ion pumps


Summary: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.

Top Publications

  1. Michailova A, McCulloch A. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte. Biophys J. 2001;81:614-29 pubmed
    ..The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions. ..
  2. Southon A, Farlow A, Norgate M, Burke R, Camakaris J. Malvolio is a copper transporter in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate Mvl is a functional Cu transporter and that despite partial functional redundancy with the Ctr1 proteins, Cu uptake through this pathway is necessary for optimal viability at the cellular and organismal levels. ..
  3. Cai J, Salmon K, DuBow M. A chromosomal ars operon homologue of Pseudomonas aeruginosa confers increased resistance to arsenic and antimony in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 10):2705-13 pubmed
    ..DNA sequences homologous with this operon were detected in some, but not all, species of the genus Pseudomonas, suggesting that its conservation follows their taxonomic-based evolution. ..
  4. Orgad S, Nelson H, Segal D, Nelson N. Metal ions suppress the abnormal taste behavior of the Drosophila mutant malvolio. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:115-20 pubmed
    ..The suppression of the defective taste behavior suggests that MVL functions as a Mn2+/Fe2+ transporter and that Mn2+ and/or Fe2+ are involved in the signal transduction of taste perception in Drosophila adults. ..
  5. Liu J, Rosen B. Ligand interactions of the ArsC arsenate reductase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21084-9 pubmed
    ..Cys-12 thiolate was also required. Thus the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp-11 provides a useful probe to investigate the mechanism of this novel reductase. ..
  6. Stolz J, Oremland R. Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1999;23:615-27 pubmed
    ..The extent of the environmental impact on the transformation and mobilization of arsenic and selenium by microbial dissimilatory processes is only now being fully appreciated. ..
  7. Mukhopadhyay R, Rosen B, Phung L, Silver S. Microbial arsenic: from geocycles to genes and enzymes. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002;26:311-25 pubmed
    ..Proposed reaction mechanisms in each case involve three cysteine thiols and S-As bond intermediates, so convergent evolution to similar mechanisms has taken place. ..
  8. Pedersen M, Roudna M, Beutner S, Birmes M, Reifers B, Martin H, et al. Detection of charge movements in ion pumps by a family of styryl dyes. J Membr Biol. 2002;185:221-36 pubmed
    ..This prominent difference is interpreted as a hint that the position of the ion binding sites in both ion pumps may differ significantly despite their otherwise closely related structural features...
  9. Ji G, Garber E, Armes L, Chen C, Fuchs J, Silver S. Arsenate reductase of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. Biochemistry. 1994;33:7294-9 pubmed
    ..0 Da, suggesting that 70% of the purified protein lacked the N-terminal three amino acids; HPLC coupled to electrospray mass spectroscopy of protease digest products confirmed this conclusion and verified the entire amino acid sequence...

More Information


  1. Martin P, DeMel S, Shi J, Gladysheva T, Gatti D, Rosen B, et al. Insights into the structure, solvation, and mechanism of ArsC arsenate reductase, a novel arsenic detoxification enzyme. Structure. 2001;9:1071-81 pubmed
  2. Zegers I, Martins J, Willem R, Wyns L, Messens J. Arsenate reductase from S. aureus plasmid pI258 is a phosphatase drafted for redox duty. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction is associated with major structural changes in the ArsC...
  3. Rodrigues V, Cheah P, Ray K, Chia W. malvolio, the Drosophila homologue of mouse NRAMP-1 (Bcg), is expressed in macrophages and in the nervous system and is required for normal taste behaviour. EMBO J. 1995;14:3007-20 pubmed
    ..Based on its phenotype and expression pattern as well as its structural similarities to NRAMPs and a nitrate transporter in Aspergillus nidulans, we discuss a possible role for MVL in nitrite/nitrate transport and its implications. ..
  4. Saltikov C, Olson B. Homology of Escherichia coli R773 arsA, arsB, and arsC genes in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from raw sewage and arsenic-enriched creek waters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:280-8 pubmed
    ..Only 1 of 11 pseudomonads screened by PCR was positive for arsB. The results from this study suggest that significant divergence has occurred in the ars operon among As-resistant E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas spp. ..
  5. Butcher B, Deane S, Rawlings D. The chromosomal arsenic resistance genes of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans have an unusual arrangement and confer increased arsenic and antimony resistance to Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:1826-33 pubmed
    ..This divergent orientation was conserved in the four T. ferrooxidans strains investigated...
