insulin like growth factor binding protein 1


Summary: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)

Top Publications

  1. Sitar T, Popowicz G, Siwanowicz I, Huber R, Holak T. Structural basis for the inhibition of insulin-like growth factors by insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13028-33 pubmed
  2. Kotronen A, Lewitt M, Hall K, Brismar K, Yki Jarvinen H. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 as a novel specific marker of hepatic insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4867-72 pubmed publisher
    ..fS-IGFBP-1 is inversely correlated with liver fat and is an obesity-independent and liver-specific circulating marker of hepatic insulin sensitivity. ..
  3. Veldhuis J, Frystyk J, Iranmanesh A, Ørskov H. Testosterone and estradiol regulate free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and dimeric IGF-I/IGFBP-1 concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2941-7 pubmed
    ..If free IGF-I mediates certain biological actions, then exogenous Te and E2 may modulate the tissue effects of total IGF-I concentrations unequally. ..
  4. Kajimura S, Aida K, Duan C. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) mediates hypoxia-induced embryonic growth and developmental retardation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1240-5 pubmed
    ..The induction of IGFBP-1 expression may be a conserved physiological mechanism to restrict the IGF-stimulated growth and developmental process under hypoxic stress. ..
  5. Stokes K, Nevill M, Frystyk J, Lakomy H, Hall G. Human growth hormone responses to repeated bouts of sprint exercise with different recovery periods between bouts. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:1254-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, repeated bouts of sprint cycling on the same day result in an attenuation or even ablation of the exercise-induced increase in GH, depending on the recovery interval between sprints. ..
  6. Heald A, Kaushal K, Anderson S, Redpath M, Durrington P, Selby P, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 to IGFBP-4: implications for cardiovascular risk. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20:176-82 pubmed
    ..The effect of progestogens on IGF bioavailability could be an important determinant of the longer-term risks of specific HRT preparations by opposing the potentially beneficial effects of CEE alone on cardiovascular risk. ..
  7. Kajimura S, Aida K, Duan C. Understanding hypoxia-induced gene expression in early development: in vitro and in vivo analysis of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-regulated zebra fish insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1142-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HIF-1 mediates hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1 gene expression in early development by selectively interacting with the -1090/-1086 HRE and its adjacent HAS. ..
  8. Mounier C, Dumas V, Posner B. Regulation of hepatic insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 gene expression by insulin: central role for mammalian target of rapamycin independent of forkhead box O proteins. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2383-91 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have found that in rat liver, insulin inhibition of IGFBP-1 mRNA levels can occur in the absence of the phosphorylation of Foxo1/Foxo3, whereas activation of the mTOR pathway is both necessary and sufficient. ..
  9. Støving R, Chen J, Glintborg D, Brixen K, Flyvbjerg A, Hørder K, et al. Bioactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and IGF-binding protein-1 in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2323-9 pubmed
    ..Total IGF-I level is a suitable marker of IGF-I bioactivity in emaciated patients with AN irrespective of the clinical subtype and acute nutritional state. ..

More Information


  1. Catrina S, Rotarus R, Botusan I, Coculescu M, Brismar K. Desmopressin increases IGF-binding protein-1 in humans. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..DDAVP increases serum levels of IGFBP-1. Further investigation is essential to unravel the clinical potential of this interaction in conditions associated with high IGFBP-1 levels. ..
  2. Cauchi S, Meyre D, Durand E, Proenca C, Marre M, Hadjadj S, et al. Post genome-wide association studies of novel genes associated with type 2 diabetes show gene-gene interaction and high predictive value. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2031 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes expressed in the pancreas interact together and their combined effect dramatically increases the risk for T2D, opening avenues for the development of genetic prediction tests. ..
  3. Cheng I, Penney K, Stram D, Le Marchand L, Giorgi E, Haiman C, et al. Haplotype-based association studies of IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 with prostate and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1993-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that common genetic variation in the IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genes do not substantially influence prostate and breast cancer susceptibility. ..
  4. Wallander M, Norhammar A, Malmberg K, Ohrvik J, Ryden L, Brismar K. IGF binding protein 1 predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2343-8 pubmed
    ..2 [1.0-1.4]). High levels of IGFBP-1 at admission are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in type 2 diabetes patients with AMI. ..
  5. Ben Lagha N, Seurin D, Le Bouc Y, Binoux M, Berdal A, Menuelle P, et al. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-1) involvement in intrauterine growth retardation: study on IGFBP-1 overexpressing transgenic mice. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4730-7 pubmed
    ..Similar perturbations could be observed in human intrauterine growth retardation suggesting the IGF/IGFBP system is involved in fetal growth, biomineralization, and energetic status in humans. ..
  6. Schernhammer E, Holly J, Hunter D, Pollak M, Hankinson S. Insulin-like growth factor-I, its binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3), and growth hormone and breast cancer risk in The Nurses Health Study II. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13:583-92 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, circulating IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, and GH levels appear to have no important association with breast cancer risk in a large cohort of premenopausal women. ..
  7. Wheatcroft S, Kearney M. IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions of IGF-binding protein-1 and -2: implications for metabolic homeostasis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the evolving roles of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in metabolic homeostasis, summarize their effects on IGF bioactivity and explore putative mechanisms by which they might exert IGF-independent cellular actions. ..
  8. Watson C, Bialek P, Anzo M, Khosravi J, Yee S, Han V. Elevated circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 is sufficient to cause fetal growth restriction. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1175-86 pubmed
    ..5; P < 0.05). Thus, this model of FGR is associated with a larger placenta, but without postnatal catch-up growth. Overall, these data clearly demonstrate that high concentrations of circulating IGFBP-1 are sufficient to cause FGR. ..
  9. Lewitt M, Hilding A, Ostenson C, Efendic S, Brismar K, Hall K. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 in the prediction and development of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men. Diabetologia. 2008;51:1135-45 pubmed publisher
  10. Diorio C, Pollak M, Byrne C, MASSE B, Hébert Croteau N, Yaffe M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and mammographic breast density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1065-73 pubmed
    ..They provide additional support for the idea that, among premenopausal women, these growth factors may affect breast cancer risk, at least in part, through their influence on breast tissue morphology as reflected on mammogram. ..
  11. Petersson U, Ostgren C, Brudin L, Brismar K, Nilsson P. Low levels of insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are prospectively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): the Söderåkra Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study. Diabetes Metab. 2009;35:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..001 and HR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.47-7.6; P=0.004, respectively. Low levels of IGFBP-1 predicted the long-term development of type 2 diabetes or IGT in a middle-aged population. The association was independent of CRP and abdominal obesity. ..
  12. Schernhammer E, Holly J, Pollak M, Hankinson S. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:699-704 pubmed
    ..IGFBP-3, IGFBP-1, and free IGF are not associated with breast cancer risk in either premenopausal or postmenopausal women in this cohort. ..
  13. Mauri P, Scarpa A, Nascimbeni A, Benazzi L, Parmagnani E, Mafficini A, et al. Identification of proteins released by pancreatic cancer cells by multidimensional protein identification technology: a strategy for identification of novel cancer markers. FASEB J. 2005;19:1125-7 pubmed
    ..Our finding that pancreatic cancer cells secrete a series of proteoglycans, including versican, perlecan, syndecan 1 and 4, challenges the common view that fibroblasts of tumor stroma are the sole source of these molecules. ..
  14. Kalme T, Seppala M, Qiao Q, Koistinen R, Nissinen A, Harrela M, et al. Sex hormone-binding globulin and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 as indicators of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, and mortality in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1550-6 pubmed
    ..IGFBP-1 had no association with mortality. It is concluded that low SHBG is a better indicator of increased cardiovascular mortality than low or high IGFBP-1. ..
  15. Frystyk J, Højlund K, Rasmussen K, Jørgensen S, Wildner Christensen M, Ørskov H. Development and clinical evaluation of a novel immunoassay for the binary complex of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:260-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it has now become possible to compare levels of IGF-I carried within the binary complex IGFBP-1:IGF-I in different (patho-) physiological conditions. ..
