Summary: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.

Top Publications

  1. Vasileiadis I, Pipili C, Nanas S. Continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients does not affect urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels. Crit Care. 2015;19:140 pubmed publisher
  2. Park M, Shlipak M, Vittinghoff E, Katz R, Siscovick D, Sarnak M, et al. Associations of kidney injury markers with subclinical cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Clin Nephrol. 2015;84:358-63 pubmed publisher
  3. De Berardinis B, Gaggin H, Magrini L, Belcher A, Zancla B, Femia A, et al. Comparison between admission natriuretic peptides, NGAL and sST2 testing for the prediction of worsening renal function in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2015;53:613-21 pubmed
    ..In ED patients with ADHF, the combination of NT-proBNP or BNP plus NGAL at presentation may be useful to predict impending WRF ( NCT#0150153). ..
  4. Schilder L, Nurmohamed S, ter Wee P, Paauw N, Girbes A, Beishuizen A, et al. The plasma level and biomarker value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are not affected by continuous venovenous hemofiltration and anticoagulation applied. Crit Care. 2014;18:R78 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, no evidence exists for intrafilter release of NGAL by neutrophils, irrespective of the anticoagulation method applied. ..
  5. Schmidt Ott K. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker of acute kidney injury--where do we stand today?. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:762-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Haase M, Haase Fielitz A. Can novel biomarkers complement best possible clinical assessment for early acute kidney injury diagnosis?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2310-2 pubmed publisher
  7. Christoffersen C, Nielsen L. Apolipoprotein M--a new biomarker in sepsis. Crit Care. 2012;16:126 pubmed publisher
  8. Tasanarong A, Duangchana S, Sumransurp S, Homvises B, Satdhabudha O. Prophylaxis with erythropoietin versus placebo reduces acute kidney injury and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Prophylaxis administration with intravenous rHuEPO before cardiac surgery decreased the incidence of CSA-AKI and urine NGAL with reduced days in ICU and hospital in elective CABG patients. NCT01066351. ..
  9. Bernasconi L, Pötzl T, Steuer C, Dellweg A, Metternich F, Huber A. Retrospective validation of a ?-trace protein interpretation algorithm for the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017;55:554-560 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive and negative predictive values were 89.2% and 99.4%, respectively. Our data suggest that the proposed ?-TP interpretation algorithm is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of CSF leakage in the clinical practice. ..

More Information


  1. Yang H, Yim H, Cho Y, Kym D, Hur J, Kim J, et al. Assessment of biochemical markers in the early post-burn period for predicting acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with major burn injury: comparison of serum creatinine, serum cystatin-C, plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated l. Crit Care. 2014;18:R151 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the plasma and urine NGAL levels were independently associated with AKI development and mortality within 48 hours after admission. ..
  2. Frej C, Mendez A, Ruiz M, Castillo M, Hughes T, Dahlback B, et al. A Shift in ApoM/S1P Between HDL-Particles in Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Impaired Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the ApoM/S1P Complex. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1194-1205 pubmed publisher
    ..T1D patients have a higher proportion of light particles and hence more dysfunctional HDL, which could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk associated with T1D. ..
  3. Devarajan P. NGAL for the detection of acute kidney injury in the emergency room. Biomark Med. 2014;8:217-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Doi K, Urata M, Katagiri D, Inamori M, Murata S, Hisagi M, et al. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in acute kidney injury superimposed on chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery: a multicenter prospective study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R270 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is necessary to confirm these findings because this study examined a small number of patients. ..
  5. Otto G, Busch M, Sossdorf M, Claus R. Impact of sepsis-associated cytokine storm on plasma NGAL during acute kidney injury in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Crit Care. 2013;17:419 pubmed publisher
  6. Di Somma S, Magrini L, De Berardinis B, Marino R, Ferri E, Moscatelli P, et al. Additive value of blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to clinical judgement in acute kidney injury diagnosis and mortality prediction in patients hospitalized from the emergency department. Crit Care. 2013;17:R29 pubmed publisher
    ..See related commentary by Legrand et al., ..
  7. Thurairatnam S. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase inhibitors. Prog Med Chem. 2012;51:97-133 pubmed publisher
  8. Plotnikov E, Pavlenko T, Pevzner I, Zorova L, Manskikh V, Silachev D, et al. The role of oxidative stress in acute renal injury of newborn rats exposed to hypoxia and endotoxin. FEBS J. 2017;284:3069-3078 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the simulation of AKI in newborn rat pups can be employed in screening for potential nephroprotective drugs, particularly among antioxidative compounds to be used in neonatology. ..
  9. Haase Fielitz A, Haase M, Bellomo R. Instability of urinary NGAL during long-term storage. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53:564-5; author reply 566 pubmed publisher
  10. Jakob T, Hilger C, Hentges F. Clinical relevance of sensitization to cross-reactive lipocalin Can f 6. Allergy. 2013;68:690-1 pubmed publisher
  11. Ostermann M, Forni L. Measuring biomarkers of acute kidney injury during renal replacement therapy: wisdom or folly?. Crit Care. 2014;18:155 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a recent study which has provided data that may aid in addressing this issue. ..
  12. Donadio C. Dialysis with high-flux membranes significantly affects plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Crit Care. 2016;20:20 pubmed publisher
  13. Foster M, Levey A, Inker L, Shafi T, Fan L, Gudnason V, et al. Non-GFR Determinants of Low-Molecular-Weight Serum Protein Filtration Markers in the Elderly: AGES-Kidney and MESA-Kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70:406-414 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cystatin C and B2M levels may be affected by inflammation. These findings are important for the development and use of GFR estimating equations based on low-molecular-weight serum proteins throughout the range in GFRs. ..
  14. Sarafidis K, Tsepkentzi E, Diamanti E, Agakidou E, Taparkou A, Soubasi V, et al. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to predict acute kidney injury in preterm neonates. A pilot study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29:305-10 pubmed
    ..In this pilot study in preterm neonates, although uNGAL detected sCre-based AKI upon its documentation, it failed to predict its development 1-2 days earlier. ..
  15. Parikh C, Garg A. Testing new biomarkers for acute kidney injury: association, prediction, and intervention. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:987-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Devarajan P. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin--an emerging troponin for kidney injury. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:3737-43 pubmed publisher
  17. Lippi G, Meschi T, Nouvenne A, Mattiuzzi C, Borghi L. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in cancer. Adv Clin Chem. 2014;64:179-219 pubmed
  18. Ostermann M, Philips B, Forni L. Clinical review: Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: where are we now?. Crit Care. 2012;16:233 pubmed publisher
    ..We outline the major studies described to date as well as discuss potential reasons for the discrepancies observed and suggest that evolution of the field may result in success with ultimately an improvement in patient outcomes. ..
  19. Siew E. Blind men and elephants and the biological markers of AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1578-80 pubmed publisher
  20. Haase M, Haase Fielitz A. NGAL--from discovery to a new era of "acute renal disease" diagnosis?. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:499-500 pubmed publisher
  21. Hjortrup P, Haase N, Wetterslev M, Perner A. Clinical review: Predictive value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for acute kidney injury in intensive care patients. Crit Care. 2013;17:211 pubmed publisher
    ..NGAL seems to have reasonable value in predicting use of renal replacement therapy but not mortality. ..
  22. Tian F, Wu C, Yu B, Liu L, Hu J. Apolipoprotein O expression in mouse liver enhances hepatic lipid accumulation by impairing mitochondrial function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a link between apoO and lipid accumulation and could suggest a new pathway for regulating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression. ..
  23. Fietta P, Delsante G. Focus on adipokines. Theor Biol Forum. 2013;106:103-29 pubmed
    ..Comprehensive advances in understanding the WAT biology and signaling may provide crucial insights into the physiopathology of the whole body homeostasis. ..
  24. de Geus H, Betjes M, Bakker J. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin clearance during veno-venous continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:2156-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Matsa R, Ashley E, Sharma V, Walden A, Keating L. Plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in the diagnosis of new onset acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2014;18:R137 pubmed publisher
    ..The accuracy of NGAL appeared to improve slightly as patients progressed through their ICU stay. Serial measurements of NGAL (both pNGAL and uNGAL) may be of added value in an ICU setting to predict the occurrence of AKI. ..
  26. Zeng X, Li J, Tan Y, Wang Z, He Y, Chang J, et al. Performance of urinary NGAL and L-FABP in predicting acute kidney injury and subsequent renal recovery: a cohort study based on major surgeries. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014;52:671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..70. Urinary NGAL and L-FABP can be used to detect AKI and combining NGAL and L-FABP may improve the diagnostic performance; however, NGAL and L-FABP may be poor predictors for renal recovery after AKI. ..
