Genomes and Genes
potassium hydrogen antiporters
Summary: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
- Zeiske W, Meyer H, Wieczorek H. Insect midgut K(+) secretion: concerted run-down of apical/basolateral transporters with extra-/intracellular acidity. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:463-74 pubmed..Moreover, all components that transport K(+) are synchronously inhibited below pH 6. The significance of our findings for the midgut in vivo is discussed. ..
- Flis K, Hinzpeter A, Edelman A, Kurlandzka A. The functioning of mammalian ClC-2 chloride channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells requires an increased level of Kha1p. Biochem J. 2005;390:655-64 pubmed..The approach employed in the present study may be of general applicability to the characterization of poorly understood proteins by their functional expression in yeast. ..
- Ikuma M, Binder H, Geibel J. Role of apical H-K exchange and basolateral K channel in the regulation of intracellular pH in rat distal colon crypt cells. J Membr Biol. 1998;166:205-12 pubmed..Our results demonstrate an interrelationship between basolateral K movement and apical H-K exchange in the regulation of pHi and apical K entry in rat distal colon. ..
- Song C, Guo Y, Qiu Q, Lambert G, Galbraith D, Jagendorf A, et al. A probable Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger on the chloroplast envelope functions in pH homeostasis and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10211-6 pubmed..chx23 mutants displayed a high sensitivity to NaCl. Together, these data indicate that CHX23 is a probable chloroplast Na(+)(K(+))/H(+) exchanger important for pH homeostasis and chloroplast development and function. ..
- Inaba K, Utsugi J, Kuroda T, Tsuda M, Tsuchiya T. Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and effect of Li+ on cell growth. Biol Pharm Bull. 1997;20:621-4 pubmed..aeruginosa antiporter than in the E. coli antiporters. Growth of P. aeruginosa was strongly inhibited by 0.4 M LiCl, but not by NaCl or KCl. ..
- Ferguson G, Tötemeyer S, Maclean M, Booth I. Methylglyoxal production in bacteria: suicide or survival?. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:209-18 pubmed..New strategies for antibacterial therapy may be based on undermining the detoxification and defence mechanisms coupled with deregulation of methylglyoxal synthesis. ..
- Masuda A, Oyamada M, Nagaoka T, Tateishi N, Takamatsu T. Regulation of cytosol-nucleus pH gradients by K+/H+ exchange mechanism in the nuclear envelope of neonatal rat astrocytes. Brain Res. 1998;807:70-7 pubmed
- Nakamura T, Kawasaki S, Unemoto T. Roles of K+ and Na+ in pH homeostasis and growth of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:1271-6 pubmed..These results indicated the importance of Na+ in acidification of the cell interior via a Na+/H+ antiporter in order to support cell growth at alkaline pH(out) under conditions where the activity of a K+/H+ antiporter is marginal. ..
- Dzbek J, Korzeniewski B. Control over the contribution of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and proton gradient (DeltapH) to the protonmotive force (Deltap). In silico studies. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33232-9 pubmed publisher..It is demonstrated that the secondary K+ ion transport is not necessary for maintaining the physiological DeltaPsi/DeltapH ratio. ..
- Trchunian A, Ogandzhanian E. [H+-K+-exchange in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli bacteria during use of various sugars as exogenous energy sources]. Biofizika. 1998;43:82-6 pubmed..The H(+)-K(+)-exchange with a variable stoichiometry of cation fluxes is lost in bacteria, grown in a medium with lactose or maltose. ..
- Ramirez J, Ramirez O, Saldana C, Coria R, Pena A. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking a K+/H+ exchanger. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5860-5 pubmed..We speculate that higher K+ accumulation and increased osmotic pressure accelerate the cell cycle and metabolic activity. ..
- Garlid K, Paucek P. The mitochondrial potassium cycle. IUBMB Life. 2001;52:153-8 pubmed..This review discusses the properties of the mitochondrial K+ cycle that help to understand the basis of these effects. ..
- Ferguson G, VanPatten S, Bucala R, Al Abed Y. Detoxification of methylglyoxal by the nucleophilic bidentate, phenylacylthiazolium bromide. Chem Res Toxicol. 1999;12:617-22 pubmed..These data suggested that PTB could interact with and detoxify MG. The mechanism of this interaction was characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopy. ..
