dicarboxylic acid transporters


Summary: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.

Top Publications

  1. Janausch I, Zientz E, Tran Q, Kroger A, Unden G. C4-dicarboxylate carriers and sensors in bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1553:39-56 pubmed
    ..In DcuS the periplasmic domain seems to be essential for direct interaction with the C4-dicarboxylates. In signal perception by DctB, interaction of the C4-dicarboxylates with DctB and the DctA carrier plays an important role. ..
  2. Srisawang P, Chatsudthipong A, Chatsudthipong V. Modulation of succinate transport in Hep G2 cell line by PKC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:1378-88 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Hep G2 cells provide a useful model for studies of di- and tricarboxylate regulation of human liver. ..
  3. Davies S, Golby P, Omrani D, Broad S, Harrington V, Guest J, et al. Inactivation and regulation of the aerobic C(4)-dicarboxylate transport (dctA) gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5624-35 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase-mediated primer extension indicated a single transcriptional start site centered 81 bp downstream of a strongly predicted CRP-binding site. ..
  4. Witan J, Bauer J, Wittig I, Steinmetz P, Erker W, Unden G. Interaction of the Escherichia coli transporter DctA with the sensor kinase DcuS: presence of functional DctA/DcuS sensor units. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:846-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In DcuS, deletion and mutation of the cytoplasmic PAS(C) domain affected the interaction between DctA and DcuS. It is concluded that DctA forms a functional unit or sensor complex with DcuS through specific interaction sites. ..
  5. Breljak D, Ljubojevic M, Balen D, Zlender V, Brzica H, Micek V, et al. Renal expression of organic anion transporter Oat5 in rats and mice exhibits the female-dominant sex differences. Histol Histopathol. 2010;25:1385-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the renal expression of Oat5 in rats (and mice) exhibits zonal (CO<OS) and sex differences (M<F), which appear after puberty, largely due to androgen-driven downregulation of its mRNA and protein expression. ..
  6. Scheu P, Kim O, Griesinger C, Unden G. Sensing by the membrane-bound sensor kinase DcuS: exogenous versus endogenous sensing of C(4)-dicarboxylates in bacteria. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1383-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, DcuS senses C(4)-dicarboxylates in two independent modes, responding to the effector concentration and the metabolic flux of extracellular C(4)-dicarboxylates. ..
  7. Neretti N, Wang P, Brodsky A, Nyguyen H, White K, Rogina B, et al. Long-lived Indy induces reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, one potential mechanism by which Indy mutants extend life span could be through an alteration in mitochondrial physiology leading to an increased efficiency in the ATP/ROS ratio. ..
  8. Kleefeld A, Ackermann B, Bauer J, Krämer J, Unden G. The fumarate/succinate antiporter DcuB of Escherichia coli is a bifunctional protein with sites for regulation of DcuS-dependent gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:265-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the antiporter DcuB is a bifunctional protein and has a regulatory function that is independent from transport, and sites for transport and regulation can be differentiated. ..
  9. Knauf F, Mohebbi N, Teichert C, Herold D, Rogina B, Helfand S, et al. The life-extending gene Indy encodes an exchanger for Krebs-cycle intermediates. Biochem J. 2006;397:25-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of decreasing INDY activity, as in the long-lived Indy mutants, may be to alter energy metabolism in a manner that favours lifespan extension. ..

More Information


  1. Anzai N, Jutabha P, Enomoto A, Yokoyama H, Nonoguchi H, Hirata T, et al. Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 5 (Slc22a19) at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:534-44 pubmed
  2. Di Giusto G, Anzai N, Endou H, Torres A. Oat5 and NaDC1 protein abundance in kidney and urine after renal ischemic reperfusion injury. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that urinary excretion of Oat5 might be an early indicator of renal dysfunction, which is useful for detection of even minor alterations in renal structural and functional integrity. ..
  3. Rogina B, Reenan R, Nilsen S, Helfand S. Extended life-span conferred by cotransporter gene mutations in Drosophila. Science. 2000;290:2137-40 pubmed
    ..Excision of the P element resulted in a reversion to normal life-span. These mutations may create a metabolic state that mimics caloric restriction, which has been shown to extend life-span. ..
  4. Knauf F, Rogina B, Jiang Z, Aronson P, Helfand S. Functional characterization and immunolocalization of the transporter encoded by the life-extending gene Indy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14315-9 pubmed
    ..The life-extending effect of mutations in Indy is likely caused by an alteration in energy balance caused by a decrease in INDY transport function. ..
