phosphate transport proteins


Summary: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.

Top Publications

  1. Fong H, Foster B, Sarikaya M, Somerman M. Structure and mechanical properties of Ank/Ank mutant mouse dental tissues--an animal model for studying periodontal regeneration. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:570-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that this animal model can be utilized for studies focused on defining mechanisms to promote cementum formation without loss of mechanical integrity. ..
  2. Prosdocimo D, Wyler S, ROMANI A, O Neill W, Dubyak G. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by extracellular pyrophosphate homeostasis: synergistic modulation by cyclic AMP and hyperphosphatemia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C702-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support a model in which extracellular PP(i) generation mediated by both ANK- and ATP release-dependent mechanisms serves as a critical regulator of VSMC calcification...
  3. Liu F, Chang X, Ye Y, Xie W, Wu P, Lian X. Comprehensive sequence and whole-life-cycle expression profile analysis of the phosphate transporter gene family in rice. Mol Plant. 2011;4:1105-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will be useful for elucidating the roles of these genes in the growth, development, and stress response of the rice plant. ..
  4. Karthikeyan A, Ballachanda D, Raghothama K. Promoter deletion analysis elucidates the role of cis elements and 5'UTR intron in spatiotemporal regulation of AtPht1;4 expression in Arabidopsis. Physiol Plant. 2009;136:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, expression of AtPht1;4 in aerial parts of the plant was not influenced by the intron. Together these results suggest that expression of AtPht1;4 in the roots and aerial parts is regulated by independent mechanisms. ..
  5. Netter P, Bardin T, Bianchi A, Richette P, Loeuille D. The ANKH gene and familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. Joint Bone Spine. 2004;71:365-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies show that growth factors and cytokines can modify the expression of the normal ANKH protein. These results suggest a role for ANKH in sporadic CPPD disease and in CPPD associated with degenerative disease...
  6. Paszkowski U, Kroken S, Roux C, Briggs S. Rice phosphate transporters include an evolutionarily divergent gene specifically activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13324-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, although cytological and physiological features of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seem to be conserved, the molecular components may differ significantly between distantly related plant species. ..
  7. Karthikeyan A, Varadarajan D, Mukatira U, D Urzo M, Damsz B, Raghothama K. Regulated expression of Arabidopsis phosphate transporters. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:221-33 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that members of the Pi transporter family may have similar but nonredundant functions in plants. ..
  8. Lei M, Zhu C, Liu Y, Karthikeyan A, Bressan R, Raghothama K, et al. Ethylene signalling is involved in regulation of phosphate starvation-induced gene expression and production of acid phosphatases and anthocyanin in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2011;189:1084-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the roles of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation and will help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying these responses. ..
  9. Rausch C, Daram P, Brunner S, Jansa J, Laloi M, Leggewie G, et al. A phosphate transporter expressed in arbuscule-containing cells in potato. Nature. 2001;414:462-70 pubmed
    ..A sequence motif in the StPT3 promoter is similar to transposon-like elements, suggesting that the mutualistic symbiosis evolved by genetic rearrangements in the StPT3 promoter. ..

More Information


  1. Cailotto F, Sebillaud S, Netter P, Jouzeau J, Bianchi A. The inorganic pyrophosphate transporter ANK preserves the differentiated phenotype of articular chondrocyte. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:10572-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our data demonstrate that the transport of PP(i) by ANK contributed to the maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of chondrocyte by controlling the canonical Wnt pathway in a Wnt-5a-dependent manner. ..
  2. Bayle V, Arrighi J, Creff A, Nespoulous C, Vialaret J, Rossignol M, et al. Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity phosphate transporters exhibit multiple levels of posttranslational regulation. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for differential trafficking of PHT1 to the plasma membrane or vacuole as a function of phosphate concentration. ..
  3. Timms A, Zhang Y, Bradbury L, Wordsworth B, Brown M. Investigation of the role of ANKH in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2898-902 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that ANKH is not significantly involved in susceptibility to or clinical manifestations of AS. ..
  4. Hirose J, Ryan L, Masuda I. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:3218-29 pubmed
  5. Nagy R, Drissner D, Amrhein N, Jakobsen I, Bucher M. Mycorrhizal phosphate uptake pathway in tomato is phosphorus-repressible and transcriptionally regulated. New Phytol. 2009;181:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the mycorrhizal Pi uptake pathway is controlled at least partially by the plant host. This control involves components in common ..
  6. Chen A, Hu J, Sun S, Xu G. Conservation and divergence of both phosphate- and mycorrhiza-regulated physiological responses and expression patterns of phosphate transporters in solanaceous species. New Phytol. 2007;173:817-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The discrepancies between the evolutionary distances of the PiT genes and their expression patterns among the five species suggest greater complexity in function of PiT in plants than previously expected...
  7. Sánchez Calderón L, López Bucio J, Chacón López A, Cruz Ramírez A, Nieto Jacobo F, Dubrovsky J, et al. Phosphate starvation induces a determinate developmental program in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:174-84 pubmed
  8. Abhishek A, Doherty M. Pathophysiology of articular chondrocalcinosis--role of ANKH. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Cartilage factors predisposing to CPPD and CPP-crystal-induced inflammation and current treatment options for the management of CPPD are also described...
  9. Munoz Martín M, Mateo P, Leganés F, Fernández Piñas F. Novel cyanobacterial bioreporters of phosphorus bioavailability based on alkaline phosphatase and phosphate transporter genes of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:3573-84 pubmed publisher
    ..PST appeared to be more adequate for the samples with the lowest P load while A. AP-L gave similar or even higher values of P concentrations than those chemically measured in samples with higher P load...
  10. Guo B, Jin Y, Wussler C, Blancaflor E, Motes C, Versaw W. Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis PHT4 family of intracellular phosphate transporters. New Phytol. 2008;177:889-98 pubmed
    ..These expression patterns, together with Pi transport activities and subcellular locations, suggest roles for PHT4 proteins in the transport of Pi between the cytosol and chloroplasts, heterotrophic plastids and the Golgi apparatus. ..
  11. Cecil D, Rose D, Terkeltaub R, Liu Bryan R. Role of interleukin-8 in PiT-1 expression and CXCR1-mediated inorganic phosphate uptake in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:144-54 pubmed
    ..Our results link low-grade IL-8-mediated cartilaginous inflammation in OA to altered chondrocyte differentiation and disease progression through PiT-1 expression and sodium-dependent Pi uptake mediated by CXCR1 signaling. ..
  12. Burow L, Mabbett A, McEwan A, Bond P, Blackall L. Bioenergetic models for acetate and phosphate transport in bacteria important in enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of a high-velocity Pst system in Accumulibacter spp. may further explain its ability to compete strongly in EBPR...
  13. Hamel P, Saint Georges Y, de Pinto B, Lachacinski N, Altamura N, Dujardin G. Redundancy in the function of mitochondrial phosphate transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:307-17 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Pic2p is a mitochondrial protein and that its steady state level increases at high temperature. We propose that Pic2p is a minor form of mPic which plays a role under specific stress conditions. ..
  14. Gurley K, Chen H, Guenther C, Nguyen E, Rountree R, Schoor M, et al. Mineral formation in joints caused by complete or joint-specific loss of ANK function. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1238-47 pubmed
    ..These studies show that ANK function is required locally in joints to inhibit mineral formation and that the Ank gene plays a key role in postnatal maintenance of joint mobility and function. ..
  15. Maeda D, Ashida K, Iguchi K, Chechetka S, Hijikata A, Okusako Y, et al. Knockdown of an arbuscular mycorrhiza-inducible phosphate transporter gene of Lotus japonicus suppresses mutualistic symbiosis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:807-17 pubmed publisher
  16. Gordon Weeks R, Tong Y, Davies T, Leggewie G. Restricted spatial expression of a high-affinity phosphate transporter in potato roots. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3135-44 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence of polar plasma membrane localisation of a plant nutrient transporter and is consistent with a role for StPT2 in phosphate capture and uptake. ..
  17. Yadav V, Kumar M, Deep D, Kumar H, Sharma R, Tripathi T, et al. A phosphate transporter from the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica plays a role in phosphate transport to the host plant. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26532-44 pubmed publisher
    ..indica. These observations suggest that PiPT is actively involved in the phosphate transportation and, in turn, P. indica helps improve the nutritional status of the host plant. ..
  18. Rausch C, Zimmermann P, Amrhein N, Bucher M. Expression analysis suggests novel roles for the plastidic phosphate transporter Pht2;1 in auto- and heterotrophic tissues in potato and Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2004;39:13-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data give clues about the possible biological function of Pht2;1 and shed light on the complex web of interactions in which Pht2;1 could play a role...
  19. Wang J, Tsui H, Beier F, Tsui F. The CPPDD-associated ANKH M48T mutation interrupts the interaction of ANKH with the sodium/phosphate cotransporter PiT-1. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that there is a coordinated interrelationship between 2 key participants of Pi and PPi metabolism, ANKH and PiT-1. ..
  20. Qin L, Guo Y, Chen L, Liang R, Gu M, Xu G, et al. Functional characterization of 14 Pht1 family genes in yeast and their expressions in response to nutrient starvation in soybean. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47726 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Pht1 family genes have been well studied in model plants, little is known about their functions in soybean, an important legume crop worldwide...
  21. Chapin L, Jones M. Ethylene regulates phosphorus remobilization and expression of a phosphate transporter (PhPT1) during petunia corolla senescence. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:2179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..PhPT1 is a putative phosphate transporter that may function in Pi translocation during senescence...
  22. Yang S, Grønlund M, Jakobsen I, Grotemeyer M, Rentsch D, Miyao A, et al. Nonredundant regulation of rice arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by two members of the phosphate transporter1 gene family. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, our results demonstrate that mycorrhizal rice depends on the AM symbiosis to satisfy its Pi demands, which is mediated by a single functional Pi transporter, PT11. ..
  23. Hamburger D, Rezzonico E, MacDonald Comber Petétot J, Somerville C, Poirier Y. Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis PHO1 gene involved in phosphate loading to the xylem. Plant Cell. 2002;14:889-902 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis genome contains 10 additional genes showing homology with PHO1. Thus, PHO1 defines a novel class of proteins involved in ion transport in plants. ..
  24. Versaw W, Harrison M. A chloroplast phosphate transporter, PHT2;1, influences allocation of phosphate within the plant and phosphate-starvation responses. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1751-66 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the mutant reveals that PHT2;1 activity affects Pi allocation within the plant and modulates Pi-starvation responses, including the expression of Pi-starvation response genes and the translocation of Pi within leaves. ..
  25. Williams C, Zhang Y, Timms A, Bonavita G, Caeiro F, Broxholme J, et al. Autosomal dominant familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease is caused by mutation in the transmembrane protein ANKH. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:985-91 pubmed
    ..ANKH encodes a putative transmembrane inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) transport channel. We postulate that loss of function of ANKH causes elevated extracellular PPi levels, predisposing to CPPD crystal deposition...
  26. Chung C, Hwang S, Chang J. Identification of a high-affinity phosphate transporter gene in a prasinophyte alga, Tetraselmis chui, and its expression under nutrient limitation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:754-9 pubmed
    ..25 to 0.28 fmol micro g of total RNA(-1)) under low-nitrate conditions. The expression pattern suggests that TcPHO can be used as a molecular probe for monitoring phosphorus stress in T. chui. ..
  27. Tsui F, Tsui H, Cheng E, Stone M, Payne U, Reveille J, et al. Novel genetic markers in the 5'-flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:791-7 pubmed
    ..03; for ANKH-TR allele 7, P = 0.04). Our results indicate that ANKH-OR and ANKH-TR are novel genetic markers that are significantly associated with AS. ..
  28. Harmey D, Hessle L, Narisawa S, Johnson K, Terkeltaub R, Millan J. Concerted regulation of inorganic pyrophosphate and osteopontin by akp2, enpp1, and ank: an integrated model of the pathogenesis of mineralization disorders. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1199-209 pubmed
    ..The hypomineralization observed in Akp2(-/-) mice arises from the combined inhibitory effects of PP(i) and OPN. In contrast, NPP1 or ANK deficiencies cause a decrease in the PP(i) and OPN pools that leads to hypermineralization...
  29. Mann B, Bowman B, Grotelueschen J, Metzenberg R. Nucleotide sequence of pho-4+, encoding a phosphate-repressible phosphate permease of Neurospora crassa. Gene. 1989;83:281-9 pubmed
    ..Since very few permease-encoding genes of eukaryotes have been examined in molecular detail, it will be of interest to compare the sequence of pho-4+ with those encoding other anion transport proteins, as they become available...
  30. Qin L, Zhao J, Tian J, Chen L, Sun Z, Guo Y, et al. The high-affinity phosphate transporter GmPT5 regulates phosphate transport to nodules and nodulation in soybean. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1634-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the high-affinity Pi transporter, GmPT5, controls Pi entry from roots to nodules, is critical for maintaining Pi homeostasis in nodules, and subsequently regulates soybean nodulation and growth performance...
  31. Ho A, Johnson M, Kingsley D. Role of the mouse ank gene in control of tissue calcification and arthritis. Science. 2000;289:265-70 pubmed
    ..These results identify ANK-mediated control of pyrophosphate levels as a possible mechanism regulating tissue calcification and susceptibility to arthritis in higher animals. ..
  32. Wu Z, Zhao J, Gao R, Hu G, Gai J, Xu G, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two members of the Pht1 family of phosphate transporters in Glycine max. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19752 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, the two phosphate transporters can perform translocation of phosphate within the plant. ..
  33. Varadarajan D, Karthikeyan A, Matilda P, Raghothama K. Phosphite, an analog of phosphate, suppresses the coordinated expression of genes under phosphate starvation. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:1232-40 pubmed
    ..Synchronized suppression of multiple Pi starvation-induced genes by Phi points to its action on the early molecular events, probably signal transduction, in Pi starvation response...
  34. Prie D, Urena Torres P, Friedlander G. Latest findings in phosphate homeostasis. Kidney Int. 2009;75:882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe the role played by the FGF23-klotho axis in phosphate homeostasis and its involvement in the pathophysiology of phosphate disturbances in chronic kidney disease. ..
  35. Nociti F, Berry J, Foster B, Gurley K, Kingsley D, Takata T, et al. Cementum: a phosphate-sensitive tissue. J Dent Res. 2002;81:817-21 pubmed
    ..This information may prove valuable in attempts to design successful therapies for regenerating periodontal tissues...
  36. Leung A, Varanyuwatana P, Halestrap A. The mitochondrial phosphate carrier interacts with cyclophilin D and may play a key role in the permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..An interaction of the PiC with the ANT may enable agents that bind to either transporter to modulate pore opening...
  37. Stefanovic A, Ribot C, Rouached H, Wang Y, Chong J, Belbahri L, et al. Members of the PHO1 gene family show limited functional redundancy in phosphate transfer to the shoot, and are regulated by phosphate deficiency via distinct pathways. Plant J. 2007;50:982-94 pubmed
  38. Bucher M. Functional biology of plant phosphate uptake at root and mycorrhiza interfaces. New Phytol. 2007;173:11-26 pubmed
    ..Whether engineering of P transport systems can contribute to enhanced P uptake will be discussed. ..
  39. Misson J, Thibaud M, Bechtold N, Raghothama K, Nussaume L. Transcriptional regulation and functional properties of Arabidopsis Pht1;4, a high affinity transporter contributing greatly to phosphate uptake in phosphate deprived plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:727-41 pubmed
    ..The work described here offers a first step in the complex genetic dissection of the phosphate transport system in planta. ..