  6. Shi J, Mukhopadhyay R, Rosen B. Identification of a triad of arginine residues in the active site of the ArsC arsenate reductase of plasmid R773. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;227:295-301 pubmed
    ..The data support the hypothesis that this triad of arginine residues is involved in arsenate binding and transition-state stabilization. ..
  7. Ben Shahar Y, Dudek N, Robinson G. Phenotypic deconstruction reveals involvement of manganese transporter malvolio in honey bee division of labor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous findings, these results support the idea that some feeding-related genes in Drosophila have been used in social evolution to regulate division of labor...
  8. Folwell J, Barton C, Shepherd D. Immunolocalisation of the D. melanogaster Nramp homologue Malvolio to gut and Malpighian tubules provides evidence that Malvolio and Nramp2 are orthologous. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:1988-95 pubmed
    ..The staining within the gut indicates a degree of conservation of components for iron acquisition between flies and mammals, suggesting that a comparable mechanism has been retained during evolution...
  9. Melchers K, Herrmann L, Mauch F, Bayle D, Heuermann D, Weitzenegger T, et al. Properties and function of the P type ion pumps cloned from Helicobacter pylori. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1998;643:123-35 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that, in H. pylori, the presence of three transition metal ATPases with distinct ion specificity contributes to the adaptive mechanisms for gastric survival. ..
  10. Sato T, Kobayashi Y. The ars operon in the skin element of Bacillus subtilis confers resistance to arsenate and arsenite. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1655-61 pubmed
    ..4 kb was induced by arsenate and that the ars promoter contains sequences that resemble the -10 and -35 regions of promoters that are recognized by E sigmaA...
  11. Sharma A, Walsh D, Bapteste E, Rodriguez Valera F, Ford Doolittle W, Papke R. Evolution of rhodopsin ion pumps in haloarchaea. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:79 pubmed
    ..In this initial study, we assess the roles of LGT and gene loss in the evolution of haloarchaeal rhodopsin ion pump genes, using phylogenetics and comparative genomics approaches...
  12. Gadsby D. Ion channels versus ion pumps: the principal difference, in principle. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009;10:344-52 pubmed publisher
    The incessant traffic of ions across cell membranes is controlled by two kinds of border guards: ion channels and ion pumps. Open channels let selected ions diffuse rapidly down electrical and concentration gradients, whereas ion pumps ..
  13. Stock C, Schwab A. Protons make tumor cells move like clockwork. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:981-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article gives a review on how this characteristic, acidic tumor micro- and nanoenvironment controls tumor cell migration. ..
  14. Bonanno J. Molecular mechanisms underlying the corneal endothelial pump. Exp Eye Res. 2012;95:2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the conditions under which the "Pump" is supported are known, a complete model of the endothelial "Pump" has yet to emerge. ..
  15. Toyoshima C, Kanai R, Cornelius F. First crystal structures of Na+,K+-ATPase: new light on the oldest ion pump. Structure. 2011;19:1732-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explain the reasons behind the challenges, introduce a mechanism that governs the function, and summarize current knowledge of NKA structure in comparison with another member of the P-type ATPase family, Ca(2+)-ATPase. ..
  16. Carlin A, Shi W, Dey S, Rosen B. The ars operon of Escherichia coli confers arsenical and antimonial resistance. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:981-6 pubmed
    ..Expression of the ars genes was inducible by arsenite. By Southern hybridization, the operon was found in all strains of E. coli examined but not in Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Bacillus subtilis. ..
  17. Diorio C, Cai J, Marmor J, Shinder R, DuBow M. An Escherichia coli chromosomal ars operon homolog is functional in arsenic detoxification and is conserved in gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2050-6 pubmed
  18. Rosenstein R, Peschel A, Wieland B, G tz F. Expression and regulation of the antimonite, arsenite, and arsenate resistance operon of Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3676-83 pubmed
    ..The three ars genes conferred arsenite resistance in E. coli and arsenite as well as arsenate resistance in Bacillus subtilis...
  19. Bettedi L, Aslam M, Szular J, Mandilaras K, Missirlis F. Iron depletion in the intestines of Malvolio mutant flies does not occur in the absence of a multicopper oxidase. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:971-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, MCO3 may encode an insect ferroxidase. Intriguingly, MCO3 mutants had a mild accumulation of copper, which was suppressed in Mvl mutants, revealing a reciprocal genetic interaction between the two genes. ..
