neurogranin

Summary

Summary: A BRAIN-specific substrate for PROTEIN KINASE C that binds CALMODULIN and is involved in regulation of CALCIUM SIGNALING.

Top Publications

  1. Huang K, Huang F, Li J, Schuck P, McPhie P. Calcium-sensitive interaction between calmodulin and modified forms of rat brain neurogranin/RC3. Biochemistry. 2000;39:7291-9 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (NG) binding of calmodulin (CaM) at its IQ domain is sensitive to Ca(2+) concentration and to modifications by protein kinase C (PKC) and oxidants...
  2. Mons N, Enderlin V, Jaffard R, Higueret P. Selective age-related changes in the PKC-sensitive, calmodulin-binding protein, neurogranin, in the mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2001;79:859-67 pubmed
    ..Given the crucial role of neurogranin/RC3 (Ng) in the post-synaptic regulation of Ca(2+) and calmodulin levels, age-dependent changes in the levels ..
  3. Singec I, Knoth R, Ditter M, Volk B, Frotscher M. Neurogranin is expressed by principal cells but not interneurons in the rodent and monkey neocortex and hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2004;479:30-42 pubmed
    As a substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), neurogranin (NG) is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and activity-dependent plasticity...
  4. Nielsen A, Kjartansdóttir K, Rasmussen M, Sørensen A, Wang B, Wabl M, et al. Activation of the brain-specific neurogranin gene in murine T-cell lymphomas by proviral insertional mutagenesis. Gene. 2009;442:55-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Nrgn) is a highly expressed brain-specific protein, which sequesters calmodulin at low Ca(2+)-levels...
  5. Ohi K, Hashimoto R, Yasuda Y, Fukumoto M, Yamamori H, Umeda Yano S, et al. Functional genetic variation at the NRGN gene and schizophrenia: evidence from a gene-based case-control study and gene expression analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2012;159B:405-13 pubmed publisher
  6. Coldren C, Lai Z, Shragg P, Rossi E, Glidewell S, Zuffardi O, et al. Chromosomal microarray mapping suggests a role for BSX and Neurogranin in neurocognitive and behavioral defects in the 11q terminal deletion disorder (Jacobsen syndrome). Neurogenetics. 2009;10:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The distal critical region, approximately 2.2 Mb, contains 18 annotated genes. One gene in this region, Neurogranin, has been demonstrated previously in mice to be critical for synapse plasticity and long-term potentiation...
  7. Wu J, Li J, Huang K, Huang F. Attenuation of protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signal transduction in the neurogranin knockout mouse. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19498-505 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific, postsynaptically located protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, highly expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala...
  8. Kubota Y, Putkey J, Shouval H, Waxham M. IQ-motif proteins influence intracellular free Ca2+ in hippocampal neurons through their interactions with calmodulin. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:264-76 pubmed
    ..b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a small neuronal IQ-motif-containing protein that accelerates Ca(2+) dissociation from CaM...
  9. Slemmon J, Feng B, Erhardt J. Small proteins that modulate calmodulin-dependent signal transduction: effects of PEP-19, neuromodulin, and neurogranin on enzyme activation and cellular homeostasis. Mol Neurobiol. 2000;22:99-113 pubmed
    Neuromodulin (GAP-43), neurogranin (RC3), and PEP-19 are small acid-stable proteins that bind calcium-poor calmodulin through a loosely conserved IQ-motif...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zoeller R, Bansal R, Parris C. Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine, and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain. Endocrinology. 2005;146:607-12 pubmed
    ..The expression of the TH-responsive gene RC3/neurogranin, measured by in situ hybridization, was significantly up-regulated by BPA in the dentate gyrus...
  2. van Dalen J, Gerendasy D, de Graan P, Schrama L, Gruol D. Calcium dynamics are altered in cortical neurons lacking the calmodulin-binding protein RC3. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:13-22 pubmed
    ..These data provide direct physiological evidence for a regulatory role of RC3 in neuronal Ca(2+) dynamics. ..
  3. Cui Y, Wen J, Hung Sze K, Man D, Lin D, Liu M, et al. Interaction between calcium-free calmodulin and IQ motif of neurogranin studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 2003;315:175-82 pubmed
    ..of Ca(2+)-free calmodulin (apoCaM) with the IQ motif corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of neurogranin has been studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods...
  4. Yang H, Lee P, Lim T, Sheu F. Neurogranin expression in stably transfected N2A cell line affects cytosolic calcium level by nitric oxide stimulation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;129:171-8 pubmed
    To test a cellular effect of rodent neurogranin (Ng) oxidation as compared to Ng phosphorylation, we develop a cell model capable of stable expression of Ng using the Tet-On system, and determine whether Ng oxidation regulates ..
  5. Gui J, Song Y, Han N, Sheu F. Characterization of transcriptional regulation of neurogranin by nitric oxide and the role of neurogranin in SNP-induced cell death: implication of neurogranin in an increased neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress. Int J Biol Sci. 2007;3:212-24 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, regulates the availability of Ca(2+)/CaM complex and modulates the homeostasis of intracellular calcium in neurons...
  6. Ruano D, Aulchenko Y, Macedo A, Soares M, Valente J, Azevedo M, et al. Association of the gene encoding neurogranin with schizophrenia in males. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:125-33 pubmed
    The neurogranin (NRGN) gene produces a postsynaptic brain-specific protein that regulates calmodulin-Ca(2+) availability in neurons...
  7. Devireddy L, Green M. Transcriptional program of apoptosis induction following interleukin 2 deprivation: identification of RC3, a calcium/calmodulin binding protein, as a novel proapoptotic factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4532-41 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, one gene whose transcription substantially increased was RC3 (also called neurogranin), which encodes a calmodulin binding protein thought to be a neural-specific factor involved in learning and ..
  8. Guadaño Ferraz A, Vinuela A, Oeding G, Bernal J, Rausell E. RC3/neurogranin is expressed in pyramidal neurons of motor and somatosensory cortex in normal and denervated monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:554-70 pubmed
    RC3/neurogranin is a neuron-specific calpacitin located in the cytoplasm and, especially, in dendrites and dendritic spines of cortical neurons, involved in many aspects of excitatory transmission and long-term potentiation...
  9. Huang F, Huang K, Wu J, Boucheron C. Environmental enrichment enhances neurogranin expression and hippocampal learning and memory but fails to rescue the impairments of neurogranin null mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6230-7 pubmed
    Environmental enrichment is known to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions. Neurogranin (Ng), a specific substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions...
  10. Zhabotinsky A, Camp R, Epstein I, Lisman J. Role of the neurogranin concentrated in spines in the induction of long-term potentiation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7337-47 pubmed
    ..calmodulin in neurons is considerably less than the total concentration of the apocalmodulin-binding proteins neurogranin and GAP-43, resulting in a low level of free calmodulin in the resting state...
  11. Dong J, Liu W, Wang Y, Xi Q, Chen J. Hypothyroidism following developmental iodine deficiency reduces hippocampal neurogranin, CaMK II and calmodulin and elevates calcineurin in lactational rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010;28:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that hippocampal neurogranin, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin (CaM) and calcineurin (CaN) are implicated ..
  12. Ohi K, Hashimoto R, Yasuda Y, Nemoto K, Ohnishi T, Fukumoto M, et al. Impact of the genome wide supported NRGN gene on anterior cingulate morphology in schizophrenia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29780 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the genome-wide associated genetic risk variant in the NRGN gene may be related to a small GM volume in the ACC in the left hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia. ..
  13. Huang K, Huang F, Shetty P. Stimulation-mediated translocation of calmodulin and neurogranin from soma to dendrites of mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;178:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) and neurogranin (Ng) are two abundant neuronal proteins in the forebrain whose interactions are implicated in the enhancement of synaptic plasticity...
  14. Husson M, Enderlin V, Alfos S, Feart C, Higueret P, Pallet V. Triiodothyronine administration reverses vitamin A deficiency-related hypo-expression of retinoic acid and triiodothyronine nuclear receptors and of neurogranin in rat brain. Br J Nutr. 2003;90:191-8 pubmed
    ..VAD) generates a hypo-expression of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A) receptors and of neurogranin (RC3, a neuronal protein involved in synaptic plasticity) and a concomitant selective behavioural impairment...