  40. Karandashov V, Bucher M. Symbiotic phosphate transport in arbuscular mycorrhizas. Trends Plant Sci. 2005;10:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because phosphate transport is a key feature of this symbiosis, the study of phosphate transport mechanisms and their gene regulation will further our understanding of the intimate interaction between the two symbiotic partners...
  41. Williams C, Pendleton A, Bonavita G, Reginato A, Hughes A, Peariso S, et al. Mutations in the amino terminus of ANKH in two US families with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2627-31 pubmed
  42. Roth C, Menzel G, Petetot J, Rochat Hacker S, Poirier Y. Characterization of a protein of the plastid inner envelope having homology to animal inorganic phosphate, chloride and organic-anion transporters. Planta. 2004;218:406-16 pubmed
    ..ANTR2 thus represent a novel protein of the plastid inner envelope that is likely to be involved in anion transport. ..
  43. Nagy R, Karandashov V, Chague V, Kalinkevich K, Tamasloukht M, Xu G, et al. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species. Plant J. 2005;42:236-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock out of LePT4 in the tomato cv. MicroTom indicated considerable redundancy between LePT4 and other Pi transporters in tomato...
  44. Zaka R, Williams C. Role of the progressive ankylosis gene in cartilage mineralization. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006;18:181-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work on the role of ANK in physiological and pathological calcification of articular and growth plate cartilage...
  45. Glassop D, Smith S, Smith F. Cereal phosphate transporters associated with the mycorrhizal pathway of phosphate uptake into roots. Planta. 2005;222:688-98 pubmed
    ..Operation of mycorrhiza-inducible P transporters in the AM P uptake pathway appears, at least partially, to replace uptake via different P transporters located in root epidermis and root hairs. ..
  46. Gurley K, Reimer R, Kingsley D. Biochemical and genetic analysis of ANK in arthritis and bone disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:1017-29 pubmed
    ..The combination of biochemical and genetic analyses presented here provides insight into how mutations in ANKH cause human skeletal disease. ..
  47. Webb D, Rosenberg H, Cox G. Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli phosphate-specific transport system, a member of the traffic ATPase (or ABC) family of membrane transporters. A role for proline residues in transmembrane helices. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24661-8 pubmed
    ..The double mutation in the PstA protein resulted in a permanently "closed" system, whereas the double mutation in the PstC protein resulted in a permanently "open" transport system...
  48. Karandashov V, Nagy R, Wegmüller S, Amrhein N, Bucher M. Evolutionary conservation of a phosphate transporter in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6285-90 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the role of different symbiotic structures in phosphorus transfer, and they indicate that cell-cell contact between the symbiotic partners is required to induce phosphate transport. ..
  49. Loth Pereda V, Orsini E, Courty P, Lota F, Kohler A, Diss L, et al. Structure and expression profile of the phosphate Pht1 transporter gene family in mycorrhizal Populus trichocarpa. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, poplar has developed an alternative Pi uptake pathway distinct from AM plants, allowing ectomycorrhizal poplar to recruit PtPT9 and PtPT12 to cope with limiting Pi concentrations in forest soils. ..
  50. Jia H, Ren H, Gu M, Zhao J, Sun S, Zhang X, et al. The phosphate transporter gene OsPht1;8 is involved in phosphate homeostasis in rice. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that OsPT8 is involved in Pi homeostasis in rice and is critical for plant growth and development. ..
  51. Preuss C, Huang C, Tyerman S. Proton-coupled high-affinity phosphate transport revealed from heterologous characterization in Xenopus of barley-root plasma membrane transporter, HvPHT1;1. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrophysiological properties, plasma membrane localization and cell-specific expression pattern of HvPHT1;1 support its role in the uptake of P(i) under low P(i) conditions. ..