  20. Zhao Y, Meredith J, Brock H, Phillips J. Mutational analysis of the N-terminus in Schistocerca gregaria ion-transport peptide expressed in Drosophila Kc1 cells. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;58:27-38 pubmed
  21. Gronich N, Kumar A, Zhang Y, Efimov I, Soldatov N. Molecular remodeling of ion channels, exchangers and pumps in atrial and ventricular myocytes in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Channels (Austin). 2010;4:101-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our cell-specific molecular profiling defined new landmarks for correct molecular modeling of ischemic cardiomyopathy and development of underlying targeted therapies. ..
  22. Zhang X, Gao H, Yang T, Wu H, Wang Y, Zhang Z, et al. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca²⁺, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca(2+)-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants. ..
  23. Gondzik V, Awayda M. Methods for stable recording of short-circuit current in a Na+-transporting epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that drifts in osmolarity similar to those obtained before prior to our modifications can lead to a decrease of current and resistance similar to those attributed to rundown. ..
  24. Bourdin B, Segura E, Tétreault M, Lesage S, Parent L. Determination of the Relative Cell Surface and Total Expression of Recombinant Ion Channels Using Flow Cytometry. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..This specific approach offers objective relative quantification of the total and cell surface expression of ion channels that can be extended to study ion pumps and plasma membrane transporters.
  25. Gihring T, Bond P, Peters S, Banfield J. Arsenic resistance in the archaeon "Ferroplasma acidarmanus": new insights into the structure and evolution of the ars genes. Extremophiles. 2003;7:123-30 pubmed
    ..These results support a hypothesis of arsenic resistance developing early in the evolution of life...
  26. Figueroa J, Stiner C, Radzyukevich T, Heiny J. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20551 pubmed publisher
    ..The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. ..
  27. Bruhn D, Li J, Silver S, Roberto F, Rosen B. The arsenical resistance operon of IncN plasmid R46. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;139:149-53 pubmed
    ..The R46 system contains only the second known versions of arsA and arsD, after those of plasmid R773. Western blot analysis identified the R46 proteins using antibodies against R773 ArsA, ArsD and ArsR. ..
  28. Guan Z, Hederstedt L, Li J, Su X. Preparation and crystallization of a Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2001;57:1718-21 pubmed
    ..The crystals of the SeMet protein diffracted to higher resolution than those of the wild type. ..
  29. Escribano I, Rodriguez J, Llorca B, Garcia Pachon E, Ruiz M, Royo G. Importance of the efflux pump systems in the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones and linezolid. Chemotherapy. 2007;53:397-401 pubmed
  30. Mukhopadhyay R, Shi J, Rosen B. Purification and characterization of ACR2p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae arsenate reductase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21149-57 pubmed
    ..This suggests that during the catalytic cycle, Acr2p forms a mixed disulfide with GSH before being reduced by glutaredoxin to regenerate the active Acr2p reductase. ..
  31. Faller L, Nagy A, Kane D, Farley R. Mechanism of phosphoryl group transfer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;986:275-7 pubmed
  32. Lutkenhaus J, Sundaramoorthy M. MinD and role of the deviant Walker A motif, dimerization and membrane binding in oscillation. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:295-303 pubmed
    ..The sequential interaction of MinD with these two proteins, which is dictated by the membrane, is critical to the oscillatory mechanism involved in spatial regulation of division...
  33. Lewis K. In search of natural substrates and inhibitors of MDR pumps. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;3:247-54 pubmed
    ..aureus. In E. coli, the EmrR sensor of the MarR repressor family binds unrelated neutral molecules, allowing for expression of the transenvelope EmrAB pump. ..
  34. Aoyama F, Sawaguchi A. Functional transformation of gastric parietal cells and intracellular trafficking of ion channels/transporters in the apical canalicular membrane associated with acid secretion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:813-6 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the functional transformation of gastric parietal cells and intracellular trafficking of ion channels/transporters expressed in the apical canalicular membrane associated with gastric acid secretion. ..
  35. Alekseeva V, Gordon L, Loseva N, Rakhimova G, Tsentsevitskii A. [Effect of plasma membrane ion permeability modulators on respiration and heat output of wheat roots]. Tsitologiia. 2006;48:569-77 pubmed
    ..Alterations of the structure and functional characteristics of excised root cells indicate the intensification of the membrane-tropic effect of a prolonged action of CP100, and the lack of cell energy resources. ..