- Cala P, Maldonado H, Anderson S. Cell volume and pH regulation by the Amphiuma red blood cell: a model for hypoxia-induced cell injury. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol. 1992;102:603-8 pubmed
- Gouiaa S, Khoudi H. Co-expression of vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-pyrophosphatase with an IRES-mediated dicistronic vector improves salinity tolerance and enhances potassium biofortification of tomato. Phytochemistry. 2015;117:537-46 pubmed publisher..This study demonstrates the effectiveness of bicistronic constructs as an important tool for the enhancement of biofortification and salt stress tolerance in crops. ..
- Cui C, Smith D, Adler J. Characterization of mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane by whole-cell patch clamp recording. J Membr Biol. 1995;144:31-42 pubmed..This indicates a potential modulation of these channels by KefA. ..
- Bonanno J. K(+)-H+ exchange, a fundamental cell acidifier in corneal epithelium. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:C618-25 pubmed..In addition to pHi regulation, K(+)-H+ exchange may play a role in cell volume control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Lopez R, Pena A. [Potassium transport in yeast]. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1999;41:91-103 pubmed..0. Bicarbonate accumulation allows yeast to maintain large pH gradients across the plasma membrane. ..
- Blum J. Effect of osmolality on 86Rb+ uptake and release by Leishmania donovani. J Cell Physiol. 1992;152:111-7 pubmed..The possibility that other carrier systems may be present is also discussed. ..
- Kakinuma Y, Yasumura K, Igarashi K. Potassium/proton antiport system is dispensable for growth of Enterococcus hirae at low pH. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999;63:875-8 pubmed..In this defined medium, E. hirae did not grow well at pH near 9, but grew normally at pH below 7.5. This antiport system is important at high pH but dispensable at lower pH for ion homeostasis of this bacterium. ..
- Karim M, Brett C. The Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger Nhx1 controls multivesicular body-vacuolar lysosome fusion. Mol Biol Cell. 2018;29:317-325 pubmed publisher..All contributing mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved offering new insight into the etiology of human disorders linked to loss of endosomal NHE function. ..
- Trchounian A, Ohanjayan E, Zakharyan E. Regulation of intracellular pH and proton-potassium exchange in fermenting Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkaline medium. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12:67-78 pubmed..Growth medium pH, probably, determines the character of interaction of the TrkA with the F0F1. ..
- Wessing A, Bertram G, Zierold K. Effects of bafilomycin A1 and amiloride on the apical potassium and proton gradients in Drosophila Malpighian tubules studied by X-ray microanalysis and microelectrode measurements. J Comp Physiol B. 1993;163:452-62 pubmed..Our results support the hypothesis of a functionally coupled transport system in the apical membrane consisting of a bafilomycin-sensitive V-ATPase and a K(+)-dependent, amiloride-sensitive K+/H+ exchange system. ..
- Kitada M, Morotomi S, Horikoshi K, Kudo T. K+/H+ antiporter in alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. no. 66 (JCM 9763). Extremophiles. 1997;1:135-41 pubmed..The H+ efflux rate was a hyperbolic function of K+ and increased with increasing extravesicular pH (pH(out)) from 7.5 to 8.5. These findings were consistent with the presence of K+/H+ antiport activity in these membrane vesicles. ..
- Brierley G, Jung D. K+/H+ antiport in mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1988;20:193-209 pubmed..However, it is not yet clear whether such regulation depends on matrix free Mg2+, on membrane conformational changes, or other as yet unknown factors. ..
- Schonfeld P, Gerke S, Bohnensack R, Wojtczak L. Stimulation of potassium cycling in mitochondria by long-chain fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1604:125-33 pubmed..The uniporter and the K(+)/H(+) antiporter are in different ways activated by membrane stretching and/or unfolding, resulting in swelling followed by contraction. ..
- Vachon V, Paradis M, Marsolais M, Schwartz J, Laprade R. Endogenous K+/H+ exchange activity in the Sf9 insect cell line. Biochemistry. 1995;34:15157-64 pubmed..These results strongly suggest that, in Sf9 cells, a K+/H+ antiporter plays a key role in the movement of protons across the cell membrane. ..
