acidic amino acid transport systems


Summary: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).

Top Publications

  1. Gras C, Amilhon B, Lepicard E, Poirel O, Vinatier J, Herbin M, et al. The vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT3 synergizes striatal acetylcholine tone. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a previously unknown effect of glutamate on cholinergic synapses with potential functional and pharmacological implications. ..
  2. Seal R, Akil O, Yi E, Weber C, Grant L, Yoo J, et al. Sensorineural deafness and seizures in mice lacking vesicular glutamate transporter 3. Neuron. 2008;57:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The glutamate release conferred by expression of VGLUT3 thus has an essential role in both function and development of the auditory pathway, as well as in the control of cortical excitability. ..
  3. Gillespie D, Kim G, Kandler K. Inhibitory synapses in the developing auditory system are glutamatergic. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:332-8 pubmed
    ..Synapse-specific activation of NMDARs by glutamate release at GABAergic and glycinergic synapses could be important in activity-dependent refinement of inhibitory circuits. ..
  4. Herzog E, Gilchrist J, Gras C, Muzerelle A, Ravassard P, Giros B, et al. Localization of VGLUT3, the vesicular glutamate transporter type 3, in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2004;123:983-1002 pubmed
    ..The distribution of VGLUT3 in the rat brain suggests an unsuspected function of vesicular glutamate transport in subsets of interneurons and in neuromodulatory neurons. ..
  5. Somogyi J, Baude A, Omori Y, Shimizu H, El Mestikawy S, Fukaya M, et al. GABAergic basket cells expressing cholecystokinin contain vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) in their synaptic terminals in hippocampus and isocortex of the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:552-69 pubmed
    ..The presumed amino acid substrate of VGLUT3 may act on presynaptic kainate or group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. ..
  6. Ruel J, Emery S, Nouvian R, Bersot T, Amilhon B, Van Rybroek J, et al. Impairment of SLC17A8 encoding vesicular glutamate transporter-3, VGLUT3, underlies nonsyndromic deafness DFNA25 and inner hair cell dysfunction in null mice. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;83:278-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that deafness in Slc17a8-deficient mice is due to a specific defect of vesicular glutamate uptake and release and that VGLUT3 is essential for auditory coding at the IHC synapse. ..
  7. Blaesse P, Ehrhardt S, Friauf E, Nothwang H. Developmental pattern of three vesicular glutamate transporters in the rat superior olivary complex. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;320:33-50 pubmed
    ..Our results imply a considerable amount of synaptic reorganization in the glutamatergic inputs to the SOC and suggest differential roles of VGLUTs during maturation and in adulthood. ..
  8. Gras C, Herzog E, Bellenchi G, Bernard V, Ravassard P, Pohl M, et al. A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5442-51 pubmed
    ..Our study reveals a novel class of glutamatergic nerve terminals and suggests that cholinergic striatal interneurons and serotoninergic neurons from the brainstem may store and release glutamate. ..
  9. Fremeau R, Voglmaier S, Seal R, Edwards R. VGLUTs define subsets of excitatory neurons and suggest novel roles for glutamate. Trends Neurosci. 2004;27:98-103 pubmed
    ..VGLUT3 also differs from VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in its subcellular location, with somatodendritic as well as axonal expression. ..

More Information


  1. Fremeau R, Burman J, Qureshi T, Tran C, Proctor J, Johnson J, et al. The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14488-93 pubmed
    ..The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate. ..
  2. Boulland J, Qureshi T, Seal R, Rafiki A, Gundersen V, Bergersen L, et al. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters during development indicates the widespread corelease of multiple neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2004;480:264-80 pubmed
    ..In skeletal muscle, VGLUT3 localizes to granular organelles in the axon terminal as well as in the muscle sarcoplasm. The results suggest novel mechanisms and roles for regulated transmitter release. ..
  3. Kalman M, Gentry D, Cashel M. Characterization of the Escherichia coli K12 gltS glutamate permease gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;225:379-86 pubmed
    ..The GltS protein is deduced to be a 42425 dalton hydrophobic protein with 2 sets of 5 possible integral protein domains, each flanking a central hydrophilic, flexible region...
  4. Moscicka K, Krupnik T, Boekema E, Lolkema J. Projection structure by single-particle electron microscopy of secondary transport proteins GltT, CitS, and GltS. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The GltS protein was shaped like CitS with dimensions of 145 A x 84 A. The shapes and dimensions of the CitS and GltS particles are consistent with a similar structure of these two unrelated proteins. ..
  5. Zheng X, Deng W, Luo K, Duan H, Chen Y, McAvoy R, et al. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:1195-203 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. ..
