s100 calcium binding protein beta subunit


Summary: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.

Top Publications

  1. Alshweki A, Pérez Muñuzuri A, López Suárez O, Baña A, Couce M. