Summary: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.

Top Publications

  1. Sá Correia I, dos Santos S, Teixeira M, Cabrito T, Mira N. Drug:H+ antiporters in chemical stress response in yeast. Trends Microbiol. 2009;17:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae drug:H+ antiporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), a group of MDR transporters that is still characterized poorly in ..
  2. Andersen J, Johansen P, Harder S, Christoffersen S, Delgado M, Henriksen S, et al. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7:508-15 pubmed publisher
  3. Tomitori H, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K. Structure and function of polyamine-amino acid antiporters CadB and PotE in Escherichia coli. Amino Acids. 2012;42:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..All the amino acid residues identified as being strongly involved in both the antiport and uptake activities were located on the surface of the transport path consisting of the central cavity and TM12. ..
  4. Manohar M, Shigaki T, Mei H, Park S, Marshall J, Aguilar J, et al. Characterization of Arabidopsis Ca2+/H+ exchanger CAX3. Biochemistry. 2011;50:6189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate shared and unique aspects of CAX1 and CAX3 transport and regulation. ..
  5. Liu T, Aung K, Tseng C, Chang T, Chen Y, Chiou T. Vacuolar Ca2+/H+ transport activity is required for systemic phosphate homeostasis involving shoot-to-root signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1176-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that CAX1 and CAX3 mediate a shoot-derived signal that modulates the activity of the root P(i) transporter system, likely in part via posttranslational regulation of PHT1;1 P(i) transporters. ..
  6. Walsh S, Wollstein A, Liu F, Chakravarthy U, Rahu M, Seland J, et al. DNA-based eye colour prediction across Europe with the IrisPlex system. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2012;6:330-40 pubmed publisher
  7. Punshon T, Hirschi K, Yang J, Lanzirotti A, Lai B, Guerinot M. The role of CAX1 and CAX3 in elemental distribution and abundance in Arabidopsis seed. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights a powerful technology for inferring transport function and quantifying nutrient changes. ..
  8. Pośpiech E, Draus Barini J, Kupiec T, Wojas Pelc A, Branicki W. Prediction of eye color from genetic data using Bayesian approach. J Forensic Sci. 2012;57:880-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Dias P, Seret M, Goffeau A, Correia I, Baret P. Evolution of the 12-spanner drug:H+ antiporter DHA1 family in hemiascomycetous yeasts. OMICS. 2010;14:701-10 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sun L, Rommens J, Corvol H, Li W, Li X, Chiang T, et al. Multiple apical plasma membrane constituents are associated with susceptibility to meconium ileus in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0002; testing of 155 apical membrane genes jointly and in replication, P = 0.022). These findings suggest that modulating activities of apical membrane constituents could complement current therapeutic paradigms for cystic fibrosis. ..
  2. Ziegler C, Bremer E, Kramer R. The BCCT family of carriers: from physiology to crystal structure. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:13-34 pubmed publisher
    ..determinants governing the high-affinity binding of the compatible solutes by BetP and CaiT, the coupling in symporters and antiporters, and the osmoregulatory properties are discussed in detail for BetP and various BCCT carriers.
  3. Cagnac O, Aranda Sicilia M, Leterrier M, Rodriguez Rosales M, Venema K. Vacuolar cation/H+ antiporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative importance of Nhx1p, Vnx1p, and Vcx1p in the vacuolar accumulation of monovalent cations will be discussed. ..
  4. Stockbridge R, Lim H, Otten R, Williams C, Shane T, Weinberg Z, et al. Fluoride resistance and transport by riboswitch-controlled CLC antiporters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15289-94 pubmed
    ..channels and transporters, CLC(F)s bear a channel-like valine rather than a transporter-like glutamate, and yet are F(-)/H(+) antiporters. Finally, F(-)/H(+) exchange occurs with 1:1 stoichiometry, in contrast to the usual value of 2:1.
  5. Gholami K, Muniandy S, Salleh N. In-vivo functional study on the involvement of CFTR, SLC26A6, NHE-1 and CA isoenzymes II and XII in uterine fluid pH, volume and electrolyte regulation in rats under different sex-steroid influence. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:1121-34 pubmed publisher
    ..CFTR, SLC26A6 and CA were involved in mediating parallel increase in the uterine fluid volume, pH and electrolyte concentration under E while NHE and CA were involved in mediating the reduction of these parameters under P. ..
  6. Hart K, Kimura S, Mushailov V, Budimlija Z, Prinz M, Wurmbach E. Improved eye- and skin-color prediction based on 8 SNPs. Croat Med J. 2013;54:248-56 pubmed
    ..We can conclude that the new 8-plex system for the prediction of eye and skin color substantially enhances its former version. ..
  7. Gholami K, Muniandy S, Salleh N. Progesterone downregulates oestrogen-induced expression of CFTR and SLC26A6 proteins and mRNA in rats' uteri. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:596084 pubmed publisher
    ..At diestrus, however, the expression of these transporters' protein and mRNA was reduced. Inhibition of CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions may explain the reduced fluid volume and pH under P-mediated effect. ..
  8. Dawson P, Russell C, Lee S, McLeay S, van Dongen J, Cowley D, et al. Urolithiasis and hepatotoxicity are linked to the anion transporter Sat1 in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Sat1 regulates both oxalate and sulfate homeostasis and may be critical to the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis and hepatotoxicity. ..
  9. Nasie I, Steiner Mordoch S, Gold A, Schuldiner S. Topologically random insertion of EmrE supports a pathway for evolution of inverted repeats in ion-coupled transporters. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:15234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the small multidrug transporters are at an evolutionary junction and provide a model for the evolution of structure of transport proteins. ..
  10. Seppälä S, Slusky J, Lloris Garcerá P, Rapp M, von Heijne G. Control of membrane protein topology by a single C-terminal residue. Science. 2010;328:1698-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation points to an unanticipated plasticity in membrane protein insertion mechanisms. ..
  11. Bozdag G, Uluisik I, Gulculer G, Karakaya H, Koc A. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:748-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast...
  12. Valenzuela R, Henderson M, Walsh M, Garrison N, Kelch J, Cohen Barak O, et al. Predicting phenotype from genotype: normal pigmentation. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual's pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin. ..
  13. Zomot E, Bahar I. Protonation of glutamate 208 induces the release of agmatine in an outward-facing conformation of an arginine/agmatine antiporter. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19693-701 pubmed publisher
  14. Ousingsawat J, Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K. Differential contribution of SLC26A9 to Cl(-) conductance in polarized and non-polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SLC26A9 and CFTR behave differentially in polarized and non-polarized cells, which may explain earlier conflicting data. ..
  15. Pan C, Chen S, Jun H, Lin S, Mansfield B, Chou J. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are phosphate-linked, glucose-6-phosphate antiporters. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23157 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are ER-associated, P(i)-linked antiporters, that can transport G6P...
  16. Conn S, Gilliham M, Athman A, Schreiber A, Baumann U, Moller I, et al. Cell-specific vacuolar calcium storage mediated by CAX1 regulates apoplastic calcium concentration, gas exchange, and plant productivity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:240-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We establish CAX1 as a key regulator of apoplastic [Ca(2+)] through compartmentation into mesophyll vacuoles, a mechanism essential for optimal plant function and productivity. ..
  17. Jayaram H, Robertson J, Wu F, Williams C, Miller C. Structure of a slow CLC Cl?/H+ antiporter from a cyanobacterium. Biochemistry. 2011;50:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..SY thus shares a similar structure and a common transport mechanism to EC, but it is by comparison slow, a result that refutes the idea that the transport mechanism of CLCs leads to intrinsically high rates. ..
  18. Graham D, Olivares Rieumont S, Knapp C, Lima L, Werner D, Bowen E. Antibiotic resistance gene abundances associated with waste discharges to the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:418-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Although explicit links are not shown, results suggest that pollution has increased background AR levels in a setting where other causes of AR are less prevalent. ..
  19. Holdsworth S, Law C. Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:113 pubmed publisher
    In neutralophilic bacteria, monovalent metal cation/H+ antiporters play a key role in pH homeostasis...
  20. Hajnoczky G, Csordás G. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport. Curr Biol. 2010;20:R888-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. ..
  21. Ang K, Ngu M, Reid K, Teh M, Aida Z, Koh D, et al. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42752 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes. ..
  22. Anagnostopoulou P, Riederer B, Duerr J, Michel S, Binia A, Agrawal R, et al. SLC26A9-mediated chloride secretion prevents mucus obstruction in airway inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3629-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that SLC26A9 may serve as a therapeutic target for airway diseases associated with mucus plugging...
  23. Schulze S, Köster S, Geldmacher U, Terwisscha van Scheltinga A, Kuhlbrandt W. Structural basis of Na(+)-independent and cooperative substrate/product antiport in CaiT. Nature. 2010;467:233-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7, indicating that the extracellular site is regulatory. We propose a mechanism whereby the occupied regulatory site increases the binding affinity of the transport site and initiates substrate translocation...
