fatty acid binding proteins


Summary: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Stephens A, Pereira Fantini P, Wilson G, Taylor R, Rainczuk A, Meehan K, et al. Proteomic analysis of the intestinal adaptation response reveals altered expression of fatty acid binding proteins following massive small bowel resection. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:1437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Three fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP, FABP-6, and I-FABP) showed changes in MSBR animals...
  2. Hertzel A, Hellberg K, Reynolds J, Kruse A, Juhlmann B, Smith A, et al. Identification and characterization of a small molecule inhibitor of Fatty Acid binding proteins. J Med Chem. 2009;52:6024-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify 1 as an inhibitor of fatty acid binding and a competitive antagonist of protein-protein interactions mediated by AFABP/aP2. ..
  3. Yun K, Kim S, Choi K, Park H. Association between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein levels and childhood obesity in Korean children. Metabolism. 2009;58:798-802 pubmed publisher
  4. Nielsen S, Sugaya T, Tarnow L, Lajer M, Schjoedt K, Astrup A, et al. Tubular and glomerular injury in diabetes and the impact of ACE inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1684-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ACE inhibition reduces the tubular and glomerular damage and dysfunction. ..
  5. Venkatachalam A, Thisse C, Thisse B, Wright J. Differential tissue-specific distribution of transcripts for the duplicated fatty acid-binding protein 10 (fabp10) genes in embryos, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). FEBS J. 2009;276:6787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This differential tissue distribution of transcripts for the duplicated fabp10 genes suggests considerable divergence of their cis-acting regulatory elements since their duplication. ..
  6. Levin L, Ganoth A, Amram S, Nachliel E, Gutman M, Tsfadia Y. Insight into the interaction sites between fatty acid binding proteins and their ligands. J Mol Model. 2010;16:929-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), are evolutionarily conserved small cytoplasmic proteins that occur in many tissue-specific types...
  7. Yokoyama T, Kamijo Ikemori A, Sugaya T, Hoshino S, Yasuda T, Kimura K. Urinary excretion of liver type fatty acid binding protein accurately reflects the degree of tubulointerstitial damage. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:2096-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. ..
  8. Storch J, McDermott L. Structural and functional analysis of fatty acid-binding proteins. J Lipid Res. 2009;50 Suppl:S126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the FABPs modulate intracellular lipid homeostasis by regulating FA transport in the nuclear and extra-nuclear compartments of the cell; in so doing, they also impact systemic energy homeostasis. ..
  9. Bagheri R, Qasim A, Mehta N, Terembula K, Kapoor S, Braunstein S, et al. Relation of plasma fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 with the metabolic syndrome, inflammation and coronary calcium in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106:1118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that FABP4 and FABP5 may represent mediators of and biomarkers for metabolic and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..

More Information


  1. Boneva N, Mori Y, Kaplamadzhiev D, Kikuchi H, Zhu H, Kikuchi M, et al. Differential expression of FABP 3, 5, 7 in infantile and adult monkey cerebellum. Neurosci Res. 2010;68:94-102 pubmed publisher
    To clarify the involvement of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in cerebellar development and function, we explored the distribution of three brain-expressed FABPs, FABP 3, 5 and 7, by comparing three animal groups--infantile, normal ..
  2. Muehlschlegel J, Perry T, Liu K, Fox A, Collard C, Shernan S, et al. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein is an independent predictor of death and ventricular dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with traditional markers of myocardial injury after CABG surgery, hFABP peaks earlier and is a superior independent predictor of postoperative mortality and ventricular dysfunction. ..
  3. Martens K, Bottelbergs A, Baes M. Ectopic recombination in the central and peripheral nervous system by aP2/FABP4-Cre mice: implications for metabolism research. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1054-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these tissues have an important impact on adipose tissue, care should be taken when using aP2-Cre mice to define the role of the targeted genes in adipose tissue function...