  27. Ostermann M, Joannidis M. Biomarkers for AKI improve clinical practice: no. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:618-22 pubmed publisher
  28. Esteve E, Ricart W, Fernandez Real J. Adipocytokines and insulin resistance: the possible role of lipocalin-2, retinol binding protein-4, and adiponectin. Diabetes Care. 2009;32 Suppl 2:S362-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Waikar S, Betensky R, Bonventre J. Creatinine as the gold standard for kidney injury biomarker studies?. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3263-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Yamamoto K, Higashiura A, Suzuki M, Aritake K, Urade Y, Nakagawa A. Molecular structure of a prostaglandin D synthase requiring glutathione from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:166-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of nlPGDS activity and potentially that of other insects and therefore may facilitate the development of more effective and safe insecticides. ..
  31. Honore P, Jacobs R, Hendrickx I, De Waele E, Van Gorp V, Spapen H. Is neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin unaffected by convective continuous renal replacement therapy? Definitely … maybe. Crit Care. 2015;19:392 pubmed publisher
  32. Ronco C. Biomarkers for acute kidney injury: is NGAL ready for clinical use?. Crit Care. 2014;18:680 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the opportunity to consider whether NGAL is ready for routine clinical use in a number of etiologies of AKI. ..
  33. Bolignano D, Coppolino G. Biomarkers of cardio-renal damage in chronic kidney disease: one size cannot fit all. Crit Care. 2014;18:134 pubmed publisher
  34. Warszawska J, Gawish R, Sharif O, Sigel S, Doninger B, Lakovits K, et al. Lipocalin 2 deactivates macrophages and worsens pneumococcal pneumonia outcomes. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data emphasize the importance of macrophage deactivation for the outcome of pneumococcal infections and highlight the role of LCN2 and IL-10 as determinants of macrophage performance in the respiratory tract. ..
  35. Rullo O, Woo J, Parsa M, Hoftman A, Maranian P, Elashoff D, et al. Plasma levels of osteopontin identify patients at risk for organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R18 pubmed publisher
    ..High circulating OPN levels preceded increased cumulative disease activity and organ damage in SLE patients, especially in pSLE, and its value as a predictor of poor outcome should be further validated in large longitudinal cohorts. ..
  36. Bagshaw S. Subclinical acute kidney injury: a novel biomarker-defined syndrome. Crit Care Resusc. 2011;13:201-3 pubmed
  37. McIlroy D, Wagener G, Lee H. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: an evolving domain. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:998-1004 pubmed publisher
  38. Donadio C, Tognotti D, Caponi L, Paolicchi A. ?-trace protein is highly removed during haemodialysis with high-flux and super high-flux membranes. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:68 pubmed publisher
  39. Donadio C. Effect of glomerular filtration rate impairment on diagnostic performance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and B-type natriuretic peptide as markers of acute cardiac and renal failure in chronic kidney disease patients. Crit Care. 2014;18:R39 pubmed publisher
  40. Arulkumaran N, Sixma M, Jentho E, Ceravola E, Bass P, Kellum J, et al. Sequential Analysis of a Panel of Biomarkers and Pathologic Findings in a Resuscitated Rat Model of Sepsis and Recovery. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e821-e830 pubmed publisher
    ..These clinically relevant findings should have significant influence on future clinical testing. ..
  41. Vanmassenhove J, Glorieux G, Lameire N, Hoste E, Dhondt A, Vanholder R, et al. Influence of severity of illness on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin performance as a marker of acute kidney injury: a prospective cohort study of patients with sepsis. BMC Nephrol. 2015;16:18 pubmed publisher
  42. Umeyama H, Iwadate M, Taguchi Y. TINAGL1 and B3GALNT1 are potential therapy target genes to suppress metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Genomics. 2014;15 Suppl 9:S2 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are potential target genes for the therapy of NSCLC. Among the eleven genes, TINAGL1 and B3GALNT1 are possible candidates for drug compounds that inhibit their gene expression. ..
  43. Surmiak P, Baumert M, Fiala M, Sypniewska K, Walencka Z, Łukomska A, et al. Umbilical cord blood NGAL concentration as an early marker of perinatal asphyxia in neonates. Ginekol Pol. 2014;85:424-7 pubmed
    ..5 ng/mL vs. 24.3 ng/ mL p < 0.001) were elevated in asphyxiated newborns as compared to healthy children. The measurement of NGAL in the umbilical blood can be a valuable biomarker of perinatal asphyxia in neonates. ..
  44. Honore P, Spapen H. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin elimination by renal replacement therapy: minding the membrane!. Crit Care. 2016;20:87 pubmed publisher