y, Kita S, Blaustein M. Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitors: a new class of calcium regulators. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2007;7:188-98 pubmed
    ..This article presents the characteristics of selective and non-selective NCX inhibitors and their therapeutic potential as a new calcium regulator. ..