  36. Rosen B. Families of arsenic transporters. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:207-12 pubmed
    ..Yeasts extrude arsenite using Acr3p, a plasma membrane carrier protein, or sequester it in vacuoles as the glutathione conjugate using Ycf1p, an ABC transporter...
  37. Farazi T, Manchester J, Waksman G, Gordon J. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae myristoylCoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase mutants identify residues involved in catalysis. Biochemistry. 2001;40:9177-86 pubmed
    ..Mutating N169 and T205 in concert reduces the rate of the chemical transformation, supporting their role as components of an H-bonding network that facilitates attack of the Gly1 amine and stabilizes the tetrahedral intermediate. ..
  38. Veitinger S, Braun V. Localization of the entire fec region at 97.3 minutes on the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3838-9 pubmed
  39. Kartenbeck J, Leuschner U, Mayer R, Keppler D. Absence of the canalicular isoform of the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump from the hepatocytes in Dubin-Johnson syndrome. Hepatology. 1996;23:1061-6 pubmed
  40. Inoue K. [The mechanism and control of neuropathic pain]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2009;49:779-82 pubmed
    ..IFN-beta upregulates P2X4R in microglia and causes P2X4R-dependent allodynia. These findings suggest that purinoceptors in spinal microglia is crucial for pathological intractable pain. ..
  41. Angerer A, Enz S, Ochs M, Braun V. Transcriptional regulation of ferric citrate transport in Escherichia coli K-12. Fecl belongs to a new subfamily of sigma 70-type factors that respond to extracytoplasmic stimuli. Mol Microbiol. 1995;18:163-74 pubmed
    ..These data support the previous assignment of FecI, based on sequence homologies, to a new subfamily of eubacterial RNA polymerase sigma 70 factors that respond to extra-cytoplasmic stimuli and regulate extracytoplasmic functions. ..
  42. Ose A, Kusuhara H, Endo C, Tohyama K, Miyajima M, Kitamura S, et al. Functional characterization of mouse organic anion transporting peptide 1a4 in the uptake and efflux of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether Oatp1a4 can deliver drugs from the blood to the brain remains controversial...
  43. Gadsby D, Takeuchi A, Artigas P, Reyes N. Review. Peering into an ATPase ion pump with single-channel recordings. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of variously charged small hydrophilic thiol-specific reagents to probe cysteine targets introduced throughout the pump's transmembrane segments allows mapping and characterization of the route traversed by transported ions. ..
  44. Ramos J, Duque E, Godoy P, Segura A. Efflux pumps involved in toluene tolerance in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:3323-9 pubmed
    ..The mutation in P. putida DOT-T1E-18 was cloned, and the knockedout gene was sequenced and found to be homologous to the drug exclusion gene mexB, which belongs to the efflux pump family of the resistant nodulator division type...
  45. Bhattacharjee H, Ho Y, Rosen B. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the Asna1 gene, a mouse homologue of a bacterial arsenic-translocating ATPase gene. Gene. 2001;272:291-9 pubmed
    ..All splice sites conform to the GT-AG rule, except for the splice donor site of intron 4 that is GC instead of GT. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicates that the Asna1 gene is localized in the C3-D1 region of mouse chromosome 8. ..
  46. Hontani Y, Inoue K, Kloz M, Kato Y, Kandori H, Kennis J. The photochemistry of sodium ion pump rhodopsin observed by watermarked femto- to submillisecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:24729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will contribute to further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of KR2. ..
  47. Leung B, Bonanno J, Radke C. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011;30:471-92 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. ..
  48. Vasilets L, Takeda K, Kawamura M, Schwarz W. Significance of the glutamic acid residues Glu334, Glu959, and Glu960 of the alpha subunits of Torpedo Na+, K+ pumps for transport activity and ouabain binding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1368:137-49 pubmed
    ..We conclude that none of the mutated glutamic acid residues is essential for cation coordination, but that GIu334, and in part also Glu960, seems to be involved in preserving the ouabain-resistant conformation of the enzyme. ..
  49. Kotka M, Lieden A, Pettersson S, Trinchieri V, Masci A, D Amato M. Solute carriers (SLC) in inflammatory bowel disease: a potential target of probiotics?. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42 Suppl 3 Pt 1:S133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of SLC4A11 function in the intestine will be the key to fully evaluate the relevance of specific findings. ..
  50. Ellis D, Gumaelius L, Indriolo E, Pickering I, Banks J, Salt D. A novel arsenate reductase from the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:1544-54 pubmed
    ..The unusual active site of PvACR2 and the arsenate reductase activities of cell-free extracts correlate with the ability of P. vittata to hyperaccumulate arsenite, suggesting that PvACR2 may play an important role in this process...
