chloride bicarbonate antiporters


Summary: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.

Top Publications

  1. Xu J, Henriksnäs J, Barone S, Witte D, Shull G, Forte J, et al. SLC26A9 is expressed in gastric surface epithelial cells, mediates Cl-/HCO3- exchange, and is inhibited by NH4+. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C493-505 pubmed
    ..Disease states that are associated with increased ammonia (NH3)/NH4+ generation (e.g., Helicobacter pylori) may impair gastric HCO3- secretion and therefore predispose patients to peptic ulcer by inhibiting SLC26A9. ..
  2. Linn S, Kudrycki K, Shull G. The predicted translation product of a cardiac AE3 mRNA contains an N terminus distinct from that of the brain AE3 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cloning of a cardiac AE3 cDNA, organization of the AE3 gene, and identification of an alternative transcription in. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:7927-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, alternative promoter and exon usage are involved in generation of the two AE3 mRNAs. ..
  3. Dudas P, Mentone S, Greineder C, Biemesderfer D, Aronson P. Immunolocalization of anion transporter Slc26a7 in mouse kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F937-45 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Slc26a7 is expressed in the proximal tubule and thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, and it may therefore contribute to anion transport in these nephron segments. ..
  4. Kim K, Shcheynikov N, Wang Y, Muallem S. SLC26A7 is a Cl- channel regulated by intracellular pH. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6463-70 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal that SLC26A7 functions as a unique Cl(-) channel that is regulated by intracellular H(+). ..
  5. Shcheynikov N, Kim K, Kim K, Dorwart M, Ko S, Goto H, et al. Dynamic control of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-)/HCO3(-) selectivity by external Cl(-). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21857-65 pubmed
    ..The physiological significance of these finding is discussed in the context of HCO(3)(-) secretion by tissues such as the pancreas and salivary glands. ..
  6. Petrovic S, Barone S, Xu J, Conforti L, Ma L, Kujala M, et al. SLC26A7: a basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger specific to intercalated cells of the outer medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;286:F161-9 pubmed
    ..02 vs. normal condition). We propose that SLC26A7 is a basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in intercalated cells of the OMCD and may play an important role in bicarbonate reabsorption in medullary collecting duct. ..
  7. Alper S, Darman R, Chernova M, Dahl N. The AE gene family of Cl/HCO3- exchangers. J Nephrol. 2002;15 Suppl 5:S41-53 pubmed
    ..Noncontiguous regions in the middle of the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain are of particular importance for acute regulation by several types of stimulus. ..
  8. Parker M, Ourmozdi E, Tanner M. Human BTR1, a new bicarbonate transporter superfamily member and human AE4 from kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;282:1103-9 pubmed
    ..Human AE4 shares 84% identity with the recently reported rabbit AE4, a sodium independent, Cl(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchanger located on the apical membrane of beta-intercalated kidney cells. ..
  9. Soleimani M, Greeley T, Petrovic S, Wang Z, Amlal H, Kopp P, et al. Pendrin: an apical Cl-/OH-/HCO3- exchanger in the kidney cortex. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F356-64 pubmed
    ..The conclusion is that pendrin is an apical Cl-/base exchanger in the kidney proximal tubule and CCD and mediates Cl-/OH-, Cl-/HCO3-, and Cl-/formate exchange...

More Information


  1. Zhao Y, Chauvet P, Alper S, Baltz J. Expression and function of bicarbonate/chloride exchangers in the preimplantation mouse embryo. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24428-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, mRNA encoding two members of the band 3-related AE anion exchanger gene family are expressed in preimplantation embryos. ..
  2. Yamagata M, Tannock I. The chronic administration of drugs that inhibit the regulation of intracellular pH: in vitro and anti-tumour effects. Br J Cancer. 1996;73:1328-34 pubmed
    ..002 at tolerated doses of the four drugs used to treat KHT tumours. The experiments demonstrate the activity of drugs that inhibit the regulation of pHi against murine tumours when delivered by chronic infusion. ..
  3. Karet F, Gainza F, Gyory A, Unwin R, Wrong O, Tanner M, et al. Mutations in the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger gene AE1 cause autosomal dominant but not autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6337-42 pubmed
    ..These findings underscore the key role of Arg-589 and the C terminus in normal AE1 function, and indicate that while mutations in AE1 cause autosomal dominant dRTA, defects in this gene are not responsible for recessive disease. ..