  6. Hioki H, Fujiyama F, Nakamura K, Wu S, Matsuda W, Kaneko T. Chemically specific circuit composed of vesicular glutamate transporter 3- and preprotachykinin B-producing interneurons in the rat neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:1266-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, VGLUT3-expressing GABAergic interneurons form a chemically specific circuit within the PPTB-producing interneuron group and it is likely that glutamate is used within the chemically specific circuit. ..
  7. Deguchi Y, Yamato I, Anraku Y. Nucleotide sequence of gltS, the Na+/glutamate symport carrier gene of Escherichia coli B. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:21704-8 pubmed
    ..coli, and the Na+/glucose co-transporters of rabbit and human intestines. We propose that this consensus sequence (or motif) may play an important role in cation recognition or binding in the Na+/solute symport reaction. ..
  8. Li T, Ghishan F, Bai L. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:1731-6 pubmed
    ..The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs. ..
  9. Lin L, Talman W. Nitroxidergic neurons in rat nucleus tractus solitarii express vesicular glutamate transporter 3. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29:179-91 pubmed
    ..These findings support our hypothesis that neurons and fibers containing VGLUT3 lie in close proximity to those containing nNOS and that both proteins colocalize in some neurons and fibers in the NTS. ..
  10. Dobrowolski A, Sobczak Elbourne I, Lolkema J. Membrane topology prediction by hydropathy profile alignment: membrane topology of the Na(+)-glutamate transporter GltS. Biochemistry. 2007;46:2326-32 pubmed
    ..The data strongly suggests that GltS of the ESS family and CitS of the 2HCT family share the same fold as was predicted by comparing the averaged hydropathy profiles of the two families. ..
  11. Kang T, Choi Y, Kim I, Oh S, Chun M. Identification and characterization of an aquaporin 1 immunoreactive amacrine-type cell of the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;488:352-67 pubmed
  12. Marchesi C, Dall Asta V, Rotoli B, Bianchi M, Maggini C, Gazzola G, et al. Chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine inhibit anionic amino acid transport in cultured human fibroblasts. Amino Acids. 2006;31:93-9 pubmed
  13. Boscia F, Ferraguti F, Moroni F, Annunziato L, Pellegrini Giampietro D. mGlu1alpha receptors are co-expressed with CB1 receptors in a subset of interneurons in the CA1 region of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and adult rat brain. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, additional functional mechanisms underlying the cooperation between these two receptor subtypes may exist. ..
  14. Fischer W, Loo D, Koch W, Ludewig U, Boorer K, Tegeder M, et al. Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. Plant J. 2002;29:717-31 pubmed
    ..Thus the actual apoplasmic concentration of amino acids and the pH will determine what is transported in vivo, i.e. major amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, and glutamate will be mobilized preferentially. ..
  15. Lorca G, Winnen B, Saier M. Identification of the L-aspartate transporter in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3218-22 pubmed
    ..This 14 TMS protein is the primary aspartate uptake system in B. subtilis and serves as the prototype for a new family within the APC superfamily. ..
  16. Ramos M, del Arco A, Pardo B, Martinez Serrano A, Martinez Morales J, Kobayashi K, et al. Developmental changes in the Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier aralar1 in brain and prominent expression in the spinal cord. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;143:33-46 pubmed
    ..The presence of aralar1 could reflect a tonic activity of these neurons, which is met by the combination of high malate-aspartate NADH shuttle and respiratory chain activities. ..
  17. Collin M, Bäckberg M, Ovesjö M, Fisone G, Edwards R, Fujiyama F, et al. Plasma membrane and vesicular glutamate transporter mRNAs/proteins in hypothalamic neurons that regulate body weight. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1265-78 pubmed
  18. Schwend T, Schabacker J, Wetterauer B, Wink M. Uptake of S-(3-amino-3-oxopropyl)-cysteine by Caco-2 cells. Z Naturforsch C. 2008;63:913-8 pubmed
    ..Hence we concluded that protein-bound acrylamide can be released in the intestine and that the resulting product S-(3-amino-3-oxopropyl)-cysteine is transported through the intestinal barrier and later excreted via the urine. ..
  19. Samartsev V, Markova O, Zeldi I, Smirnov A. Role of the ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids, lauryl sulfate, and 2, 4-dinitrophenol in liver mitochondria. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1999;64:901-11 pubmed
    ..During uncoupling the aspartate/glutamate antiporter cyclically carries the uncoupler anion with simultaneous proton transfer from the intermembrane space into the matrix. ..
  20. Palmieri L, Pardo B, Lasorsa F, Del Arco A, Kobayashi K, Iijima M, et al. Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria. EMBO J. 2001;20:5060-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle...
  21. Wibom R, Lasorsa F, Tohonen V, Barbaro M, Sterky F, Kucinski T, et al. AGC1 deficiency associated with global cerebral hypomyelination. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The child had global hypomyelination in the cerebral hemispheres, suggesting that impaired efflux of aspartate from neuronal mitochondria prevents normal myelin formation...