  16. Patel S, Lochhead P, Rena G, Sutherland C. Antagonistic effects of phorbol esters on insulin regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) but not glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression. Biochem J. 2001;359:611-9 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the activation of PKB and phosphorylation of FKHR is not, in itself, sufficient to reduce IGFBP-1 gene expression in the presence of phorbol esters. ..
  17. Krassas G, Pontikides N, Kaltsas T, Dumas A, Frystyk J, Chen J, et al. Free and total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II, and IGF binding protein-1, -2, and -3 serum levels in patients with active thyroid eye disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:132-5 pubmed
    ..The increased IGF levels in retrobulbar tissues previously described, appear to be independent of serum IGFs concentration and probably represent autocrine and/or paracrine activity. ..
  18. Holt R, Simpson H, Sonksen P. The role of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in glucose homeostasis. Diabet Med. 2003;20:3-15 pubmed
    ..IGF-I 'replacement' in diabetes is under investigation and new methods of delivering IGF-I as a complex with IGFBP-3 offer exciting new prospects. ..
  19. Patel S, Lochhead P, Rena G, Fumagalli S, Pende M, Kozma S, et al. Insulin regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 gene expression is dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin, but independent of ribosomal S6 kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9889-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, although the insulin-responsive sequence of the G6Pase gene promoter is related to that of the IGFBP-1 promoter, the signaling pathways that mediate suppression of these genes are distinct. ..
  20. Chakraborty C, Gleeson L, McKinnon T, Lala P. Regulation of human trophoblast migration and invasiveness. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:116-24 pubmed
    ..These studies may improve our understanding of diseases related to abnormal placentation, viz. hypoinvasiveness in preeclampsia and hyperinvasiveness in trophoblastic neoplasms. ..
  21. Froment P, Seurin D, Hembert S, Levine J, Pisselet C, Monniaux D, et al. Reproductive abnormalities in human IGF binding protein-1 transgenic female mice. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1801-8 pubmed
    ..Increased circulating IGFBP-1 concentrations may additionally lead to altered GnRH and LH pulsatility and thereby exacerbate the ovulation defect. ..
  22. Maures T, Duan C. Structure, developmental expression, and physiological regulation of zebrafish IGF binding protein-1. Endocrinology. 2002;143:2722-31 pubmed
  23. de Groof F, Joosten K, Janssen J, De Kleijn E, Hazelzet J, Hop W, et al. Acute stress response in children with meningococcal sepsis: important differences in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis between nonsurvivors and survivors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3118-24 pubmed
    ..These values were different from those for the survivors. Based on these findings and literature data a hypothetical model was constructed summarizing our current knowledge and understanding of the various mechanisms. ..
  24. Licht P, Russu V, Lehmeyer S, Möll J, Siebzehnrübl E, Wildt L. Intrauterine microdialysis reveals cycle-dependent regulation of endometrial insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 secretion by human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil Steril. 2002;78:252-8 pubmed
    ..Intrauterine microdialysis allows a dynamic assessment of endometrial paracrine function in vivo. Human chorionic gonadotropin may be involved in the mechanisms regulating endometrial receptivity. ..
  25. Foucher I, Volovitch M, Frain M, Kim J, Souberbielle J, Gan L, et al. Hoxa5 overexpression correlates with IGFBP1 upregulation and postnatal dwarfism: evidence for an interaction between Hoxa5 and Forkhead box transcription factors. Development. 2002;129:4065-74 pubmed
  26. Crossey P, Pillai C, Miell J. Altered placental development and intrauterine growth restriction in IGF binding protein-1 transgenic mice. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:411-8 pubmed
  27. Kim J, Taylor H, Akbas G, Foucher I, Trembleau A, Jaffe R, et al. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 promoter activity by FKHR and HOXA10 in primate endometrial cells. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:24-30 pubmed
    ..These studies show that FKHR and HOXA10 interact directly and can function cooperatively to stimulate IGFBP-1 promoter activity in endometrial cells and perhaps in other settings. ..