  15. Broadbelt K, Ramprasaud A, Jones L. Evidence of altered neurogranin immunoreactivity in areas 9 and 32 of schizophrenic prefrontal cortex. Schizophr Res. 2006;87:6-14 pubmed
    ..Using immunocytochemistry we determined if neurogranin, a protein found in dendrites, spines and cell bodies and an upstream regulator of calcium was altered in areas ..
  16. Martinez de Arrieta C, Perez Jurado L, Bernal J, Coloma A. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN). Genomics. 1997;41:243-9 pubmed
    In this report the identification, structure, and chromosomal localization of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN) are described...
  17. Prichard L, Deloulme J, Storm D. Interactions between neurogranin and calmodulin in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7689-94 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin is a neural-specific, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) within its IQ domain at serine 36...
  18. Huang F, Huang K, Boucheron C. Long-term enrichment enhances the cognitive behavior of the aging neurogranin null mice without affecting their hippocampal LTP. Learn Mem. 2007;14:512-9 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a PKC substrate, is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions. Deletion of Ng caused severe deficits in spatial learning and LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice...
  19. Feart C, Mingaud F, Enderlin V, Husson M, Alfos S, Higueret P, et al. Differential effect of retinoic acid and triiodothyronine on the age-related hypo-expression of neurogranin in rat. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:729-38 pubmed
    ..on RA and T3 nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR and TR) and on their target genes, neuromodulin (GAP43) and neurogranin (RC3) in 24-month-old rats...
  20. Xiao D, Pak J, Wang X, Sato T, Huang F, Chen H, et al. Phosphorylation of HMG-I by protein kinase C attenuates its binding affinity to the promoter regions of protein kinase C gamma and neurogranin/RC3 genes. J Neurochem. 2000;74:392-9 pubmed
    ..that binds the AT-rich sequences within the promoters of the brain-specific protein kinase C (PKC) gamma and neurogranin/RC3 genes has been characterized as chromosomal nonhistone high-mobility-group protein (HMG)-I...
  21. Li J, Huang F, Huang K. Glutathiolation of proteins by glutathione disulfide S-oxide derived from S-nitrosoglutathione. Modifications of rat brain neurogranin/RC3 and neuromodulin/GAP-43. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:3098-105 pubmed
    ..Each of these compounds and GSNO were tested for their efficacies to modify rat brain neurogranin/RC3 (Ng) and neuromodulin/GAP-43 (Nm)...
  22. Díez Guerra F. Neurogranin, a link between calcium/calmodulin and protein kinase C signaling in synaptic plasticity. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:597-606 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) (also named RC3, p17 or BICKS) is a small protein originally identified in rat brain and abundantly expressed in several telencephalic areas, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and striatum...
  23. Husson M, Enderlin V, Alfos S, Boucheron C, Pallet V, Higueret P. Expression of neurogranin and neuromodulin is affected in the striatum of vitamin A-deprived rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;123:7-17 pubmed
    ..e., RAR, RXR, and TR, respectively), which is accompanied by reduced amounts of mRNA and protein of neurogranin (RC3, a neuronal protein involved in synaptic plasticity) as well as selective behavioral impairment...
  24. Krazem A, Mons N, Higueret P, Jaffard R. Chronic ethanol consumption restores the age-related decrease in neurogranin mRNA level in the hippocampus of mice. Neurosci Lett. 2003;338:62-6 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin-binding neuron-specific protein that has been implicated in the regulation of numerous post-synaptic signalling pathways...
  25. Zhong L, Kaleka K, Gerges N. Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently it has been indicated that neurogranin (Ng), a neuron-specific, postsynaptic protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, potentiates synaptic ..
  26. Han N, Wen J, Lin Q, Tan P, Liou Y, Sheu F. Proteomics analysis of the expression of neurogranin in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells reveals its involvement for cell differentiation. Int J Biol Sci. 2007;3:263-73 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a neural-specific, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC)...
  27. Larouche M, Che P, Hawkes R. Neurogranin expression identifies a novel array of Purkinje cell parasagittal stripes during mouse cerebellar development. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:215-27 pubmed
    ..evidence that parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells express a member of the calpacitin protein family, neurogranin, possibly from as early as embryonic day (E) 13 and definitively from E15, in a pattern that persists up to ..