  4. Shioda N, Yamamoto Y, Watanabe M, Binas B, Owada Y, Fukunaga K. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein regulates dopamine D2 receptor function in mouse brain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3146-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are essential for energy production and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-related signaling in the brain and other tissues...
  5. Shi H, Wang Q, Wang Y, Leng L, Zhang Q, Shang Z, et al. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein: an important gene related to lipid metabolism in chicken adipocytes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..1/A-FABP (p<0.05). The present study suggested that A-FABP gene might affect the lipid metabolism through the PPAR ? pathway, and the function between A-FABP and E-FABP gene was compensatory in the chickens. ..
  6. Yan G, Lin J, Hao X, Xue H, Zhang K, Wang L. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein is a useful marker for organ dysfunction and leptin alleviates sepsis-induced organ injuries by restraining its tissue levels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;616:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Other investigated variables showed different but independent alterations. In conclusion, H-FABP represents a useful diagnostic marker for organ dysfunction, and its association with leptin will be a novel target for emergency aid. ..
  7. Bioulac Sage P, Laumonier H, Couchy G, Le Bail B, Sa Cunha A, Rullier A, et al. Hepatocellular adenoma management and phenotypic classification: the Bordeaux experience. Hepatology. 2009;50:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, we believe that management of HCA needs to be adapted to the phenotype of these tumors. ..
  8. Martin G, Atshaves B, Huang H, McIntosh A, Williams B, Pai P, et al. Hepatic phenotype of liver fatty acid binding protein gene-ablated mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1053-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that L-FABP plays a role in physiological regulation of not only hepatic fatty acid metabolism, but also that of hepatic cholesterol. ..
  9. Maver A, Medica I, Peterlin B. Search for sarcoidosis candidate genes by integration of data from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:SR22-8 pubmed
    ..We propose 9 candidate genes: SERPINB1, FABP4, S100A8, HBEGF, IL7R, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214, as genes with high potential for association with sarcoidosis. ..
  10. Thilagavathi R, Mancera R. Ligand-protein cross-docking with water molecules. J Chem Inf Model. 2010;50:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the importance of including water molecules whenever possible in ligand-protein docking simulations. ..
  11. Clark J, Gan H, Samocha A, Fox A, Buchman T, Coopersmith C. Enterocyte-specific epidermal growth factor prevents barrier dysfunction and improves mortality in murine peritonitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G471-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Murai A, Furuse M, Kitaguchi K, Kusumoto K, Nakanishi Y, Kobayashi M, et al. Characterization of critical factors influencing gene expression of two types of fatty acid-binding proteins (L-FABP and Lb-FABP) in the liver of birds. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;154:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that L-FABP and Lb-FABP play different roles in metabolic process during the postprandial state. ..
  13. Li B, Reynolds J, Stout R, Bernlohr D, Suttles J. Regulation of Th17 differentiation by epidermal fatty acid-binding protein. J Immunol. 2009;182:7625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, taken together, our data indicate that expression of E-FABP by CD4(+) T cells contributes to the control of IL-6 stimulation of the IL-21/ROR/IL-17 pathway and to the Th17/Treg counterbalance. ..
  14. Woodcroft M, Ellis D, Rafferty S, Burns D, March R, Stock N, et al. Experimental characterization of the mechanism of perfluorocarboxylic acids' liver protein bioaccumulation: the key role of the neutral species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:1669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental results suggest that routine pharmacochemical models may be applicable to predicting the protein-based bioaccumulation of long-chain PFCAs. ..
  15. Velkov T, Lim M, Horne J, Simpson J, Porter C, Scanlon M. Characterization of lipophilic drug binding to rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;326:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for I-FABP in the disposition of some lipophilic drugs within the enterocyte. ..
  16. Hietbrink F, Besselink M, Renooij W, de Smet M, Draisma A, van der Hoeven H, et al. Systemic inflammation increases intestinal permeability during experimental human endotoxemia. Shock. 2009;32:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic inflammation results in an increased intestinal permeability. The increase in intestinal permeability is most likely caused by inflammation-induced paracellular permeability, rather than ischemia-mediated enterocyte damage. ..