  24. Jiang D, Zhao L, Clish C, Clapham D. Letm1, the mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter, is essential for normal glucose metabolism and alters brain function in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that loss of Letm1 contributes to the pathology of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in humans and may contribute to seizure phenotypes by reducing glucose oxidation and other specific metabolic alterations. ..
  25. Pizzo P, Drago I, Filadi R, Pozzan T. Mitochondrial Ca²? homeostasis: mechanism, role, and tissue specificities. Pflugers Arch. 2012;464:3-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the processes involved in mitochondrial Ca²? handling and its integration in cell physiology, highlighting the main common characteristics as well as key differences, in different tissues. ..
  26. Holdsworth S, Law C. The major facilitator superfamily transporter MdtM contributes to the intrinsic resistance of Escherichia coli to quaternary ammonium compounds. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli to these compounds. ..
  27. Dhaoui M, Auchère F, Blaiseau P, Lesuisse E, Landoulsi A, Camadro J, et al. Gex1 is a yeast glutathione exchanger that interferes with pH and redox homeostasis. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2054-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the imbalance of pH and glutathione homeostasis in the gex1? gex2? and Gex1-overproducing strains led to modulations of the cAMP/protein kinase A and protein kinase C1 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. ..
  28. He Q, Chen H, Wong C, Tsang L, Chan H. Regulatory mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mouse uterine bicarbonate secretion: role of estrogen. Reproduction. 2010;140:903-10 pubmed publisher
  29. Santo Domingo J, Demaurex N. Calcium uptake mechanisms of mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we will review the properties of the Ca2+ import systems of mitochondria and discuss how Ca2+ uptake via an electrogenic 1:1 Ca2+/H+ antiport challenges our current thinking of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanism. ..
  30. Mehta J, Hemadevi B, Vithana E, Arunkumar J, Srinivasan M, Prajna V, et al. Absence of phenotype-genotype correlation of patients expressing mutations in the SLC4A11 gene. Cornea. 2010;29:302-6 pubmed publisher
  31. Riazuddin S, Vithana E, Seet L, Liu Y, Al Saif A, Koh L, et al. Missense mutations in the sodium borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:1261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together with a recent model between FCD and yet another early onset corneal dystrophy, PPCD, our data suggest a shared pathomechanism and genetic overlap across several corneal dystrophies. ..
  32. Feng L, Campbell E, Hsiung Y, MacKinnon R. Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle. Science. 2010;330:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl(-)/H(+) exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters. ..
  33. Manohar M, Shigaki T, Hirschi K. Plant cation/H+ exchangers (CAXs): biological functions and genetic manipulations. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2011;13:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the uptake of cations and their redistribution must be precisely controlled. Vacuolar antiporters are important elements in mediating the intracellular sequestration of these cations...
  34. Abdulnour Nakhoul S, Nakhoul H, Kalliny M, Gyftopoulos A, Rabon E, Doetjes R, et al. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined...
  35. Barbier Brygoo H, De Angeli A, Filleur S, Frachisse J, Gambale F, Thomine S, et al. Anion channels/transporters in plants: from molecular bases to regulatory networks. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2011;62:25-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Key questions arising from the increasing complexity of networks controlling anion transport in plant cells (the existence of redundancy, cross talk, and coordination between various pathways and compartments) are also addressed. ..
  36. Pittman J. Vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake. Cell Calcium. 2011;50:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies suggest that Ca(2+) uptake into vacuoles and other related acidic Ca(2+) stores occurs by conserved mechanisms which developed early in evolution. ..
  37. Avella M, Loriol C, Boulukos K, Borgese F, Ehrenfeld J. SLC26A9 stimulates CFTR expression and function in human bronchial cell lines. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:212-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose as an alternative hypothesis (not exclusive) to the known SLC26A9-STAS domain/CFTR interaction, that SLC26A9 favors the biogenesis and/or stabilization of CFTR, leading to stimulated currents. ..
  38. Accardi A, Picollo A. CLC channels and transporters: proteins with borderline personalities. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:1457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the recent mechanistic insights on the how the structural similarities between CLC channels and transporters translate in unexpected mechanistic analogies between these two sub-classes. ..
  39. Lim H, Shane T, Miller C. Intracellular proton access in a Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001441 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins of the CLC family appear in two distinct mechanistic flavors: H(+)-gated Cl(-) channels and Cl(-)/H(+) antiporters. Transmembrane H(+) movement is an essential feature of both types of CLC...