  52. Terkeltaub R. Inorganic pyrophosphate generation and disposition in pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C1-C11 pubmed
  53. Kobae Y, Hata S. Dynamics of periarbuscular membranes visualized with a fluorescent phosphate transporter in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of rice. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:341-53 pubmed publisher
    ..5-5.5 h. The collapse of arbuscules occurred in the subsequent several days. Thus, our device has a great advantage for investigation of dynamic features of AM symbiosis. ..
  54. Secco D, Baumann A, Poirier Y. Characterization of the rice PHO1 gene family reveals a key role for OsPHO1;2 in phosphate homeostasis and the evolution of a distinct clade in dicotyledons. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of PHO1 homologs in monocotyledons and dicotyledons revealed the emergence of a distinct clade of PHO1 genes in dicotyledons, which include members having roles other than long-distance Pi transport. ..
  55. Wykoff D, Rizvi A, Raser J, Margolin B, O Shea E. Positive feedback regulates switching of phosphate transporters in S. cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2007;27:1005-13 pubmed
    ..In wild-type cells, population heterogeneity generated by feedback loops may provide a strategy for anticipating changes in environmental phosphate levels. ..
  56. Zaka R, Stokes D, Dion A, Kusnierz A, Han F, Williams C. P5L mutation in Ank results in an increase in extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate during proliferation and nonmineralizing hypertrophy in stably transduced ATDC5 cells. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R164 pubmed
  57. Williams C. Familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease and the ANKH gene. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003;15:326-31 pubmed
    ..A discussion of ANKH as the familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease gene is presented...
  58. Catarecha P, Segura M, Franco Zorrilla J, García Ponce B, Lanza M, Solano R, et al. A mutant of the Arabidopsis phosphate transporter PHT1;1 displays enhanced arsenic accumulation. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1123-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the repression effect of As(V) on Pi starvation responses may reflect a regulatory mechanism to protect plants from the extreme toxicity of arsenic. ..
  59. Xiao K, Liu J, Dewbre G, Harrison M, Wang Z. Isolation and characterization of root-specific phosphate transporter promoters from Medicago trunatula. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2006;8:439-49 pubmed
    ..Promoter deletion analyses revealed possible sequences involved in root specificity and Pi responsiveness. The promoters are valuable tools for defined engineering of plants, particularly for root-specific expression of transgenes. ..
  60. Xu G, Chague V, Melamed Bessudo C, Kapulnik Y, Jain A, Raghothama K, et al. Functional characterization of LePT4: a phosphate transporter in tomato with mycorrhiza-enhanced expression. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:2491-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of the mycorrhiza-associated Pi transporter lept4 mutant, along with expression analysis of LePT3, provides evidence for the different routes of mycorrhiza-mediated Pi uptake in plants...
  61. Peach C, Zhang Y, Dunford J, Brown M, Carr A. Cuff tear arthropathy: evidence of functional variation in pyrophosphate metabolism genes. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;462:67-72 pubmed
    ..This supports a theory that genetic variants predispose patients to primary crystal deposition which when combined with a massive rotator cuff tear leads to the development of arthritis. ..
  62. Ai P, Sun S, Zhao J, Fan X, Xin W, Guo Q, et al. Two rice phosphate transporters, OsPht1;2 and OsPht1;6, have different functions and kinetic properties in uptake and translocation. Plant J. 2009;57:798-809 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest OsPT6 plays a broad role in Pi uptake and translocation throughout the plant, whereas OsPT2 is a low-affinity Pi transporter, and functions in translocation of the stored Pi in the plant. ..
  63. Nagy R, Vasconcelos M, Zhao S, McElver J, Bruce W, Amrhein N, et al. Differential regulation of five Pht1 phosphate transporters from maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2006;8:186-97 pubmed
  64. Liu J, Versaw W, Pumplin N, Gomez S, Blaylock L, Harrison M. Closely related members of the Medicago truncatula PHT1 phosphate transporter gene family encode phosphate transporters with distinct biochemical activities. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide the first clues as to amino acid residues that impact transport activity of plant Pi transporter proteins. ..