  17. Podechard N, Fardel O, Corolleur M, Bernard M, Lecureur V. Inhibition of human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipogenesis by the environmental contaminant benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that environmental PAHs like BP can likely inhibit human adipogenesis in an AhR-dependent manner. ..
  18. Caso G, Mileva I, McNurlan M, Mynarcik D, Darras F, Gelato M. Effect of ritonavir and atazanavir on human subcutaneous preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Antiviral Res. 2010;86:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, although ATV at therapeutic levels has a smaller impact on adipogenesis, alterations in preadipocyte proliferation suggest the potential for adverse effects with long-term use. ..
  19. Koeck T, Willard B, Crabb J, Kinter M, Stuehr D, Aulak K. Glucose-mediated tyrosine nitration in adipocytes: targets and consequences. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:884-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that protein tyrosine nitration may be a factor in obesity, insulin resistance, and the pathogenesis of diabetes. ..
  20. Tang T, Zhang J, Yin J, Staszkiewicz J, Gawronska Kozak B, Jung D, et al. Uncoupling of inflammation and insulin resistance by NF-kappaB in transgenic mice through elevated energy expenditure. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The energy expenditure may lead to disassociation of inflammation with insulin resistance. The study indicates that inflammation may prevent insulin resistance by eliminating lipid accumulation. ..
  21. Zhang X, Ji J, Yan G, Wu J, Sun X, Shen J, et al. Sildenafil promotes adipogenesis through a PKG pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:1054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that sildenafil could promote adipogenesis accompanied by increased glucose uptake through a PKG pathway at least partly. ..
  22. Cho K, Kim H, Kamanna V, Vaziri N. Niacin improves renal lipid metabolism and slows progression in chronic kidney disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:6-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study sought to determine efficacy of niacin supplementation on renal tissue lipid metabolism in CRF...
  23. Li H, Chang Y, Mohan K, Su H, Ricupero C, Baridi A, et al. Activated Notch1 maintains the phenotype of radial glial cells and promotes their adhesion to laminin by upregulating nidogen. Glia. 2008;56:646-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined results indicate that persistent expression of activated Notch1 maintains the phenotype of radial glial cells, inhibits their differentiation, and promotes their adhesion and migration on a laminin/nidogen complex. ..
  24. Nakamura T, Sugaya T, Koide H. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in septic shock: effect of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber hemoperfusion. Shock. 2009;31:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..12). These results suggest that urinary L-FABP levels are significantly increased in patients with septic shock and that PMX-F treatment is effective in reducing these levels. ..
  25. Khalyfa A, Bhushan B, Hegazi M, Kim J, Kheirandish Gozal L, Bhattacharjee R, et al. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 gene variants and childhood obesity: potential implications for insulin sensitivity and CRP levels. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:18 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity. ..
  26. Knöferle J, Ramljak S, Koch J, Tönges L, Asif A, Michel U, et al. TGF-beta 1 enhances neurite outgrowth via regulation of proteasome function and EFABP. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus postulate that a differential regulation of proteasomal function, as demonstrated for TGF-beta, can result in an enrichment of proteins, such as EFABP, that mediate physiological functions, such as neurite regeneration. ..
  27. Karanth S, Lall S, Denovan Wright E, Wright J. Differential transcriptional modulation of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein genes by dietary fatty acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio): evidence for subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization of duplicated genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:219 pubmed publisher
  28. Chen E, Everett M, Holzknecht Z, Holzknecht R, Lin S, Bowles D, et al. Short-lived alpha-helical intermediates in the folding of beta-sheet proteins. Biochemistry. 2010;49:5609-19 pubmed publisher
  29. Morales Lázaro S, González Ramírez R, Gomez P, Tapia Ramírez V, de León M, Cisneros B. Induction of dystrophin Dp71 expression during neuronal differentiation: opposite roles of Sp1 and AP2alpha in Dp71 promoter activity. J Neurochem. 2010;112:474-85 pubmed publisher
  30. Charpentier S, Ducassé J, Cournot M, Maupas Schwalm F, Elbaz M, Baixas C, et al. Clinical assessment of ischemia-modified albumin and heart fatty acid-binding protein in the early diagnosis of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..40). In this study on a large cohort of patients admitted to an ED for chest pain, IMA and h-FABP did not provide valuable information for ACS diagnosis. ..