- Meimaridou E, Jacobson J, Seddon A, Noronha Dutra A, Robertson W, Hothersall J. Crystal and microparticle effects on MDCK cell superoxide production: oxalate-specific mitochondrial membrane potential changes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:1553-64 pubmed..Intracellular dissociation of COM and the mitochondrial dicarboxylate transporter are important in O2- production, which is probably regulated by deltapsi(m). ..
- Cooper C, Wrigglesworth J, Nicholls P. The mechanism of potassium movement across the liposomal membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;173:1008-12 pubmed..M., Cooper, C.E., Sharpe, M.A. and Nicholls, P. (1990) Biochem. J. 270, 109-118). Free fatty acids present in the soybean phospholipid mixture may be responsible for such activity. ..
- Ferguson G, Munro A, Douglas R, McLaggan D, Booth I. Activation of potassium channels during metabolite detoxification in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:1297-303 pubmed..Inhibition of KefB activity by the addition of 10 mM potassium to the growth medium stimulates methylglyoxal-induced cell death. This establishes an essential physiological function for the KefB system. ..
- Day J, Wan S, Allan A, Kean L, Davies S, Gray J, et al. Identification of two partners from the bacterial Kef exchanger family for the apical plasma membrane V-ATPase of Metazoa. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2612-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, both CG10806 and CG31052 are functionally members of the CPA2 gene family, colocalise to the same apical membrane as the plasma membrane V-ATPase and show distinct ion specificities, as expected for the Wieczorek exchanger. ..
- Ortiz Acevedo A, Rigor R, Maldonado H, Cala P. Activation of Na+/H+ and K+/H+ exchange by calyculin A in Amphiuma tridactylum red blood cells: implications for the control of volume-induced ion flux activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1316-25 pubmed publisher..We conclude that kinase-dependent reactions are responsible for Na(+)/H(+) and K(+)/H(+) exchange activity, whereas undefined volume-dependent reactions confer specificity and coordinated control. ..
- Bertram G, Wessing A. Intracellular pH regulation by the plasma membrane V-ATPase in Malpighian tubules of Drosophila larvae. J Comp Physiol B. 1994;164:238-46 pubmed..Instead pHi regulation apparently depended largely on the availability of ATP and on the activity of the bafilomycin-sensitive proton pump...
- Brierley G, Jung D. Kinetic properties of the K+/H+ antiport of heart mitochondria. Biochemistry. 1990;29:408-15 pubmed..Both NH4+ and the amiloride analogues increase pHi at constant pHo and appear to be concentrated in the matrix under these conditions. ..
- Ferguson G, Creighton R, Nikolaev Y, Booth I. Importance of RpoS and Dps in survival of exposure of both exponential- and stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells to the electrophile N-ethylmaleimide. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1030-6 pubmed..A slower-growing E. coli strain was also found to accumulate RpoS and had enhanced resistance to NEM. These data emphasize the multiplicity of pathways involved in protecting E. coli cells against NEM. ..
- Budunova I, Mittelman L. The effect of K+/H+ antiporter nigericin on gap junction permeability. Cell Biol Toxicol. 1992;8:63-73 pubmed
- Hofer A, Machen T. K-induced alkalinization in all cell types of rabbit gastric glands: a novel K/H exchange mechanism. J Membr Biol. 1992;126:245-56 pubmed..We conclude that the K- (and Cs- and Li-) dependent pHi recovery is mediated by a novel cation/H exchange mechanism that is distinct from the PC H/K-ATPase. ..
- Smolka A, Swiger K. Site-directed antibodies as topographical probes of the gastric H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1108:75-85 pubmed
- Le Petit Thevenin J, Nobili O, Verine A, Boyer J. Selective modulation of membrane sphingomyelin fatty acid turnover by nigericin. A study in the rat reticulocyte. Life Sci. 1996;59:PL289-94 pubmed..7 microM to 2.0 microM. The response was diminished in high K(+)-containing media, suggesting an effect of Nigericin as K+ transporter. This constitutes a novel piece of evidence for the important role of ions in SM metabolism. ..
- Ferguson G, Nikolaev Y, McLaggan D, MacLean M, Booth I. Survival during exposure to the electrophilic reagent N-ethylmaleimide in Escherichia coli: role of KefB and KefC potassium channels. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1007-12 pubmed..The pHi does not significantly alter the rate of NEM metabolism. The possible mechanisms by which protection against the electrophile is mediated are discussed. ..