  4. Kudrycki K, Newman P, Shull G. cDNA cloning and tissue distribution of mRNAs for two proteins that are related to the band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:462-71 pubmed
    ..Band 3 mRNAs were observed in many tissues but high levels of expression occurred only in spleen and kidney. Five Band 3 transcripts, ranging in size from 3.6 to 4.9 kilobases, were detected, including three that are expressed in heart. ..
  5. Wang Z, Wang T, Petrovic S, Tuo B, Riederer B, Barone S, et al. Renal and intestinal transport defects in Slc26a6-null mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C957-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Slc26a6 mediates oxalate-stimulated NaCl absorption, contributes to apical membrane Cl-/base exchange in the kidney proximal tubule, and also plays an important role in HCO3- secretion in the duodenum. ..
  6. Chernova M, Jiang L, Friedman D, Darman R, Lohi H, Kere J, et al. Functional comparison of mouse slc26a6 anion exchanger with human SLC26A6 polypeptide variants: differences in anion selectivity, regulation, and electrogenicity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8564-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, the orthologous mouse and human SLC26A6 proteins differ in anion selectivity, transport mechanism, and acute regulation, but both mediate electroneutral Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. ..
  7. Ko S, Zeng W, Dorwart M, Luo X, Kim K, Millen L, et al. Gating of CFTR by the STAS domain of SLC26 transporters. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:343-50 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a new understanding of epithelial chloride and bicarbonate transport and may have important implications for both cystic fibrosis and diseases associated with SLC26T. ..
  8. Wang Z, Petrovic S, Mann E, Soleimani M. Identification of an apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger in the small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G573-9 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical studies localized PAT1 to the brush border membranes of the villus cells of the duodenum. We propose that PAT1 is an apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger in the small intestine. ..
  9. Wang C, Yano H, Nagashima K, Seino S. The Na+-driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger. Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional characterization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35486-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that NCBE is a Na(+)-driven Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger that regulates intracellular pH in native cells. ..
  10. Vince J, Reithmeier R. Identification of the carbonic anhydrase II binding site in the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) anion exchanger AE1. Biochemistry. 2000;39:5527-33 pubmed
    ..Tethering of CAII to an acidic motif within the Ct of anion exchangers may be a general mechanism for promoting bicarbonate transport across cell membranes. ..
  11. Melvin J, Park K, Richardson L, Schultheis P, Shull G. Mouse down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) is an intestinal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger and is up-regulated in colon of mice lacking the NHE3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22855-61 pubmed
  12. Verlander J, Moudy R, Campbell W, Cain B, Wingo C. Immunohistochemical localization of H-K-ATPase alpha(2c)-subunit in rabbit kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;281:F357-65 pubmed
  13. Leviel F, Hübner C, Houillier P, Morla L, El Moghrabi S, Brideau G, et al. The Na+-dependent chloride-bicarbonate exchanger SLC4A8 mediates an electroneutral Na+ reabsorption process in the renal cortical collecting ducts of mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish what we believe to be a novel role for NDCBE in mediating substantial Na+ reabsorption in the CCD and suggest a role for this transporter in the regulation of fluid homeostasis in mice. ..
  14. Cremaschi D, Vallin P, Sironi C, Porta C. Inhibitors of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activate an apical anion conductance with similar features in the epithelial cells of rabbit gallbladder: analysis in intact epithelium. Pflugers Arch. 2001;441:456-66 pubmed
    ..On this basis it is concluded that some inhibitors of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger either turn it into an anion channel or, less probably, activate a parallel GCl, as a consequence of the exchanger inhibition. ..
  15. Wang W, Praetorius J, Li C, Praetorius H, Kwon T, Frøkiaer J, et al. Vacuolar H+-ATPase expression is increased in acid-secreting intercalated cells in kidneys of rats with hypercalcaemia-induced alkalosis. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2007;189:359-68 pubmed
  16. Speake T, Whitwell C, Kajita H, Majid A, Brown P. Mechanisms of CSF secretion by the choroid plexus. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;52:49-59 pubmed
    ..A model of CSF secretion by the mammalian choroid plexus is proposed that accommodates these channels and other data on the expression of transport proteins in the choroid plexus. ..