  5. Kneuper H, Janausch I, Vijayan V, Zweckstetter M, Bock V, Griesinger C, et al. The nature of the stimulus and of the fumarate binding site of the fumarate sensor DcuS of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20596-603 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the R147A mutation affected signal perception and transfer to the kinase but not the kinase activity per se. ..
  6. Kim O, Lux S, Unden G. Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on D-tartrate depends on the fumarate carrier DcuB and fumarase, rather than the L-tartrate carrier TtdT and L-tartrate dehydratase. Arch Microbiol. 2007;188:583-9 pubmed
    ..No D-tartrate specific carriers and enzymes are involved in the pathway. ..
  7. Engelke T, Jording D, Kapp D, P hler A. Identification and sequence analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti dctA gene encoding the C4-dicarboxylate carrier. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:5551-60 pubmed
    ..6 kilodaltons, respectively. The hydrophobicity plot suggests that DctA is a membrane protein with several membrane passages. The amino acid sequences of the R. meliloti and the R. leguminosarum DctA proteins were highly conserved (82%)...
  8. Di Giusto G, Torres A. Organic anion transporter 5 renal expression and urinary excretion in rats exposed to mercuric chloride: a potential biomarker of mercury-induced nephropathy. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that urinary excretion of Oat5 might be an early indicator of mercury-induced nephropathy, which predicts the perturbation before the manifestation of histopathological damages...
  9. Witan J, Monzel C, Scheu P, Unden G. The sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: two stimulus input sites and a merged signal pathway in the DctA/DcuS sensor unit. Biol Chem. 2012;393:1291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal transfer pathways are supposed to merge at PAS(C). The fumarate/succinate antiporter DcuB takes over the role as a co-sensor of DcuS under anaerobic growth conditions. ..
  10. Zientz E, Bongaerts J, Unden G. Fumarate regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli by the DcuSR (dcuSR genes) two-component regulatory system. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5421-5 pubmed
    ..The CitAB two-component regulatory system, which is highly similar to DcuSR, had no effect on C4-dicarboxylate regulation of any of the genes. ..
  11. Fei Y, Inoue K, Ganapathy V. Structural and functional characteristics of two sodium-coupled dicarboxylate transporters (ceNaDC1 and ceNaDC2) from Caenorhabditis elegans and their relevance to life span. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6136-44 pubmed
    ..elegans may lead to decreased availability of dicarboxylates for cellular production of metabolic energy, thus creating a biological state similar to that of caloric restriction, and consequently leading to life span extension. ..
  12. Boogerd F, Boe L, Michelsen O, Jensen P. atp Mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5855-9 pubmed
    ..coli atp mutant is unable to grow aerobically on C4-dicarboxylates is insufficient transport capacity for these substrates. ..
  13. Pajor A, Sun N. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter affect transport activity and protein expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these mutations are predicted to decrease transport activity in vivo, which would result in decreased intestinal and renal absorption of citric acid cycle intermediates. ..
  14. Trotter P, Adamson A, Ghrist A, Rowe L, Scott L, Sherman M, et al. Mitochondrial transporters involved in oleic acid utilization and glutamate metabolism in yeast. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;442:21-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies indicate that these four transporters have overlapping activity, and are important not only for utilization of oleic acid, but also for glutamate biosynthesis. ..
  15. An J, Kim Y. A gene cluster encoding malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MatA), malonyl-CoA synthetase (MatB) and a putative dicarboxylate carrier protein (MatC) in Rhizobium trifolii--cloning, sequencing, and expression of the enzymes in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1998;257:395-402 pubmed
    ..trifolii and that the metabolic pathway in the malonate-rich clover nodule might play an important role in symbiosis. ..
  16. Pajor A, Randolph K. Inhibition of the Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter by anthranilic acid derivatives. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:1330-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, ACA and ONO-RS-082 represent promising lead compounds for the development of specific inhibitors of the Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporters. ..
  17. Pajor A. Sequence and functional characterization of a renal sodium/dicarboxylate cotransporter. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:5779-85 pubmed
    ..The results of the functional characterization indicate that NaDC-1 likely corresponds to the renal brush-border Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter. ..
  18. Pajor A, Sun N, Bai L, Markovich D, Sule P. The substrate recognition domain in the Na+/dicarboxylate and Na+/sulfate cotransporters is located in the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1370:98-106 pubmed
  19. Lalau J, Jans I, el Esper N, Bouillon R, Fournier A. Calcium metabolism, plasma parathyroid hormone, and calcitriol in transient hypertension of pregnancy. Am J Hypertens. 1993;6:522-7 pubmed
    ..05), which is in agreement with epidemiological studies of essential hypertension. In conclusion, disturbances of calcium regulating hormones do exist in transient forms of pregnancy-induced hypertension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  20. Seol W, Shatkin A. Escherichia coli alpha-ketoglutarate permease is a constitutively expressed proton symporter. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6409-13 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that KgtP is an alpha-ketoglutarate-proton symporter. ..
  21. Lee H, Handlogten M, Osis G, Clapp W, Wakefield D, Verlander J, et al. Expression of sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter 1 (NaDC1/SLC13A2) in normal and neoplastic human kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;312:F427-F435 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide important information regarding NaDC1's role in human dicarboxylate metabolism. ..
  22. Fukui K, Nanatani K, Hara Y, Tokura M, Abe K. Identification of EayjjPB encoding a dicarboxylate transporter important for succinate production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in Enterobacter aerogenes. J Biosci Bioeng. 2018;125:505-512 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that EaYjjPB function as a dicarboxylate transporter in E. aerogenes and that the products of both genes are required for dicarboxylate transport. ..
  23. Brandner K, Rehling P, Truscott K. The carboxyl-terminal third of the dicarboxylate carrier is crucial for productive association with the inner membrane twin-pore translocase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6215-21 pubmed
    ..We concluded that, in this case, a single structural repeat can drive inner membrane insertion, whereas all three related units contribute targeting information for outer membrane translocation. ..
  24. Youn J, Jolkver E, Kramer R, Marin K, Wendisch V. Identification and characterization of the dicarboxylate uptake system DccT in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6458-66 pubmed publisher
  25. Mizuarai S, Miki S, Araki H, Takahashi K, Kotani H. Identification of dicarboxylate carrier Slc25a10 as malate transporter in de novo fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32434-41 pubmed
  26. Ayyappan V, Saha M, Thimmapuram J, Sripathi V, Bhide K, Fiedler E, et al. Comparative transcriptome profiling of upland (VS16) and lowland (AP13) ecotypes of switchgrass. Plant Cell Rep. 2017;36:129-150 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenylpropanoid pathway genes identified here are potential targets for biofuel conversion. ..
  27. Baker K, Ditullio K, Neuhard J, Kelln R. Utilization of orotate as a pyrimidine source by Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli requires the dicarboxylate transport protein encoded by dctA. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:7099-105 pubmed
    ..coli and S. typhimurium. The accumulated results demonstrate that the dctA gene product, in addition to transporting C4-dicarboxylates, mediates the transport of orotate, a cyclic monocarboxylate. ..
  28. Papa R, Rippa V, Duilio A. Identification of the transcription factor responsible for L-malate-dependent regulation in the marine Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;295:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..MalR is the first transcriptional factor identified in P. haloplanktis TAC125 and one of the few transcriptional modulators reported so far in cold adapted bacteria. ..
  29. Park S, Ahn M, Han A, Park J, Yoon Y. Enhanced flavonoid production in Streptomyces venezuelae via metabolic engineering. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:1143-6 pubmed
    ..venezuelae strains expressing flavanone and flavone biosynthetic genes resulted in enhanced production of both flavonoids. ..
  30. Rabus R, Jack D, Kelly D, Saier M. TRAP transporters: an ancient family of extracytoplasmic solute-receptor-dependent secondary active transporters. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 12):3431-45 pubmed
  31. Sauer S, Opp S, Mahringer A, Kaminski M, Thiel C, Okun J, et al. Glutaric aciduria type I and methylmalonic aciduria: simulation of cerebral import and export of accumulating neurotoxic dicarboxylic acids in in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier and the choroid plexus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate a low but specific efflux transport for GA, 3-OH-GA, and MMA across pBCEC, an in vitro model of the BBB, via OAT1 and OAT3 but not across hCPEC, an in vitro model of the choroid plexus...
  32. Pajor A, Sun N, Joshi A, Randolph K. Transmembrane helix 7 in the Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter 1 is an outer helix that contains residues critical for function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:1454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most of TM7 does not appear to be accessible to the extracellular fluid and is likely to be an outer helix in contact with the lipid bilayer. ..
  33. Bauer J, Fritsch M, Palmer T, Unden G. Topology and accessibility of the transmembrane helices and the sensory site in the bifunctional transporter DcuB of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5925-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The cavity ends with a cytoplasmic lid accessible to AMS from the periplasmic side. The sensory domain of DcuB is composed of cytoplasmic loop XI/XII and a membrane integral region with the regulatory residues Thr396/Asp398 and Lys353. ..