- Trchounian A, Bagramyan K, Poladian A. Formate hydrogenlyase is needed for proton-potassium exchange through the F0F1-ATPase and the TrkA system in anaerobically grown and glycolysing Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 1997;35:201-6 pubmed..Formate and NADH can serve as a donor and an acceptor of reducing equivalent respectively, for operation of such supercomplexes. ..
- Chaturapanich G, Ishibashi H, Dinudom A, Young J, Cook D. H+ transporters in the main excretory duct of the mouse mandibular salivary gland. J Physiol. 1997;503 ( Pt 3):583-98 pubmed..The difference is in concordance with the known ability of the mandibular gland of the rat, but not the rabbit or the mouse, to secrete a HCO3(-)-rich final saliva. ..
- Maclean M, Ness L, Ferguson G, Booth I. The role of glyoxalase I in the detoxification of methylglyoxal and in the activation of the KefB K+ efflux system in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:563-71 pubmed..These data suggest that the glutathione-dependent glyoxalase I is the dominant detoxification pathway for MG in E. coli and that the product of glyoxalase I activity, S-lactoylglutathione, is the activator of KefB and KefC. ..
- Krylova V, Dubrovo P, Izmailov S. [The effect of metabolites on the pH gradient and membrane potential of the bean peribacteroid membrane]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2007;43:325-30 pubmed..Only malate and succinate (but not glutamate) are transported through PBM in mature nodules; and the rate of metabolite translocation through PBM in aging nodules is decreased. ..
- Pribylova L, Papouskova K, Zavrel M, Souciet J, Sychrova H. Exploration of yeast alkali metal cation/H+ antiporters: sequence and structure comparison. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2006;51:413-24 pubmed..Yeast Kha1 proteins probably belong to the same subfamily as bacterial antiporters, whereas Nhal proteins form a distinct subfamily. ..
- Beavis A, Garlid K. Evidence for the allosteric regulation of the mitochondrial K+/H+ antiporter by matrix protons. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2538-45 pubmed..This finding is not only physiologically significant but also provides a useful definition of conditions required for unmasking the K+/H+ antiporter in a reproducible manner. ..
- Weiss E, Lang H, Bernhardt I. Inhibitors of the K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger of human red blood cells. Bioelectrochemistry. 2004;62:135-40 pubmed..It remains still unclear to what extent the K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger is inhibited by the different substances used. However, the ground state membrane permeability for K+ is much smaller than assumed so far. ..
- Ferguson G, McLaggan D, Booth I. Potassium channel activation by glutathione-S-conjugates in Escherichia coli: protection against methylglyoxal is mediated by cytoplasmic acidification. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:1025-33 pubmed..Alterations in the pHi do not accelerate the rate of detoxification of methylglyoxal. The mechanism by which methylglyoxal causes cell death and the implications for pHi-mediated resistance to methylglyoxal are discussed. ..
- Enríquez Freire E, Lopez R, Pena A. Potassium ion efflux induced by cationic compounds in yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1418:147-57 pubmed..Except for cells treated with ethidium bromide, no appreciable cell disruption was observed. The potassium efflux observed appears to be a membrane phenomenon reversible after washing with magnesium chloride. ..
- Welihinda A, Trumbly R, Garlid K, Beavis A. On the regulation of Na+/H+ and K+/H+ antiport in yeast mitochondria: evidence for the absence of an Na(+)-selective Na+/H+ antiporter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1144:367-73 pubmed..Between pH 4.6 and 8.8 no difference could be detected. Consequently, we conclude that yeast mitochondria lack the typical Na(+)-selective Na+/H+ antiporter of mammalian mitochondria. ..
- Cheng J, Guffanti A, Wang W, Krulwich T, Bechhofer D. Chromosomal tetA(L) gene of Bacillus subtilis: regulation of expression and physiology of a tetA(L) deletion strain. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2853-60 pubmed..Evidence for several different regulatory effects emerged from studies of lacZ expression from the transposon of JC111 and from a tetA(L)-lacZ translational fusion introduced into the amyE locus of wild-type and JC112 strains. ..
- Rodriguez R, Sitges M. Nigericin-induced Na+/H+ and K+/H+ exchange in synaptosomes: effect on [3H]GABA release. Neurochem Res. 1996;21:889-95 pubmed..In summary care must be taken when using the putative K+/H+ ionophore nigericin as an experimental tool in synaptosomes, as under standard conditions (i.e. in the presence of high external Na+) nigericin behaves as a Na+/H+ ionophore. ..