  17. Gale P, Tong C, Haynes C, Adeosun O, Gross D, Karnas E, et al. Octafluorocalix[4]pyrrole: a chloride/bicarbonate antiport agent. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:3240-1 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first example of a synthetic macrocyclic pyrrole-based receptor capable of transmembrane bicarbonate transport...
  18. Tresguerres M, Katoh F, Orr E, Parks S, Goss G. Chloride uptake and base secretion in freshwater fish: a transepithelial ion-transport metabolon?. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79:981-96 pubmed
    ..Our model is based on analyses of structure-function relationships, reinterpretation of previous results, and novel observations about gill cell subtypes and immunolocalization of the V-H+ -ATPase. ..
  19. Wetzel P, Hasse A, Papadopoulos S, Voipio J, Kaila K, Gros G. Extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity facilitates lactic acid transport in rat skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol. 2001;531:743-56 pubmed
    ..low extracellular BF(non-HCO3). The fact that the effects of cinnamate and BZ are not additive indicates that the two inhibitors act at distinct sites on the same transport pathway for lactic acid. ..
  20. Coon S, Sundaram U. Unique regulation of anion/HCO3- exchangers by constitutive nitric oxide in rabbit small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G1084-90 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that cNO uniquely regulates the three BBM anion/HCO3- transporters in the rabbit small intestine. ..
  21. Alvaro D, Benedetti A, Marucci L, Delle Monache M, Monterubbianesi R, Di Cosimo E, et al. The function of alkaline phosphatase in the liver: regulation of intrahepatic biliary epithelium secretory activities in the rat. Hepatology. 2000;32:174-84 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that AP plays an active role in down-regulating the secretory activities of the intrahepatic biliary epithelium. ..
  22. Sun A. Expression of Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in the basolateral membrane of mouse medullary thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:F358-64 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that AE is present in the basolateral membrane of mouse MTAL. ..
  23. Pawloski J, Hess D, Stamler J. Export by red blood cells of nitric oxide bioactivity. Nature. 2001;409:622-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the oxygen-regulated cellular mechanism that couples the synthesis and export of haemoglobin-derived NO bioactivity operates, at least in part, through formation of AE1-SNO at the membrane-cytosol interface. ..
  24. Jacobs S, Ruusuvuori E, Sipilä S, Haapanen A, Damkier H, Kurth I, et al. Mice with targeted Slc4a10 gene disruption have small brain ventricles and show reduced neuronal excitability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Slc4a10 is a promising pharmacological target for the therapy of epilepsy or elevated intracranial pressure. ..
  25. Xu J, Barone S, Petrovic S, Wang Z, Seidler U, Riederer B, et al. Identification of an apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in gastric surface mucous and duodenal villus cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G1225-34 pubmed
    ..These data show that AE4 is an apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in gastric mucous cells and duodenal villus cells. On the basis of its function and location, we propose that AE4 may play an important role in mucosal protection. ..
  26. Soleimani M. Expression, regulation and the role of SLC26 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers in kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;273:91-102; discussion 103-6, 261-4 pubmed
    ..This review in particular focuses on the role and regulation of SLC26A6, A7 and A9 in the kidney and/or gastrointestinal tract. ..
  27. Parker M, Bouyer P, Daly C, Boron W. Cloning and characterization of novel human SLC4A8 gene products encoding Na+-driven Cl-/HCO3(-) exchanger variants NDCBE-A, -C, and -D. Physiol Genomics. 2008;34:265-76 pubmed publisher
  28. Weinstein A. A mathematical model of the outer medullary collecting duct of the rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;279:F24-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, buffer availability is unlikely to exert a regulatory role in total proton secretion by this tubule segment...
  29. Rajendran V, Black J, Ardito T, Sangan P, Alper S, Schweinfest C, et al. Regulation of DRA and AE1 in rat colon by dietary Na depletion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G931-42 pubmed
    ..This indicates that AE1 encodes surface cell-specific aldosterone-regulated Cl/HCO(3) exchange, whereas DRA encodes aldosterone-insensitive Cl/OH exchange...
  30. Muscella A, Marsigliante S, Verri T, Urso L, Dimitri C, Botta G, et al. PKC-epsilon-dependent cytosol-to-membrane translocation of pendrin in rat thyroid PC Cl3 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study demonstrates that, in PC Cl3 cells, pendrin expression and localisation are regulated by insulin and influenced by a PKC-epsilon-dependent intracellular pathway. ..