  31. Elmasri H, Karaaslan C, Teper Y, Ghelfi E, Weng M, Ince T, et al. Fatty acid binding protein 4 is a target of VEGF and a regulator of cell proliferation in endothelial cells. FASEB J. 2009;23:3865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FABP4 emerged as a novel target of the VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway and a positive regulator of cell proliferation in ECs. ..
  32. KARAKAS S, Almario R, Kim K. Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids, and metabolic risk markers. Metabolism. 2009;58:1002-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, fasting FABP4 related to metabolic risk markers more strongly than fasting FFA. Nadir FABP4 and nadir FFA measured after glucose loading may provide better risk assessment than the fasting values. ..
  33. Huang S, Wu T, Yu H, Chen M, Liu C, Chiang W, et al. Mechanical strain modulates age-related changes in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important for the further study of stem cell control and treatment for a variety of aging related diseases. ..
  34. Nevo J, Mattila E, Pellinen T, Yamamoto D, Sara H, Iljin K, et al. Mammary-derived growth inhibitor alters traffic of EGFR and induces a novel form of cetuximab resistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:6570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..MDGI-driven inherent desensitization of cancer cells is a novel molecular mechanism for resistance to the anti-EGFR antibody therapy, and MDGI may be a biomarker for responsiveness to anti-EGFR antibody therapy. ..
  35. Ren Q, Du Z, Zhao X, Wang J. An acyl-CoA-binding protein (FcACBP) and a fatty acid binding protein (FcFABP) respond to microbial infection in Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..FcFABP was down-regulated by V. anguillarum challenge. The protein also had bacterial binding activity. These two lipid metabolism related proteins may play important roles in shrimp innate immunity. ..
  36. Negishi K, Noiri E, Doi K, Maeda Mamiya R, Sugaya T, Portilla D, et al. Monitoring of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts histological severity of acute kidney injury. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, urinary L-FABP levels are better suited to allow the accurate and earlier detection of both histological and functional insults in ischemic and nephrotoxin-induced AKI compared with conventional renal markers. ..
  37. Paolillo R, Romano Carratelli C, Sorrentino S, Mazzola N, Rizzo A. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on human colon cancer cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study help to achieve a better understanding of how the intestinal epithelium participates in the innate immune response to commensal bacteria and pathogens in the gut. ..
  38. Switonski M, Stachowiak M, Cieslak J, Bartz M, Grzes M. Genetics of fat tissue accumulation in pigs: a comparative approach. J Appl Genet. 2010;51:153-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The rather limited progress in studies focused on the identification of gene polymorphism related with fatness traits shows that their genetic background is highly complex. ..
  39. Uchida Y, Sugiura S, Nakashima T, Ando F, Shimokata H. The Ala54Thr polymorphism in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene is associated with hearing impairment: a preliminary report. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:496-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results might support caloric restriction theory indirectly, but additional researches are desired. ..
  40. Tanaka T, Doi K, Maeda Mamiya R, Negishi K, Portilla D, Sugaya T, et al. Urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein can reflect renal tubulointerstitial injury. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that urinary L-FABP levels can be used to monitor both dynamics and drug responses in a mouse adenine-induced tubulointerstitial injury model. ..
  41. Relja B, Szermutzky M, Henrich D, Maier M, de Haan J, Lubbers T, et al. Intestinal-FABP and liver-FABP: Novel markers for severe abdominal injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:729-35 pubmed publisher
    ..I-FABP and L-FABP could be useful as markers for the early detection of significant abdominal injury in acute multiple trauma and identify patients who require rapid intervention. ..