- Attmane Elakeb A, Boulanger H, Vernimmen C, Bichara M. Apical location and inhibition by arginine vasopressin of K+/H+ antiport of the medullary thick ascending limb of rat kidney. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25668-77 pubmed..These results demonstrate the presence of a K+/H+ antiport mechanism, which is inhibited by arginine vasopressin via protein kinase A, in the apical membrane of the MTAL. ..
- Graber M, Pastoriza Munoz E. Regulation of cell pH by K+/H+ antiport in renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:F773-83 pubmed..The K+/H+ antiporter appears to be one of the major systems regulation cell pH in these cells, balancing the H+ efflux mediated by Na+/H+ exchange. ..
- Lepier A, Azuma M, Harvey W, Wieczorek H. K+/H+ antiport in the tobacco hornworm midgut: the K(+)-transporting component of the K+ pump. J Exp Biol. 1994;196:361-73 pubmed..Current efforts are focused on the isolation of the K+/H+ antiporter. ..
- Peral M, Cano M, Ilundain A. K(+)-H+ exchange activity in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from chick small intestine. Eur J Biochem. 1995;231:682-6 pubmed..These findings are consistent with the presence of K(+)-H+ exchange activity in the chicken jejunal brush-border membrane. ..
- Mukherjee T, Mandal D, Bhaduri A. Leishmania plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase is a H+/K+-antiporter involved in glucose symport. Studies with sealed ghosts and vesicles of opposite polarity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5563-9 pubmed..This enzyme is possibly involved in active accumulation of glucose via a H+-glucose symport system and in K+ accumulation. ..
- Bañuelos M, Sychrova H, Bleykasten Grosshans C, Souciet J, Potier S. The Nha1 antiporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates sodium and potassium efflux. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 10):2749-58 pubmed..Both systems have a complementary action to maintain the intracellular steady-state concentration of K+ and Na+. ..
- Erez O, Kahana C. Deletions of SKY1 or PTK2 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1Deltatrk2Delta mutant cells exert dual effect on ion homeostasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:1142-9 pubmed..A model that integrates these results to explain the mechanism of ion transport across the plasma membrane is proposed. ..
- Wieczorek H, Putzenlechner M, Zeiske W, Klein U. A vacuolar-type proton pump energizes K+/H+ antiport in an animal plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15340-7 pubmed
- Youmans S, Barry C. Effects of valinomycin on vanadate-sensitive and vanadate-resistant H+ transport in vesicles from turtle bladder epithelium: evidence for a K+/H+ exchanger. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;176:1285-90 pubmed..This is consistent with the development of a membrane potential consequent to electrogenic uniport H+ transport. ..
- Sukhov V, Vodeneev V. A mathematical model of action potential in cells of vascular plants. J Membr Biol. 2009;232:59-67 pubmed publisher..The model supports a hypothesis about participation of H(+)-ATPase in AP generation. ..
- Ferguson G, Battista J, Lee A, Booth I. Protection of the DNA during the exposure of Escherichia coli cells to a toxic metabolite: the role of the KefB and KefC potassium channels. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:113-22 pubmed..coli cells to methylglyoxal results in DNA degradation, our results suggest this event is not essential for methylglyoxal-induced death. The implications of these findings will be discussed. ..
- Tosco M, Orsenigo M, Gastaldi G, Faelli A. pH dependence of Cl/HCO3 exchanger in the rat jejunal enterocyte. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1372:323-30 pubmed
- Nowikovsky K, Schweyen R, Bernardi P. Pathophysiology of mitochondrial volume homeostasis: potassium transport and permeability transition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:345-50 pubmed publisher..Specific emphasis will be placed on molecular advances on the nature of the transport protein(s) involved, and/or on diseases that depend on mitochondrial volume dysregulation. ..
- Paulais M, Cragoe E, Turner R. Ion transport mechanisms in rat parotid intralobular striated ducts. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:C1594-602 pubmed..The properties of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger and K(+)-H+ exchange mechanism identified here are consistent with their involvement in ductal salt reabsorption and secretion. ..