  31. Jayawardena D, Anbazhagan A, Guzman G, Dudeja P, Onyuksel H. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Nanomedicine for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Mol Pharm. 2017;14:3698-3708 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose VIP-SSM to be developed as a potential therapeutic tool for treating ulcerative colitis, a type of IBD...
  32. Bonnici B, Wagner C. Postnatal expression of transport proteins involved in acid-base transport in mouse kidney. Pflugers Arch. 2004;448:16-28 pubmed
  33. Chao P, Hamilton K. Genistein stimulates electrogenic Cl- secretion via phosphodiesterase modulation in the mouse jejunum. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C688-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, H89 reduced the genistein-stimulated I(sc). Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that genistein activates Cl(-) secretion of the mouse jejunum via inhibition of a PDE3-dependent pathway. ..
  34. Menzikov S, Menzikova O. The molecular weight of Cl-, HCO3(-)-activated Mg(2+)-ATPase of rat brain plasma membranes that is sensitive to GABAA-ergic ligands. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2005;401:170-2 pubmed
  35. Davis B, Hogan E, Russell J, Boron W. ATP dependence of Na+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchange in squid axons. J Membr Biol. 2008;222:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..0 pmol cm(-2 )s(-1)) but increased modestly by 1 mM ADP beta S (J (H) = 16.0 pmol cm(-2 )s(-1)). We suggest that ATP gamma S leads to stable phosphorylation of the transporter or an essential activator. ..
  36. Liedtke C, Furin J, Ernsberger P. Alpha 2-adrenergic, but not imidazole, agonists activate NaCl cotransport in rabbit tracheal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1993;264:C568-76 pubmed
    ..In addition, I1-imidazol(in)e receptors stimulate Na transport in rabbit tracheocytes through an unidentified pathway. ..
  37. Vairamani K, Wang H, Medvedovic M, Lorenz J, Shull G. RNA SEQ Analysis Indicates that the AE3 Cl-/HCO3- Exchanger Contributes to Active Transport-Mediated CO2 Disposal in Heart. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7264 pubmed publisher
  38. Uriarte I, Banales J, Saez E, Arenas F, Oude Elferink R, Prieto J, et al. Bicarbonate secretion of mouse cholangiocytes involves Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport in addition to Na(+)-independent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Hepatology. 2010;51:891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Bicarbonate secretion in mouse cholangiocytes involves two differentially regulated activities: Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-) exchange and Na(+)-HCO(3) (-) cotransport. ..
  39. Zhu B, Miyamoto S, Nagasawa Y, Saitoh M, Komori S, Hashimoto K. Does Cl-/HCO3- exchange play an important role in reperfusion arrhythmias in rats?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;460:43-50 pubmed
  40. Wong P, Kleemann H, Tannock I. Cytostatic potential of novel agents that inhibit the regulation of intracellular pH. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:238-45 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that cariporide and S3705 are selective cytostatic agents under in vitro conditions that reflect the slightly acidic microenvironment found in solid tumours. ..
  41. Hagen S, Morrison S, Law C, Yang D. Restitution of the bullfrog gastric mucosa is dependent on a DIDS-inhibitable pathway not related to HCO3- ion transport. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G596-605 pubmed
  42. Alvaro D, Alpini G, Jezequel A, Bassotti C, Francia C, Fraioli F, et al. Role and mechanisms of action of acetylcholine in the regulation of rat cholangiocyte secretory functions. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:1349-62 pubmed
  43. Phillips K, Petrunewich M, Collins J, Baltz J. The intracellular pH-regulatory HCO3-/Cl- exchanger in the mouse oocyte is inactivated during first meiotic metaphase and reactivated after egg activation via the MAP kinase pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3800-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, suppression of pH-regulatory mechanisms during meiosis is a novel function of MAPK and cytostatic factor activity in the oocyte. ..
  44. Horie S, Yano S, Watanabe K. Effects of drugs acting on Cl(-)-HCO3- and Na(+)-H+ exchangers on acid secretion in the rat gastric mucosa sheet preparation. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992;229:15-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data show that DIDS inhibits stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the secretagogue, but not basal gastric acid secretion. ..