  51. Srikumar R, Li X, Poole K. Inner membrane efflux components are responsible for beta-lactam specificity of multidrug efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7875-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, one or both of inner membrane-associated proteins MexA and MexB are responsible for drug recognition, including recognition of beta-lactams. ..
  52. Betancourt F, Glaeser R. Chemical and physical evidence for multiple functional steps comprising the M state of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1460:106-18 pubmed
  53. Usui S, Kamiyama Y, Ishii H, Ikeno H. Reconstruction of retinal horizontal cell responses by the ionic current model. Vision Res. 1996;36:1711-9 pubmed
    ..The present study provides insight into the dynamic relationships between characteristics on the cellular level and on the multi-cellular level for producing the light response in horizontal cells. ..
  54. Gawenis L, Bradford E, Alper S, Prasad V, Shull G. AE2 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger is required for normal cAMP-stimulated anion secretion in murine proximal colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that AE2 is a component of the basolateral ion transport mechanisms that support anion secretion in the proximal colon. ..
  55. Jansen P, Strautnieks S, Jacquemin E, Hadchouel M, Sokal E, Hooiveld G, et al. Hepatocanalicular bile salt export pump deficiency in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Gastroenterology. 1999;117:1370-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated expression of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) in liver samples from patients with a PFIC phenotype and correlated this with BSEP gene mutations...
  56. Francis M, Lees R, Trujillo E, Martín Vasallo P, Heersche J, Mobasheri A. ATPase pumps in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:459-76 pubmed
    ..In this paper the role of ATPase pumps is reviewed in the context of their expression in bone cells, their contribution to ion homeostasis and their relation to other transport systems regulating bone turnover. ..
  57. Li T, Nakayama Y, Kitagawa K, Hattori N, Xiong Z, Inagaki C. Down-regulation of Cl- pump ClP55 subunit induced enhancement of glutamate neurotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 2007;1130:235-8 pubmed
  58. Nemeti B, Gregus Z. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite in hepatic cytosol. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:4-12 pubmed
    ..Characterization of this AsV reductase activity led us to identification of a cytosolic AsV reductase, which is presented in the accompanying paper. ..
  59. Garty H, Lindzen M, Fuzesi M, Aizman R, Goldshleger R, Asher C, et al. A specific functional interaction between CHIF and Na,K-ATPase: role of FXYD proteins in the cellular regulation of the pump. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;986:395-400 pubmed
    ..Taken together with data by others, it appears that FXYD proteins are tissue-specific subunits or regulators of the Na,K-ATPase whose function is to adjust the pump kinetics to particular physiological needs. ..
  60. Franc N, Heitzler P, Ezekowitz R, White K. Requirement for croquemort in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila. Science. 1999;284:1991-4 pubmed
    ..The expression of CRQ was regulated by the amount of apoptosis. These data define distinct pathways for the phagocytosis of corpses and bacteria in Drosophila. ..
  61. Caplan M. Gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase: targeting signals in the regulation of physiologic function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1998;10:468-73 pubmed
    ..Recent research suggests that a number of targeting signals and protein-protein interactions participate in governing this process. ..
  62. Roos G, Loverix S, Brosens E, Van Belle K, Wyns L, Geerlings P, et al. The activation of electrophile, nucleophile and leaving group during the reaction catalysed by pI258 arsenate reductase. Chembiochem. 2006;7:981-9 pubmed
    ..During the final reaction step, Cys89 is activated as a nucleophile by structural alterations of the redox helix that functions as a pKa control switch for Cys89; this final step is necessary to expose a Cys82-Cys89 disulfide. ..
  63. Pearson J, Van Delden C, Iglewski B. Active efflux and diffusion are involved in transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1203-10 pubmed
    ..Apparently the length and/or degree of substitution of the N-acyl side chain determines whether an AI is freely diffusible or is subject to active efflux by P. aeruginosa. ..
  64. Bhattacharjee H, Rosen B. Structure-function analysis of the ArsA ATPase: contribution of histidine residues. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2001;33:459-68 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that no single histidine residue plays a direct role in catalysis, and the inhibition by DEPC may be caused by steric hindrance from the carbethoxy group. ..
  65. Yerebakan O, Hu G, Yilmaz E, Celebi J. A novel mutation in the ARS (component B) gene encoding SLURP-1 in a family with Mal de Meleda. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28:542-4 pubmed
    ..These findings extend the body of evidence implicating mutations in the ARS (component B) gene in Mal de Meleda. ..