- Maresova L, Sychrova H. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kha1 deletion mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:588-600 pubmed
- Nowikovsky K, Reipert S, Devenish R, Schweyen R. Mdm38 protein depletion causes loss of mitochondrial K+/H+ exchange activity, osmotic swelling and mitophagy. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1647-56 pubmed..Nigericin, a K(+)/H(+) ionophore, fully prevented these effects of Mdm38p depletion. We conclude that osmotic swelling of mitochondria triggers selective mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy. ..
- Misler S, Gillis K, Tabcharani J. Modulation of gating of a metabolically regulated, ATP-dependent K+ channel by intracellular pH in B cells of the pancreatic islet. J Membr Biol. 1989;109:135-43 pubmed..The physiological role of delta pHi in the metabolic gating of this channel remains to be explored. ..
- Kakinuma Y, Igarashi K. Potassium/proton antiport system of growing Enterococcus hirae at high pH. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2227-9 pubmed..These results suggest that the pHin-responsive primary K+/H+ antiport system (Y. Kakinuma, and K. Igarashi, J. Biol. Chem. 263:14166-14170, 1988) works for the pHin regulation of this organism growing at a high pH. ..
- Radchenko M, Waditee R, Oshimi S, Fukuhara M, Takabe T, Nakamura T. Cloning, functional expression and primary characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus K+/H+ antiporter genes in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:651-63 pubmed..Furthermore, under specific conditions, Escherichia coli was able to mediate K(+) extrusion against a K(+) chemical gradient, indicating that E. coli also possesses an unidentified K(+) extrusion system(s). ..
- Krulwich T, Lewinson O, Padan E, Bibi E. Do physiological roles foster persistence of drug/multidrug-efflux transporters? A case study. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:566-72 pubmed..The recent observations that Tet(L), a tetracycline-efflux transporter, and MdfA, a multidrug-efflux transporter, both confer alkali tolerance offer a striking case study in support of this hypothesis. ..
- Maldonado H, Cala P. Labeling of the Amphiuma erythrocyte K+/H+ exchanger with H2DIDS. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:C1002-12 pubmed..Although a 55-kDa protein is also labeled, it is a less likely candidate, since label incorporation and transport modification are less well correlated than that of the 85- and 110-kDa proteins. ..
- Martin F, Harvey W. Ionic circuit analysis of K+/H+ antiport and amino acid/K+ symport energized by a proton-motive force in Manduca sexta larval midgut vesicles. J Exp Biol. 1994;196:77-92 pubmed..g. from ATP hydrolysis) into useful metabolic work (e.g. amino acid uptake). Computer-generated by an H+ V-ATPase to K+/2H+ antiport and amino acid/K+ symport in the lepidopteran midgut. ..
- Margolis L, Novikova I Y, Rozovskaya I, Skulachev V. K+/H+-antiporter nigericin arrests DNA synthesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:6626-9 pubmed..Nigericin should thus be regarded as a type of a cytostatic primarily affecting intracellular pH. ..
- Kang L, Zhu H, Cheng Q, Zhou W, Sun L, Cai L, et al. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding glutathione-regulated potassium-efflux system protein KefKL from the endosymbiont Wolbachia. DNA Seq. 2002;13:375-81 pubmed
- Bagramyan K, Martirosov S. Formation of an ion transport supercomplex in Escherichia coli. An experimental model of direct transduction of energy. FEBS Lett. 1989;246:149-52 pubmed..Within this supercomplex direct transduction of energy is accomplished via oxidation of 2 SH to S-S. ..
- Kaasik A, Joubert F, Ventura Clapier R, Veksler V. A novel mechanism of regulation of cardiac contractility by mitochondrial functional state. FASEB J. 2004;18:1219-27 pubmed
- Busche R, Bartels J, Kirschberger S, von Engelhardt W. Intracellular pH regulation in guinea-pig caecal and colonic enterocytes during and after loading with short-chain fatty acids and ammonia. Pflugers Arch. 2002;444:785-94 pubmed..The major regulation mechanisms of pH(i) are located in the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes. ..
- Froschauer E, Nowikovsky K, Schweyen R. Electroneutral K+/H+ exchange in mitochondrial membrane vesicles involves Yol027/Letm1 proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1711:41-8 pubmed..Considering their newly identified function, we propose to refer to the yeast YOL027c gene and the human LETM1 gene as yMKH1 and hMKH1, respectively. ..