  22. Regenberg B, Kielland Brandt M. Amino acid residues important for substrate specificity of the amino acid permeases Can1p and Gnp1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2001;18:1429-40 pubmed
  23. Morris J, Konig P, Shimizu T, Jobling P, Gibbins I. Most peptide-containing sensory neurons lack proteins for exocytotic release and vesicular transport of glutamate. J Comp Neurol. 2005;483:1-16 pubmed
    ..These data raise the possibility that most peptide-containing sensory neurons may not normally release glutamate as a transmitter. ..
  24. Liang J, Takeuchi H, Doi Y, Kawanokuchi J, Sonobe Y, Jin S, et al. Excitatory amino acid transporter expression by astrocytes is neuroprotective against microglial excitotoxicity. Brain Res. 2008;1210:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed that astrocytic EAATs can counteract microglial glutamate-induced neuronal death whereas microglial EAATs are inconsequential to neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. ..
  25. Shibayama K, Wachino J, Arakawa Y, Saidijam M, Rutherford N, Henderson P. Metabolism of glutamine and glutathione via gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and glutamate transport in Helicobacter pylori: possible significance in the pathophysiology of the organism. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:396-406 pubmed publisher
  26. Haverkamp S, Wässle H. Characterization of an amacrine cell type of the mammalian retina immunoreactive for vesicular glutamate transporter 3. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:251-63 pubmed
    ..The axon terminals of type 3 and 5 bipolar cells costratified with vGluT3 dendrites, and it is possible that vGluT3 cells have ON and OFF light responses. ..
  27. Trip H, Evers M, Kiel J, Driessen A. Uptake of the beta-lactam precursor alpha-aminoadipic acid in Penicillium chrysogenum is mediated by the acidic and the general amino acid permease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4775-83 pubmed
    ..chrysogenum. The transport measurements demonstrate that both PcGap1 and PcDip5 contribute to the alpha-aminoadipic acid flux...
  28. May C, Nakamura K, Fujiyama F, Yanagawa Y. Quantification and characterization of GABA-ergic amacrine cells in the retina of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:395-400 pubmed
    ..6%). No co-localization was seen with antibodies against PV, TH, and VGluT 1-3. This study presents the first quantitative data concerning the co-localization of GABA-ergic neurons in the mouse retina with various neuronal markers. ..
  29. Wu S, Koshimizu Y, Feng Y, Okamoto K, Fujiyama F, Hioki H, et al. Vesicular glutamate transporter immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral endings of muscle-spindle afferents. Brain Res. 2004;1011:247-51 pubmed
    ..VGLUT1 might be expressed not only in the central axon terminals but also in the peripheral sensory endings of muscle-spindle afferents. ..
  30. Harkany T, Hartig W, Berghuis P, Dobszay M, Zilberter Y, Edwards R, et al. Complementary distribution of type 1 cannabinoid receptors and vesicular glutamate transporter 3 in basal forebrain suggests input-specific retrograde signalling by cholinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1979-92 pubmed
  31. Wojcik S, Rhee J, Herzog E, Sigler A, Jahn R, Takamori S, et al. An essential role for vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) in postnatal development and control of quantal size. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7158-63 pubmed
    ..These results show that the expression level of VGLUTs determines the amount of glutamate that is loaded into vesicles and released and thereby regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission. ..
  32. Amilhon B, Lepicard E, Renoir T, Mongeau R, Popa D, Poirel O, et al. VGLUT3 (vesicular glutamate transporter type 3) contribution to the regulation of serotonergic transmission and anxiety. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that the loss of VGLUT3 expression leads to anxiety-associated behaviors and should be considered as a potential new target for the treatment of this disorder. ..
  33. Leduc D, Gallaud J, Stingl K, De Reuse H. Coupled amino acid deamidase-transport systems essential for Helicobacter pylori colonization. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori. We propose a model in which these two nonredundant systems participate in H. pylori virulence by depleting gastric or immune cells from protective amino acids such as Gln and producing toxic ammonia close to the host cells...
  34. Dobrowolski A, Lolkema J. Evolution of antiparallel two-domain membrane proteins. Swapping domains in the glutamate transporter GltS. Biochemistry. 2010;49:5972-4 pubmed publisher
    ..GltS(swap) was as active as the original transporter provided that the domains were connected by a linker of the same size that connected them in the original transporter. ..
  35. Jusuf P, Haverkamp S, Grünert U. Localization of glycine receptor alpha subunits on bipolar and amacrine cells in primate retina. J Comp Neurol. 2005;488:113-28 pubmed
    ..Another putative glycinergic cell, the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 cell, is predominantly presynaptic to the alpha2 subunit. The dopaminergic amacrine cell expresses the alpha3 subunit at a low density. ..