  66. Abe K, Saito H. Na+ and K+ dependence of morphological changes of cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;88:319-24 pubmed
  67. Ernst O, Lodowski D, Elstner M, Hegemann P, Brown L, Kandori H. Microbial and animal rhodopsins: structures, functions, and molecular mechanisms. Chem Rev. 2014;114:126-63 pubmed publisher
  68. Chan G, Hoque M, Bendayan R. Role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporters in the brain. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34:361-72 pubmed publisher
    ..An in-depth understanding of these pathways could guide the development of novel pharmacotherapy with either enhanced efficacy in the central nervous system or minimal associated neurotoxicity. ..
  69. Mustafa S. Effect of diabetes on the ion pumps of the bladder. Urology. 2013;81:211.e17-21 pubmed publisher
    To establish whether the activities of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca2+-ATPases ion pumps in bladder smooth muscle are altered as a consequence of diabetes and, if so, how this might contribute to bladder cystopathy...
  70. Maathuis F, Filatov V, Herzyk P, Krijger G, Axelsen K, Chen S, et al. Transcriptome analysis of root transporters reveals participation of multiple gene families in the response to cation stress. Plant J. 2003;35:675-92 pubmed
    ..Cluster analysis allowed identification of distinct expression profiles, and several novel putative regulatory motifs were discovered within sets of co-expressed genes. ..
  71. Solioz M, Vulpe C. CPx-type ATPases: a class of P-type ATPases that pump heavy metals. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996;21:237-41 pubmed
    ..We propose to call these enzymes CPx-type ATPases, based on the common novel feature of a conserved intramembranous cysteine-proline-cysteine or cysteine-proline-histidine motif. ..
  72. Silver S. Bacterial resistances to toxic metal ions--a review. Gene. 1996;179:9-19 pubmed
  73. Hynninen A, Tönismann K, Virta M. Improving the sensitivity of bacterial bioreporters for heavy metals. Bioeng Bugs. 2010;1:132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The achieved detection limits were significantly below the permitted limit values for Zn and Pb in water and in soil, allowing for reliable detection of heavy metals in the environment. ..
  74. Davis G, Galloway S, Ross I, Gregan S, Ward J, Nimbkar B, et al. DNA tests in prolific sheep from eight countries provide new evidence on origin of the Booroola (FecB) mutation. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1869-74 pubmed
    ..The DNA mutation test for FecB will enable breeding plans to be developed that allow the most effective use of this gene in Garole and Javanese Thin-tailed sheep and their crosses. ..
  75. Verkhovsky M, Bogachev A. Sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase as a redox-driven ion pump. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:738-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The resolution of the intermediates of the catalytic cycle and localization of sodium-dependent steps are combined in a possible molecular mechanism of sodium transfer by the enzyme. ..
  76. Kolbe M, Besir H, Essen L, Oesterhelt D. Structure of the light-driven chloride pump halorhodopsin at 1.8 A resolution. Science. 2000;288:1390-6 pubmed
    ..Ion dragging across the protonated Schiff base explains why chloride and proton translocation modes are mechanistically equivalent in archaeal rhodopsins...
  77. Walmsley A, Zhou T, Borges Walmsley M, Rosen B. The ATPase mechanism of ArsA, the catalytic subunit of the arsenite pump. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16153-61 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this interpretation, approximately 2 mol of phosphate are released per mole of ArsA during the phosphate burst. ..
  78. Tazzeo T, Worek F, Janssen L. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium is also a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases and the internal Ca(2+) pump. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct measurement of microsomal Ca(2+) uptake revealed that DPI modestly inhibits the internal Ca(2+) pump. DPI inhibits cholinesterase activity and the internal Ca(2+) pump in tracheal smooth muscle. ..
  79. Docampo R, de Souza W, Miranda K, Rohloff P, Moreno S. Acidocalcisomes - conserved from bacteria to man. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:251-61 pubmed
    ..Here, we review acidocalcisome ultrastructure, composition and function in different trypanosomatids and other organisms. ..
  80. Luquet C, Weihrauch D, Senek M, Towle D. Induction of branchial ion transporter mRNA expression during acclimation to salinity change in the euryhaline crab Chasmagnathus granulatus. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:3627-36 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a complex pattern of transcriptional regulation dependent upon the direction of salinity change and the developmental background of the gills. ..
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