  34. Chen X, Shayakul C, Berger U, Tian W, Hediger M. Characterization of a rat Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20972-81 pubmed
    ..The data presented provide new insights into the biophysical characteristics and physiological implications of a cloned dicarboxylate transporter. ..
  35. Gautam U, Jajoo A, Singh A, Chakrabartty P, Das S. Characterization of an rpoN mutant of Mesorhizobium ciceri. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1798-807 pubmed
    ..This first document in M. ciceri shows that a functional rpoN gene is essential for the transport of dicarboxylic acids and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. ..
  36. Huypens P, Pillai R, Sheinin T, Schaefer S, Huang M, Odegaard M, et al. The dicarboxylate carrier plays a role in mitochondrial malate transport and in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from rat pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2011;54:135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also suggest that malate transport by DIC is (1) a critical component of NADPH production mediated by pyruvate-cycling and (2) regulates GSIS. ..
  37. Fiermonte G, Dolce V, Arrigoni R, Runswick M, Walker J, Palmieri F. Organization and sequence of the gene for the human mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier: evolution of the carrier family. Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 3:953-60 pubmed
    ..The positions of introns contribute towards an understanding of the processes involved in the evolution of human genes for carrier proteins. ..
  38. Nan B, Liu X, Zhou Y, Liu J, Zhang L, Wen J, et al. From signal perception to signal transduction: ligand-induced dimeric switch of DctB sensory domain in solution. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1484-94 pubmed publisher
  39. Boehmer C, Embark H, Bauer A, Palmada M, Yun C, Weinman E, et al. Stimulation of renal Na+ dicarboxylate cotransporter 1 by Na+/H+ exchanger regulating factor 2, serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase isoforms, and protein kinase B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:998-1003 pubmed
    ..The action of the kinases and NHERF-2 may link urinary citrate excretion to proximal tubular H(+) secretion. ..
  40. Khatri I, Kovacs S, Forstner J. Cloning of the cDNA for a rat intestinal Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter reveals partial sequence homology with a rat intestinal mucin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1309:58-62 pubmed
    ..Mucin-related sequences in transporter proteins have not been described before. ..
  41. Lillo C. Signalling cascades integrating light-enhanced nitrate metabolism. Biochem J. 2008;415:11-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Yagita K, Okamura H. Forskolin induces circadian gene expression of rPer1, rPer2 and dbp in mammalian rat-1 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 2000;465:79-82 pubmed
    ..Thus the present study strongly suggests that CREB activation through the cAMP/PKA pathway is involved in the generation of circadian rhythm in rat-1 cells ..
  43. Wilson D, Asimakis G. Phosphate-induced efflux of adenine nucleotides from rat-heart mitochondria: evaluation of the roles of the phosphate/hydroxyl exchanger and the dicarboxylate carrier. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;893:470-9 pubmed
  44. Lodi T, Fontanesi F, Ferrero I, Donnini C. Carboxylic acids permeases in yeast: two genes in Kluyveromyces lactis. Gene. 2004;339:111-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that KlJEN2 is the first yeast gene shown to encode a dicarboxylic acids permease. ..
  45. Vázquez Bermúdez M, Herrero A, Flores E. Carbon supply and 2-oxoglutarate effects on expression of nitrate reductase and nitrogen-regulated genes in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;221:155-9 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a role of 2-oxoglutarate in nitrogen control in cyanobacteria. ..
  46. Gabriels G, Werners A, Mauss S, Greven J. Evidence for differential regulation of renal proximal tubular p-aminohippurate and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;290:710-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results provide evidence for differential regulation of basolateral transporters for PAH and dicarboxylates. ..
  47. Palmieri L, Lasorsa F, Vozza A, Agrimi G, Fiermonte G, Runswick M, et al. Identification and functions of new transporters in yeast mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1459:363-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the yeast carrier sequences can be used to identify the orthologous proteins in other organisms, including man. ..
  48. Pajor A, Randolph K. Conformationally sensitive residues in extracellular loop 5 of the Na+/dicarboxylate co-transporter. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18728-35 pubmed
    ..Conformational changes in the protein affect the accessibility of the residues in extracellular loop 5 and provide further evidence of large-scale changes in the structure of NaDC-1 during the transport cycle. ..