  36. Oliveira A, Hydling F, Olsson E, Shi T, Edwards R, Fujiyama F, et al. Cellular localization of three vesicular glutamate transporter mRNAs and proteins in rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Synapse. 2003;50:117-29 pubmed
    ..VGLUT1 is mainly present in primary afferents from large, CGRP-negative DRG neurons, VGLUT2 has mainly a local origin, and VGLUT3 fibers probably have a supraspinal origin. ..
  37. Cavero S, Vozza A, Del Arco A, Palmieri L, Villa A, Blanco E, et al. Identification and metabolic role of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:1257-69 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong evidence of the existence of a malate-aspartate NADH shuttle in yeast. ..
  38. Landry M, Bouali Benazzouz R, El Mestikawy S, Ravassard P, Nagy F. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in rat lumbar spinal cord, with a note on dorsal root ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:380-94 pubmed
  39. McCullumsmith R, Meador Woodruff J. Expression of transcripts for the vesicular glutamate transporters in the human medial temporal lobe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;1003:438-42 pubmed
  40. Montana V, Ni Y, Sunjara V, Hua X, Parpura V. Vesicular glutamate transporter-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2633-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that VGLUTs play a functional role in exocytotic glutamate release from astrocytes. ..
  41. Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Hübschle T, Nakamura Y, Hioki H, Fujiyama F, et al. Identification of sympathetic premotor neurons in medullary raphe regions mediating fever and other thermoregulatory functions. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5370-80 pubmed
  42. Amerkhanov Z, Smirnova N, Markova O, Kolaeva S, Solomonov N. Involvement of some carrier proteins in thermoregulatory enhancement of respiration of mitochondria of the liver and skeletal muscles of ground squirrels (Citellus undulatus) awakening from hibernation. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2004;397:213-6 pubmed
  43. Daguer J, Geissmann T, Petit Glatron M, Chambert R. Autogenous modulation of the Bacillus subtilis sacB-levB-yveA levansucrase operon by the levB transcript. Microbiology. 2004;150:3669-79 pubmed
    ..Levanbiose is neither taken up nor metabolized by the bacteria. This work modifies the present view of the status of levansucrase in B. subtilis physiology. ..
  44. Dal Bo G, St Gelais F, Danik M, Williams S, Cotton M, Trudeau L. Dopamine neurons in culture express VGLUT2 explaining their capacity to release glutamate at synapses in addition to dopamine. J Neurochem. 2004;88:1398-405 pubmed
  45. Tordera R, Pei Q, Sharp T. Evidence for increased expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, by a course of antidepressant treatment. J Neurochem. 2005;94:875-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a course of antidepressant drug or ECS treatment increases expression of VGLUT1, a key gene involved in the regulation of glutamate secretion. ..
  46. Takamori S, Malherbe P, Broger C, Jahn R. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:798-803 pubmed
  47. Quintero M, Montesinos M, Herrero A, Flores E. Identification of genes encoding amino acid permeases by inactivation of selected ORFs from the Synechocystis genomic sequence. Genome Res. 2001;11:2034-40 pubmed
    ..Except for GltS, substrate specificities of the identified permeases do not match those of previously characterized systems homologous to these permeases. ..
  48. Seal R, Wang X, Guan Y, Raja S, Woodbury C, Basbaum A, et al. Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors. Nature. 2009;462:651-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of Vglut3(-/-) mice now indicates a critical role for C-LTMRs in the mechanical hypersensitivity caused by injury. ..
  49. Noh J, Seal R, Garver J, Edwards R, Kandler K. Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that glutamate co-transmission is crucial for the synaptic reorganization and topographic specification of a developing inhibitory circuit. ..
  50. Samartsev V, Markova O, Chezghanova S, Mokhova E. Effect of the cationic detergent CTAB on the involvement of ADP/ATP antiporter and aspartate/glutamate antiporter in fatty acid-induced uncoupling of liver mitochondria. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001;66:926-31 pubmed
  51. Herick K, Kramer R. Kinetic and energetic characterization of solute flux through the reconstituted aspartate/glutamate carrier from beef heart mitochondria after modification with mercurials. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1238:63-71 pubmed
    ..The consequence of these results for understanding the transport function of the aspartate/glutamate carrier in the slippage mode (uniport) is discussed in energetic and kinetic terms. ..
  52. Indiveri C, Kramer R, Palmieri F. Reconstitution of the malate/aspartate shuttle from mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15979-83 pubmed
    ..The reconstitution procedure was characterized with respect to the optimum ratio of reconstituted carrier proteins, the lipid concentration, and the concentration of internal substrates. ..