  45. Rossmann H, Jacob P, Baisch S, Hassoun R, Meier J, Natour D, et al. The CFTR associated protein CAP70 interacts with the apical Cl-/HCO3- exchanger DRA in rabbit small intestinal mucosa. Biochemistry. 2005;44:4477-87 pubmed
    ..Its restricted expression shows that it cannot be involved in NaCl absorption in the proximal colon. We suggest that CAP70 mediates regulatory functions specific to the small intestine. ..
  46. Thomas S, Egee S. Fish red blood cells: characteristics and physiological role of the membrane ion transporters. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1998;119:79-86 pubmed
    ..The part played by these ionic conductances is discussed in relation with their possible involvement in volume regulation. ..
  47. Trepiccione F, Soukaseum C, Baudrie V, Kumai Y, Teulon J, Villoutreix B, et al. Acute genetic ablation of pendrin lowers blood pressure in mice. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017;32:1137-1145 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a transgenic mouse model, avoiding off-target effects related to pharmacological compounds, this study suggests that pendrin could be a novel target to treat hypertension. ..
  48. Al Hamad N, Al Eisa A. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:651-5 pubmed
    ..We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. ..
  49. Kong C, Li K, To C. Chloride secretion by porcine ciliary epithelium: New insight into species similarities and differences in aqueous humor formation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:5428-36 pubmed
  50. Raciti D, Reggiani L, Geffers L, Jiang Q, Bacchion F, Subrizi A, et al. Organization of the pronephric kidney revealed by large-scale gene expression mapping. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R84 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study validates the Xenopus pronephros as a genuine model that may be used to elucidate the molecular basis of nephron segmentation and human renal disease. ..
  51. Lai Z, Nishi K. Enhancement of intracellular Cl- concentrations induced by extracellular ATP in guinea pig ventricular muscle. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000;84:438-48 pubmed
  52. Ganz M, Hawkins K, Reilly R. High glucose induces the activity and expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchange in glomerular mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:F91-6 pubmed
    ..72-fold) after prolonged exposure to high glucose. These results suggest that the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, but not Na(+)-dependent Cl(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchanger, may play an early role in the response to hyperglycemia in the diabetic state...
  53. Kosiek O, Busque S, Foller M, Shcheynikov N, Kirchhoff P, Bleich M, et al. SLC26A7 can function as a chloride-loading mechanism in parietal cells. Pflugers Arch. 2007;454:989-98 pubmed
    ..There was no effect of the NKCC inhibitor bumetanide on stimulated H(+) extrusion. These results would be compatible with SLC26A7 as a Cl(-) uptake system under histamine stimulation. ..
  54. Popov M, Reithmeier R. Calnexin interaction with N-glycosylation mutants of a polytopic membrane glycoprotein, the human erythrocyte anion exchanger 1 (band 3). J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17635-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, calnexin was associated with AE1 after release of AE1 from the translocation machinery. ..
  55. Chen Y, Wong T, Lee J. Depigmented genital extramammary Paget's disease: a possible histogenetic link to Toker's clear cells and clear cell papulosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2001;28:105-8 pubmed
    ..Depigmented EMPD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vitiligo, depigmented mycosis fungoides and lichen sclerosus located along the milk line. ..
  56. Simão S, Fraga S, Jose P, Soares da Silva P. Oxidative stress and alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated stimulation of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in immortalized SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1445-55 pubmed publisher
  57. Anguiano B, Garcia Solis P, Delgado G, Aceves Velasco C. Uptake and gene expression with antitumoral doses of iodine in thyroid and mammary gland: evidence that chronic administration has no harmful effects. Thyroid. 2007;17:851-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that I(2) could be considered for use in clinical trials of breast cancer therapies. ..
  58. Capasso G, Rizzo M, Garavaglia M, Trepiccione F, Zacchia M, Mugione A, et al. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension...
  59. Yoon J, Park H, Yoo S, Namkung W, Jo M, Koo S, et al. Heterogeneity in the processing defect of SLC26A4 mutants. J Med Genet. 2008;45:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the processing of pendrin mutant protein is determined by mutant specific mechanisms, and that a mutant specific method would be required to rescue the conformational defects of each folding mutant. ..
  60. Fraga S, Luo Y, Jose P, Zandi Nejad K, Mount D, Soares da Silva P. Dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated inhibition of Cl/HCO3- exchanger activity in rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK 6). Cell Physiol Biochem. 2006;18:347-60 pubmed
    ..Dopamine D1 receptors in IEC-6 rapidly desensitize to D1-like agonist stimulation and GRK 6, but not GRK 4, appear to be involved in agonist-mediated responsiveness and desensitization. ..