  49. Ard S, Mirsaleh Kohan N, Steill J, Oomens J, Nielsen S, Compton R. Dissociation of dicarboxylate and disulfonate dianions. J Chem Phys. 2010;132:094301 pubmed publisher
    ..The delocalized nature of the excess electrons associated with the carboxylate containing dianions may lead to circumvention of the RCB by dissociating via neutral fragmentation followed by (or accompanied by) electron detachment. ..
  50. Zientz E, Six S, Unden G. Identification of a third secondary carrier (DcuC) for anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transport in Escherichia coli: roles of the three Dcu carriers in uptake and exchange. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:7241-7 pubmed
    ..Mutants producing only DcuA, DcuB, or DcuC were prepared. In the mutants, DcuA, DcuB, and DcuC were each able to operate in the exchange and uptake mode. ..
  51. Chen X, Tsukaguchi H, Chen X, Berger U, Hediger M. Molecular and functional analysis of SDCT2, a novel rat sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1159-68 pubmed
    ..These data help to interpret the mechanisms of renal citrate transport, their alteration in pathophysiological conditions, and their role in the elimination of organic anions and therapeutic drugs. ..
  52. Holten A, Talgøy H, Danbolt N, Christian D, Shimamoto K, Gundersen V, et al. Low-affinity excitatory amino acid uptake in hippocampal astrocytes: a possible role of Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporters. Glia. 2008;56:990-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that excitatory amino acid is transported into astrocytes in a "low-affinity" fashion by sodium/dicarboxylate transporters. ..
  53. Inoue K, Zhuang L, Maddox D, Smith S, Ganapathy V. Human sodium-coupled citrate transporter, the orthologue of Drosophila Indy, as a novel target for lithium action. Biochem J. 2003;374:21-6 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that genetic mutations in humans may lead to alterations in the constitutive activity of the transporter, with associated clinical consequences. ..
  54. Wollenman L, Vander Ploeg M, Miller M, Zhang Y, Bazil J. The effect of respiration buffer composition on mitochondrial metabolism and function. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187523 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, when the goal is to maximize ADP-stimulated respiration, buffers containing K-lactobionate or K-gluconate are superior choices compared to the standard KCl-based buffers...
  55. Bai X, Chen X, Sun A, Feng Z, Hou K, Fu B. Membrane topology structure of human high-affinity, sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter. FASEB J. 2007;21:2409-17 pubmed
    ..Our results support the topography of 11 transmembrane domains with an extracellular C terminus and an intracellular N terminus of NaDC3, and for the first time provide experimental evidence for a novel topological model for NaDC3. ..
  56. George R, Huang W, Naggar H, Smith S, Ganapathy V. Transport of N-acetylaspartate via murine sodium/dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC3 and expression of this transporter and aspartoacylase II in ocular tissues in mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1690:63-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that transport of N-acetylaspartate into ocular tissues via NaDC3 and its subsequent hydrolysis by aspartoacylase II play an essential role in the maintenance of visual function. ..
  57. Ohana E, Shcheynikov N, Moe O, Muallem S. SLC26A6 and NaDC-1 transporters interact to regulate oxalate and citrate homeostasis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:1617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a molecular pathway that senses and tightly regulates oxalate and citrate levels and may control Ca(2+)-oxalate stone formation. ..
  58. Schwimmer C, Lefebvre Legendre L, Rak M, Devin A, Slonimski P, di Rago J, et al. Increasing mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation can rescue respiratory growth of an ATP synthase-deficient yeast. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30751-9 pubmed
    ..This unexpected result might be of interest for the development of therapeutic solutions in pathologies associated with defects in the oxidative phosphorylation system. ..
  59. Amaral A, Cecatto C, Busanello E, Ribeiro C, Melo D, Leipnitz G, et al. Ethylmalonic acid impairs brain mitochondrial succinate and malate transport. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;105:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results strongly indicate that EMA impairs succinate and malate uptake through the mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier. ..
  60. Nozawa A, Fujimoto R, Matsuoka H, Tsuboi T, Tozawa Y. Cell-free synthesis, reconstitution, and characterization of a mitochondrial dicarboxylate-tricarboxylate carrier of Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:612-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PfDTC may mediate the oxoglutarate-malate exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane required for the branched pathway of TCA metabolism in the malaria parasite. ..
  61. Hazelhoff M, Bulacio R, Torres A. Organic anion transporter 5 renal expression and urinary excretion in rats with vascular calcification. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:283429 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible to postulate the urinary excretion of Oat5 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal injury associated with vascular calcification. ..