  65. Nurnberg P, Thiele H, Chandler D, Hohne W, Cunningham M, Ritter H, et al. Heterozygous mutations in ANKH, the human ortholog of the mouse progressive ankylosis gene, result in craniometaphyseal dysplasia. Nat Genet. 2001;28:37-41 pubmed
    ..The mutations occur at highly conserved amino acid residues presumed to be located in the cytosolic portion of the protein. Our results link the PPi channel ANK with bone formation and remodeling. ..
  66. Harrison M, Dewbre G, Liu J. A phosphate transporter from Medicago truncatula involved in the acquisition of phosphate released by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Cell. 2002;14:2413-29 pubmed
    ..The transport properties and spatial expression patterns of MtPT4 are consistent with a role in the acquisition of phosphate released by the fungus in the AM symbiosis...
  67. Zhang Y, Johnson K, Russell R, Wordsworth B, Carr A, Terkeltaub R, et al. Association of sporadic chondrocalcinosis with a -4-basepair G-to-A transition in the 5'-untranslated region of ANKH that promotes enhanced expression of ANKH protein and excess generation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:1110-7 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the potential for ANKH sequence variants to promote sporadic chondrocalcinosis...
  68. Schünmann P, Richardson A, Smith F, Delhaize E. Characterization of promoter expression patterns derived from the Pht1 phosphate transporter genes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Exp Bot. 2004;55:855-65 pubmed
    ..The promoters also have application for providing a new resource for cereal transformation, ideally suited for driving the expression of foreign genes associated with nutrient uptake. ..
  69. Tamura Y, Kobae Y, Mizuno T, Hata S. Identification and expression analysis of arbuscular mycorrhiza-inducible phosphate transporter genes of soybean. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:309-13 pubmed
  70. Mudge S, Rae A, Diatloff E, Smith F. Expression analysis suggests novel roles for members of the Pht1 family of phosphate transporters in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;31:341-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this gene family plays a wider role in phosphate uptake and remobilisation throughout the plant than was previously believed. ..
  71. Rae A, Cybinski D, Jarmey J, Smith F. Characterization of two phosphate transporters from barley; evidence for diverse function and kinetic properties among members of the Pht1 family. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;53:27-36 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that HORvu;Pht1;1 functions in uptake of phosphate at the root surface, while HORvu;Pht1;6 probably functions in remobilization of stored phosphate from leaves. ..
  72. Nagarajan V, Jain A, Poling M, Lewis A, Raghothama K, Smith A. Arabidopsis Pht1;5 mobilizes phosphate between source and sink organs and influences the interaction between phosphate homeostasis and ethylene signaling. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1149-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also provides evidence for a link between Pi and ethylene signaling pathways. ..
  73. Reichenberger E, Tiziani V, Watanabe S, Park L, Ueki Y, Santanna C, et al. Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the transmembrane protein ANK. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:1321-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the mutated protein has a dominant negative effect on the function of ANK, since reduced levels of pyrophosphate in bone matrix are known to increase mineralization. ..
  74. Preuss C, Huang C, Gilliham M, Tyerman S. Channel-like characteristics of the low-affinity barley phosphate transporter PHT1;6 when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrophysiological properties of HvPHT1;6, which locates to the plasma membrane when expressed in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, are consistent with its suggested role in the remobilization of P(i) in barley plants. ..
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    ..We believe this new mouse model will facilitate studies of skeletal abnormalities in CMD at cellular and molecular levels. ..
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    ..Assignment of candidate rice orthologs to Arabidopsis genes is possible in many cases. The rice genome sequence provides a foundation for the improvement of cereals, our most important crops. ..
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    ..These data show that TGF-beta1 increases ePPi levels, mainly by the induction of the Ank gene, which requires activation of Ras, Raf-1, ERK, and Ca2+-dependent PKC pathways in chondrocytes. ..
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    ..Thus, linked regulatory effects on extracellular PP(i) and OPN expression mediate the ability of PC-1 and ANK to regulate calcification. ..