  42. Oguri M, Kato K, Yokoi K, Itoh T, Yoshida T, Watanabe S, et al. Association of genetic variants with myocardial infarction in Japanese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and independent determinants of MI. Determination of genotypes for these polymorphisms of UTS2, FABP2, ADIPOQ, EDNRA, and PDX1 may prove informative for assessment of the genetic risk for MI in Japanese individuals with MetS. ..
  43. Evennett N, Hall N, Pierro A, Eaton S. Urinary intestinal fatty acid-binding protein concentration predicts extent of disease in necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:735-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work, in a larger number of patients, is required to investigate the applicability of urinary i-FABP as a marker of intestinal damage and as an adjunct to current indications for surgical intervention in infants with NEC. ..
  44. Boscheri A, Wunderlich C, Langer M, Schoen S, Wiedemann B, Stolte D, et al. Correlation of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with mortality and echocardiographic data in patients with pulmonary embolism at intermediate risk. Am Heart J. 2010;160:294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be a novel prognostic parameter enabling the optimization of management strategy in the very difficult population of pulmonary embolism at intermediate risk. ..
  45. Cardoso C, Provinciatto P, Godoi D, Ferreira B, Teixeira G, Rossi M, et al. IL-4 regulates susceptibility to intestinal inflammation in murine food allergy. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G593-600 pubmed publisher
  46. Besselink M, van Santvoort H, Renooij W, de Smet M, Boermeester M, Fischer K, et al. Intestinal barrier dysfunction in a randomized trial of a specific probiotic composition in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 2009;250:712-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, prophylaxis with this specific combination of probiotic strains reduced bacterial translocation, but was associated with increased bacterial translocation and enterocyte damage in patients with organ failure. ..
  47. Volakakis N, Joodmardi E, Perlmann T. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels. ..
  48. Chatterjee T, Stoll L, Denning G, Harrelson A, Blomkalns A, Idelman G, et al. Proinflammatory phenotype of perivascular adipocytes: influence of high-fat feeding. Circ Res. 2009;104:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysfunction of perivascular adipose tissue induced by fat feeding suggests that this unique adipose depot is capable of linking metabolic signals to inflammation in the blood vessel wall. ..
  49. Derikx J, Vreugdenhil A, Van den Neucker A, Grootjans J, van Bijnen A, Damoiseaux J, et al. A pilot study on the noninvasive evaluation of intestinal damage in celiac disease using I-FABP and L-FABP. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are potentially useful for this purpose as these are small cytosolic proteins present in ..
  50. Liu H, Zhang X, Li M, Li X. [Effects of rosiglitazone on expression patterns of the genes involved in adipogenesis during porcine preadipocytes differentiation]. Yi Chuan. 2009;31:719-24 pubmed
    ..Second, the phospholipids biosynthesis might appear more earlier during the process of adipogenesis. Third, PPARalpha might play an important role in the regulation of phospholipids biosynthesis. ..
  51. Nakamura T, Sato E, Fujiwara N, Kawagoe Y, Ueda Y, Suzuki T, et al. Co-administration of ezetimibe enhances proteinuria-lowering effects of pitavastatin in chronic kidney disease patients partly via a cholesterol-independent manner. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Ezetimibe may have pleiotropic actions that could contribute to renoprotective properties of this lipid-lowering agent. ..
  52. Shi H, Wang Q, Zhang Q, Leng L, Li H. Tissue expression characterization of chicken adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and its expression difference between fat and lean birds in abdominal fat tissue. Poult Sci. 2010;89:197-202 pubmed publisher
  53. Saez G, Davail S, Gentes G, Hocquette J, Jourdan T, Degrace P, et al. Gene expression and protein content in relation to intramuscular fat content in Muscovy and Pekin ducks. Poult Sci. 2009;88:2382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for mRNA SCOT suggested that the muscles of Pekin ducks use ketone bodies as an energy source. In conclusion, i.m. lipogenesis could contribute to the i.m. fat, particularly in Pekin ducks. ..