  62. Zara V, Palmisano I, Rassow J, Palmieri F. Biogenesis of the dicarboxylate carrier (DIC): translocation across the mitochondrial outer membrane and subsequent release from the TOM channel are membrane potential-independent. J Mol Biol. 2001;310:965-71 pubmed
    ..The DIC should be a suitable model protein for the characterization of deltapsi-independent functions of the intermembrane space Tim proteins. ..
  63. Golby P, Davies S, Kelly D, Guest J, Andrews S. Identification and characterization of a two-component sensor-kinase and response-regulator system (DcuS-DcuR) controlling gene expression in response to C4-dicarboxylates in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1238-48 pubmed
    ..Although all three proteins have similar topologies and functions, and all are members of the two-component sensor-kinase family, their periplasmic domains appear to have evolved independently. ..
  64. Pajor A. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter from human kidney. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:F642-8 pubmed
  65. Lash L, Putt D, Matherly L. Protection of NRK-52E cells, a rat renal proximal tubular cell line, from chemical-induced apoptosis by overexpression of a mitochondrial glutathione transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;303:476-86 pubmed
  66. Bakhiya A, Bahn A, Burckhardt G, Wolff N. Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) can operate as an exchanger and mediate secretory urate flux. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003;13:249-56 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that OAT3 does not represent a uniporter but operates as an organic ion%dicarboxylate exchanger similar to OAT1, and may mediate renal urate secretion. ..
  67. Weber A, Flügge U. Interaction of cytosolic and plastidic nitrogen metabolism in plants. J Exp Bot. 2002;53:865-74 pubmed
    ..Glucose 6-phosphate, the immediate precursor of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is generated in the cytosol and imported into the plastids by the plastidic glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator. ..
  68. Yao X, Pajor A. Arginine-349 and aspartate-373 of the Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter are conformationally sensitive residues. Biochemistry. 2002;41:1083-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the accessibility of Arg-349 and Asp-373 is likely to change with the conformational states of the transport cycle. ..
  69. Zhang F, Pajor A. Topology of the Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter: the N-terminus and hydrophilic loop 4 are located intracellularly. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1511:80-9 pubmed
    ..The results of this study show that both the N-terminus and hydrophilic loop 4 of NaDC-1 are located intracellularly, which supports the current model of NaDC-1 structure. ..
  70. Zalups R, Bridges C. Relationships between the renal handling of DMPS and DMSA and the renal handling of mercury. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1825-38 pubmed publisher
  71. Thein M, Bonde M, Bunikis I, Denker K, Sickmann A, Bergstrom S, et al. DipA, a pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of Lyme disease spirochetes exhibits specificity for the permeation of dicarboxylates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36523 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply that DipA forms a porin specific for dicarboxylates which may play an important role for the uptake of specific nutrients in different Borrelia species. ..
  72. Kwon O, Kim S, Hahm D, Lee S, Kim P. Potential application of the recombinant Escherichia coli-synthesized heme as a bioavailable iron source. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:604-9 pubmed
    ..The heme content of the blood from microbial heme fed mice was 4.2 mg/ml whereas that of controls was 2.4 mg/ml, which implies that the microbial heme could be available for use as an animal iron source. ..
  73. Bauer J, Antosh M, Chang C, Schorl C, Kolli S, Neretti N, et al. Comparative transcriptional profiling identifies takeout as a gene that regulates life span. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:298-310 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the power of comparative whole genome transcriptional profiling for identifying specific downstream elements of the DR life span extending pathway. ..
  74. Zacchia M, PREISIG P. Low urinary citrate: an overview. J Nephrol. 2010;23 Suppl 16:S49-56 pubmed
    ..Following an acid load, both the transport and metabolic processes are up-regulated leading to hypocitraturia; in contrast, an alkaline load increases citrate excretion, by regulating only the mitochondrial metabolic process. ..
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    ..The prolines in TM 10, at positions 523 and 524, may not be directly involved in the transporter function but may be necessary for maintaining structure. ..
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    ..In contrast, cross-links across the VcINDY dimer interface preserve transport, thus revealing an absence of large-scale coupling between protomers. ..
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    ..Our results demonstrate that AtpOMT1 acts bi-functionally as an oxaloacetate/malate transporter in the malate valve and as a 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter mediating carbon/nitrogen metabolism. ..
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    ..The upregulation of hNaDC1 mRNA and protein abundance in the kidney may be an important cause of hypocitraturia, which might be related with the occurrence and recurrence of nephrolithiasis. ..
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