  61. Huck V, Niemeyer A, Goerge T, Schnaeker E, Ossig R, Rogge P, et al. Delay of acute intracellular pH recovery after acidosis decreases endothelial cell activation. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:399-409 pubmed
    ..Therefore, delay of acute NHE-dependent pH(in) recovery may represent a promising mechanism for inhibition of EC activation upon reperfusion. ..
  62. Demeter I, Szucs A, Hegyesi O, Foldes A, Racz G, Burghardt B, et al. Vectorial bicarbonate transport by Par-C10 salivary cells. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 7:197-204 pubmed
    ..This cell line offers a good model for further studies to understand the molecular mechanisms of salivary HCO(3)(-) secretion. ..
  63. Nguyen H, Stuart Tilley A, Alper S, Melvin J. Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is acetazolamide sensitive and activated by a muscarinic receptor-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in salivary acinar cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;286:G312-20 pubmed
    ..Moreover, muscarinic receptor stimulation enhanced AE activity through a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. Such forms of regulation may play important roles in modulating fluid and electrolyte secretion by salivary gland acinar cells...
  64. Zhao R, Reithmeier R. Expression and characterization of the anion transporter homologue YNL275w in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C33-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the yeast gene YNL275w encodes a nonglycosylated anion transport protein, localized to the plasma membrane...
  65. Shcheynikov N, Wang Y, Park M, Ko S, Dorwart M, Naruse S, et al. Coupling modes and stoichiometry of Cl-/HCO3- exchange by slc26a3 and slc26a6. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:511-24 pubmed
    ..The significance of isoform-specific Cl- and HCO3- transport stoichiometry by slc26a3 and slc26a6 is discussed in the context of diseases of epithelial Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion. ..
  66. Shahidullah M, To C, Pelis R, Delamere N. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. The authors examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE)...
  67. Yokoyama K, Kudo I, Nakamura H, Inoue K. A possible role for extracellular bicarbonate in U-46619-induced rat platelet aggregation. Thromb Res. 1994;74:369-76 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that HCO3-influx via an anion exchanger may be involved in the signal transduction pathway of U-46619 in rat platelets. ..
  68. Gende O. Thrombin stimulation of Cl-/HCO3- exchange in human platelets. Thromb Res. 2005;116:67-73 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that a Na-independent Cl-/HCO3- exchange mechanism mediates the recovery of pHi from alkalosis in platelets and that thrombin activates this exchanger by a direct regulatory pathway. ..
  69. Faelli A, Orsenigo M, Verri A, Tosco M. Cl/HCO3 antiport affects H-lactate symport activity at the basolateral pole of jejunum enterocyte. Cell Physiol Biochem. 1998;8:151-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore we can hypothesize that Cl/HCO3 antiport facilitates basolateral H-lactate symport in order to carry endogenous lactic acid towards the blood stream. ..
  70. Staley K, Proctor W. Modulation of mammalian dendritic GABA(A) receptor function by the kinetics of Cl- and HCO3- transport. J Physiol. 1999;519 Pt 3:693-712 pubmed
    ..5. Using a standard model of membrane potential, these conditions are demonstrated to be sufficient to produce the experimentally observed, activity-dependent GABA(A) depolarizing response in pyramidal cell dendrites. ..
  71. Wang G, Li C, Kim S, Ring T, Wen J, Djurhuus J, et al. Ureter obstruction alters expression of renal acid-base transport proteins in rat kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F497-506 pubmed publisher
  72. Liu Y, Xu K, Chen L, Sun X, Parker M, Kelly M, et al. Distribution of NBCn2 (SLC4A10) splice variants in mouse brain. Neuroscience. 2010;169:951-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry with anti-ABCD shows that NBCn2 is highly expressed in choroid plexus, cortex, molecular layer of cerebellum, hippocampus, and some specific regions of the brainstem. ..
  73. Alper S, Stewart A, Chernova M, Zolotarev A, Clark J, Vandorpe D. Anion exchangers in flux: functional differences between human and mouse SLC26A6 polypeptides. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;273:107-19; discussion 119-25, 261-4 pubmed
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    ..The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport...
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