  28. Vander Kooi B, Streeper R, Svitek C, Oeser J, Powell D, O Brien R. The three insulin response sequences in the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit gene promoter are functionally distinct. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11782-93 pubmed
  29. Karna E, Surazynski A, Orłowski K, Łaszkiewicz J, Puchalski Z, Nawrat P, et al. Serum and tissue level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding proteins as an index of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Int J Exp Pathol. 2002;83:239-45 pubmed
  30. Waters D, Dorin R, Qualls C, Ruby B, Baumgartner R, Robergs R. Estradiol effects on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in amenorrheic athletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2003;28:64-78 pubmed
    ..02 respectively). These findings differ from postmenopausal women, and women having weightloss-associated amenorrhea, suggesting that estrogen, exercise, and nutritional deficiencies may have independent effects on the GH/IGF-1 axis. ..
  31. Patel S, Lipina C, Sutherland C. Different mechanisms are used by insulin to repress three genes that contain a homologous thymine-rich insulin response element. FEBS Lett. 2003;549:72-6 pubmed
    ..These data have major implications for the development of molecular therapeutics for the treatment of insulin-resistant states such as diabetes and hypertension. ..
  32. Laughlin G, Barrett Connor E, Criqui M, Kritz Silverstein D. The prospective association of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-1 levels with all cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:114-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that low baseline levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 increase the risk of fatal IHD among elderly men and women independent of prevalent IHD and CVD risk factors. ..
  33. Pedroso F, Fukada H, Masumoto T. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution patterns and nutritional regulation of IGFBP-1, -2, -3 and -5 in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;161:344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The unexpected increase in growth stimulatory IGFBPs and IGF-I during nutritional deprivation may represent a species-specific response to changes in nutritional condition. ..
  34. Baffour R, Pakala R, Hellinga D, Joner M, Okubagzi P, Epstein S, et al. Bone marrow-derived stem cell interactions with adult cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts in vitro. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2006;7:222-30 pubmed
    ..MNC do not induce the proliferation of cardiomyocytes. Stem-cell-secreted growth factors induce the proliferation of myoblasts, which is not influenced by cell-to-cell contact. ..
  35. Pasello G, Favaretto A. Molecular targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10:1235-44 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the current target therapies and evaluates future biologic approaches for the systemic management of MPM. ..
  36. Lehtihet M, Efendic S, Brismar K. Postprandial paradoxical IGFBP-1 response in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008;115:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulated meal response to glucagon, which contributes to postprandial hyperglycaemia, could not explain the increase in serum IGFBP-1 in these obese patients with T2DM. ..
  37. Spruit M, Troosters T, Gosselink R, Kasran A, Decramer M. Acute inflammatory and anabolic systemic responses to peak and constant-work-rate exercise bout in hospitalized patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2:575-83 pubmed
    ..High-intensity cycling exercises did not increase the circulating levels of inflammatory markers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irrespective of their clinical stability. ..
  38. Chen F, Dudenhausen J. Comparison of two rapid strip tests based on IGFBP-1 and PAMG-1 for the detection of amniotic fluid. Am J Perinatol. 2008;25:243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the rapid strip test based on PAMG-1 seems to be a more sensitive bedside test compared with the test based on IGFBP-1 for the detection of amniotic fluid. ..
  39. Wnuczko K, Szczepanski M. [Influence of insulin-like growth factor 1 on PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules expression in tumor necrosis factor alpha and hyperglycemia induced umbilical vein endothelial cells]. Wiad Lek. 2008;61:119-25 pubmed
    ..2. Combination of IGF-1, TNF-alpha and hyperglycemia influence synergistically enhances PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells surface. ..
  40. Berker B, Emral R, Demirel C, Corapcioglu D, Unlu C, Kose K. Increased insulin-like growth factor-I levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and beneficial effects of metformin therapy. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004;19:125-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, in PCOS patients with elevated levels of IGF-I, metformin may be considered as an appropriate agent to be used for the regulation of menstrual cycles. ..
  41. Simmons R, Erikson D, Kim J, Burghardt R, Bazer F, Johnson G, et al. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in the ruminant uterus: potential endometrial marker and regulator of conceptus elongation. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal that IGFBP1 is a common endometrial marker of conceptus elongation in sheep and cattle and most likely regulates conceptus elongation by stimulating migration and attachment of the trophectoderm...
  42. Ibanez de Caceres I, Dulaimi E, Hoffman A, Al Saleem T, Uzzo R, Cairns P. Identification of novel target genes by an epigenetic reactivation screen of renal cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:5021-8 pubmed
  43. Olszanecka Glinianowicz M, Zahorska Markiewicz B, Kocełak P, Janowska J, Semik Grabarczyk E. The effect of weight reduction on plasma concentrations of ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in obese women. Endokrynol Pol. 2008;59:301-4 pubmed
    ..Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and IGF-1 increased after weight loss. However, it seems there is no association between serum concentrations of ghrelin and IGF-1 in obese women. ..
  44. Wasada T, Kasahara T, Wada J, Jimba S, Fujimaki R, Nakagami T, et al. Hepatic steatosis rather than visceral adiposity is more closely associated with insulin resistance in the early stage of obesity. Metabolism. 2008;57:980-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Choi D, Nguyen K, Wang L, Schroer S, Suzuki A, Mak T, et al. Partial deletion of Pten in the hypothalamus leads to growth defects that cannot be rescued by exogenous growth hormone. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, PTEN in the hypothalamic insulin-transcribing neurons plays an essential role in body size determination, and systemic GH cannot overcome the growth defect in these mice. ..
  46. Salminen H, Saaf M, Ringertz H, Strender L. The role of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 status and secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to osteoporosis in elderly Swedish women. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:201-9 pubmed
    ..In this study the use of loop diuretics was a more important cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism than vitamin D status. ..
  47. Tsangaris G, Karamessinis P, Kolialexi A, Garbis S, Antsaklis A, Mavrou A, et al. Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid in pregnancies with Down syndrome. Proteomics. 2006;6:4410-9 pubmed
    ..However, for protein biomarkers to be of any clinical utility, systematic analysis of the maternal serum should be conducted. ..
  48. Lee S, Han B, Park I, Romero R, Yoon B. Evidence supporting proteolytic cleavage of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) protein in amniotic fluid. J Perinat Med. 2008;36:316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The fragmented form of AF IGFBP-1 was significantly increased in AF with intra-amniotic inflammation, and MMPs produced in AF with intra-amniotic inflammation were associated with the proteolytic change of AF IGFBP-1. ..
  49. Pernow Y, Hauge E, Linder K, Dahl E, Saaf M. Bone histomorphometry in male idiopathic osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009;84:430-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone histomorphometry parameters were associated with low body weight, low estradiol levels, and increased levels of IGFBP-1, supporting the notion that estrogens and IGFs play regulatory roles in male bone turnover. ..
  50. Mavropoulos J, Buschemeyer W, Tewari A, Rokhfeld D, Pollak M, Zhao Y, et al. The effects of varying dietary carbohydrate and fat content on survival in a murine LNCaP prostate cancer xenograft model. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:557-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support further preclinical exploration of carbohydrate restriction in prostate cancer and possibly warrant pilot or feasibility testing in humans. ..
  51. Chen J, Nielsen M, Caumo A, Vilstrup H, Christiansen J, Frystyk J. Changes in bioactive IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155:285-92 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the reduction in bioactive IGF-I may be related to the higher levels of free IGFBP-1 and the faster disappearance of IGFBP-1-bound IGF-I. ..
  52. Kamangar B, Gabillard J, Bobe J. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6 and IGFBP-related protein 1 during rainbow trout postvitellogenesis and oocyte maturation: molecular characterization, expression profiles, and hormonal regulation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2399-410 pubmed publisher
  53. Sharma I, Dhawan V, Mahajan N, Saha S, Dhaliwal L. In vitro effects of atorvastatin on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression in endometriotic stromal cells. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1639-46.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..The data of the present study provide new insights for the implication of atorvastatin treatment for endometriosis in humans. ..