  40. Rotmann A, Sanchez C, Guiguemde A, Rohrbach P, Dave A, Bakouh N, et al. PfCHA is a mitochondrial divalent cation/H+ antiporter in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1591-606 pubmed publisher
  41. Akua T, Berezin I, Shaul O. The leader intron of AtMHX can elicit, in the absence of splicing, low-level intron-mediated enhancement that depends on the internal intron sequence. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, it is shown that the internal intron sequence plays a significant role in mediating the low-level enhancement of unspliced introns. ..
  42. Beleza S, Santos A, McEvoy B, Alves I, Martinho C, Cameron E, et al. The timing of pigmentation lightening in Europeans. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:24-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these patterns were influenced by recent increases in size of human populations, which favored the accumulation of advantageous variants at different loci. ..
  43. Migocka M, Papierniak A, Kosatka E, Klobus G. Comparative study of the active cadmium efflux systems operating at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of cucumber root cells. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:4903-16 pubmed publisher
  44. Feng L, Campbell E, MacKinnon R. Molecular mechanism of proton transport in CLC Cl-/H+ exchange transporters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11699-704 pubmed publisher
  45. Shigaki T, Mei H, Marshall J, Li X, Manohar M, Hirschi K. The expression of the open reading frame of Arabidopsis CAX1, but not its cDNA, confers metal tolerance in yeast. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2010;12:935-9 pubmed
    ..Expression studies demonstrated that expressing the CAX1 ORF in yeast elevates CAX1 RNA and protein levels. Our results suggest that the 3?-UTR modulates expression of CAX1 in yeast. ..
  46. Paliwal P, Sharma A, Tandon R, Sharma N, Titiyal J, Sen S, et al. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy - mutation analysis of SLC4A11 and genotype-phenotype correlation in a North Indian patient cohort. Mol Vis. 2010;16:2955-63 pubmed
    ..The present study detected one novel and three reported changes, adding to the repertoire of mutations in SLC4A11, and recorded a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in CHED2. ..
  47. Quillen E, Bauchet M, Bigham A, Delgado Burbano M, Faust F, Klimentidis Y, et al. OPRM1 and EGFR contribute to skin pigmentation differences between Indigenous Americans and Europeans. Hum Genet. 2012;131:1073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, genes previously associated with European/non-European differences in skin pigmentation, OPRM1 and EGFR were associated with variation in skin pigmentation in New World populations for the first time. ..
  48. Salcedo Sora J, Ward S, Biagini G. A yeast expression system for functional and pharmacological studies of the malaria parasite Ca²?/H? antiporter. Malar J. 2012;11:254 pubmed publisher
  49. Tsetskhladze Z, Canfield V, Ang K, Wentzel S, Reid K, Berg A, et al. Functional assessment of human coding mutations affecting skin pigmentation using zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47398 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed approach may be extended to other model systems and may potentially contribute to our understanding the functional relationships between DNA sequence variation, human biology, and disease. ..
  50. Phillips S, Brammer A, Rodriguez L, Lim H, Stary Weinzinger A, Matulef K. Surprises from an unusual CLC homolog. Biophys J. 2012;103:L44-6 pubmed publisher (CLC) family is distinctive in that some members are Cl(-) ion channels and others are Cl(-)/H(+) antiporters. The molecular mechanism that couples H(+) and Cl(-) transport in the antiporters remains unknown...
  51. Vilas G, Morgan P, Loganathan S, Quon A, Casey J. A biochemical framework for SLC4A11, the plasma membrane protein defective in corneal dystrophies. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2157-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease-causing SLC4A11 mutants are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of HEK 293 cells. This phenotype could be partially rescued in some cases by growing the cells at 30 °C. ..
  52. Miranda K, Pace D, Cintron R, Rodrigues J, Fang J, Smith A, et al. Characterization of a novel organelle in Toxoplasma gondii with similar composition and function to the plant vacuole. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1358-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on the characterization of this novel organelle will be relevant to the identification of novel targets for chemotherapy against T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites as well. ..
  53. Holdsworth S, Law C. Functional and biochemical characterisation of the Escherichia coli major facilitator superfamily multidrug transporter MdtM. Biochimie. 2012;94:1334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a firm foundation for structural studies on this class of multidrug transporter protein. ..
  54. Hemadevi B, Srinivasan M, Arunkumar J, Prajna N, Sundaresan P. Genetic analysis of patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy in India. BMC Ophthalmol. 2010;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that COL8A2, SLC4A11 genes may not be responsible for FECD in patients examined in this study. ..