  28. Rose E, Morris D, Fahey C, Robertson I, Greene C, O DOHERTY J, et al. The effect of the neurogranin schizophrenia risk variant rs12807809 on brain structure and function. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2012;15:296-303 pubmed publisher
    A single nucleotide polymorphism rs12807809 located upstream of the neurogranin (NRGN) gene has been identified as a risk variant for schizophrenia in recent genome-wide association studies...
  29. Kumar V, Chichili V, Zhong L, Tang X, Velazquez Campoy A, Sheu F, et al. Structural basis for the interaction of unstructured neuron specific substrates neuromodulin and neurogranin with Calmodulin. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1392 pubmed publisher
    Neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng) are neuron-specific substrates of protein kinase C (PKC). Their interactions with Calmodulin (CaM) are crucial for learning and memory formation in neurons...
  30. Gui J, Song Y, Han N, Zhou S, Sheu F. Involvement of the GC-rich sequence and specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) in the basal transcription activity of neurogranin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:124-32 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a neuronal protein implicated in learning and memory, contains a TATA-less promoter...
  31. Martinez de Arrieta C, Morte B, Coloma A, Bernal J. The human RC3 gene homolog, NRGN contains a thyroid hormone-responsive element located in the first intron. Endocrinology. 1999;140:335-43 pubmed
    NRGN is the human homolog of the neuron-specific rat RC3/neurogranin gene...
  32. Ramakers G, Heinen K, Gispen W, de Graan P. Long term depression in the CA1 field is associated with a transient decrease in pre- and postsynaptic PKC substrate phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28682-7 pubmed
  33. Ran X, Miao H, Sheu F, Yang D. Structural and dynamic characterization of a neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5143-50 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 is a neuron-specific, Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin binding protein and a specific protein kinase C substrate...
  34. Gaertner T, Putkey J, Waxham M. RC3/Neurogranin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II produce opposing effects on the affinity of calmodulin for calcium. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39374-82 pubmed
    ..This work indicates that the Ca(2+) binding properties of calmodulin are highly regulated and reveals a role for RC3 in accelerating the dissociation of Ca(2+)-calmodulin target complexes at the end of a Ca(2+) signal. ..
  35. Shukla P, Tang L, Wang Z. Phosphorylation of neurogranin, protein kinase C, and Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II in opioid tolerance and dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2006;404:266-9 pubmed
    ..b>Neurogranin (Ng), through mechanisms such as phosphorylation, has been previously proposed to regulate the activities of ..
  36. Kim S, Kim M, Yu H, Kim H, Park I, Park H, et al. Electroconvulsive seizure increases phosphorylation of PKC substrates, including GAP-43, MARCKS, and neurogranin, in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..examined the effects of ECS treatment on the phosphorylation of PKC substrates, including GAP-43, MARCKS, and neurogranin. Immunoblot using anti-p-PKC substrate antibodies revealed that a single ECS treatment induced temporal changes ..
  37. Represa A, Deloulme J, Sensenbrenner M, Ben Ari Y, Baudier J. Neurogranin: immunocytochemical localization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate. J Neurosci. 1990;10:3782-92 pubmed
    The developmental expression and the cellular localization of neurogranin (formerly designated p17), a brain-specific protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, were investigated...
  38. Pak J, Huang F, Li J, Balschun D, Reymann K, Chiang C, et al. Involvement of neurogranin in the modulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, synaptic plasticity, and spatial learning: a study with knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:11232-7 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 is a neural-specific Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by phosphorylation and oxidation...
  39. Thorsell A, Bjerke M, Gobom J, Brunhage E, Vanmechelen E, Andreasen N, et al. Neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid as a marker of synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res. 2010;1362:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we examined cerebrospinal fluid levels of the postsynaptic protein neurogranin in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD and controls...
  40. Krucker T, Siggins G, McNamara R, Lindsley K, Dao A, Allison D, et al. Targeted disruption of RC3 reveals a calmodulin-based mechanism for regulating metaplasticity in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5525-35 pubmed
    ..We propose an mGluR-dependent CaM-based sliding threshold mechanism for metaplasticity that is governed by the phosphorylation states of RC3 and CaMKII. ..
  41. Zhong L, Cherry T, Bies C, Florence M, Gerges N. Neurogranin enhances synaptic strength through its interaction with calmodulin. EMBO J. 2009;28:3027-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that neurogranin (Ng), a neuron-specific and postsynaptic protein, enhances postsynaptic sensitivity and increases synaptic ..
  42. Wu J, Huang K, Huang F. Participation of NMDA-mediated phosphorylation and oxidation of neurogranin in the regulation of Ca2+- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent neuronal signaling in the hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2003;86:1524-33 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 (Ng) is a postsynaptic protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by Ca2+, phosphorylation and oxidation...
  43. Gao Y, Tatavarty V, Korza G, Levin M, Carson J. Multiplexed dendritic targeting of alpha calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, neurogranin, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein RNAs by the A2 pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2311-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that RNAs encoding alpha calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, neurogranin, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein are coassembled into the same RNA granules and targeted ..
  44. Huang K, Huang F, Jäger T, Li J, Reymann K, Balschun D. Neurogranin/RC3 enhances long-term potentiation and learning by promoting calcium-mediated signaling. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10660-9 pubmed
    In neurons, neurogranin (Ng) binds calmodulin (CaM), and its binding affinity is reduced by increasing Ca2+, phosphorylation by PKC, or oxidation by oxidants...
  45. Kubota Y, Putkey J, Waxham M. Neurogranin controls the spatiotemporal pattern of postsynaptic Ca2+/CaM signaling. Biophys J. 2007;93:3848-59 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a postsynaptic IQ-motif containing protein that accelerates Ca(2+) dissociation from calmodulin (CaM), a key regulator of long-term potentiation and long-term depression in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
  46. Baudier J, Deloulme J, Van Dorsselaer A, Black D, Matthes H. Purification and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin (p17). Identification of a consensus amino acid sequence between neurogranin and neuromodulin (GAP43) that corresponds to the protein kinase C phosphorylati. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:229-37 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin, formerly designated p17 (Baudier, J., Bronner, C., Kligman, D., and Cole, R. D.) (1989) J. Biol. Chem...
  47. Li H, Li Q, Zhu Z, Chen R, Cheng D, Cai Q, et al. [Prenatal restraint stress decreases neurogranin expression in rat offspring hippocampus]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2007;59:299-304 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin, a neuron-specific postsynaptic protein, has been considered to play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory...
  48. Zoeller R, Dowling A, Vas A. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls exerts thyroid hormone-like effects on the expression of RC3/neurogranin and myelin basic protein messenger ribonucleic acids in the developing rat brain. Endocrinology. 2000;141:181-9 pubmed
    ..The expression of RC3/Neurogranin and myelin basic protein was not affected by A1254 on P5 or P30...
  49. Higo N, Oishi T, Yamashita A, Murata Y, Matsuda K, Hayashi M. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses for the neurogranin mRNA in the developing monkey cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 2006;1078:35-48 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin is a postsynaptic substrate for protein kinase C, and its expression is related to dendritic spine development and postsynaptic plasticity...
  50. Huang K, Huang F, Chen H. Characterization of a 7.5-kDa protein kinase C substrate (RC3 protein, neurogranin) from rat brain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;305:570-80 pubmed
    ..Watson et al., J. Neurosci. Res. 26, 397-408, 1990) and exhibits extensive sequence identity to bovine brain neurogranin (J. Baudier et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266, 229-237, 1991)...
  51. Domínguez González I, Vázquez Cuesta S, Algaba A, Díez Guerra F. Neurogranin binds to phosphatidic acid and associates to cellular membranes. Biochem J. 2007;404:31-43 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a 78-amino-acid-long protein concentrated at dendritic spines of forebrain neurons that is involved in synaptic plasticity through the regulation of CaM (calmodulin)-mediated signalling...
  52. Krug A, Krach S, Jansen A, Nieratschker V, Witt S, Shah N, et al. The effect of neurogranin on neural correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Schizophr Bull. 2013;39:141-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (NRGN) is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin-Ca(2+) in neurons...
  53. Shen Y, Tsai H, Cheng M, Hsu S, Chen S, Chen C. Genetic and functional analysis of the gene encoding neurogranin in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2012;137:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a SNP rs12807809 located upstream of the neurogranin (NRGN) gene achieved genome-wide significance in this disorder...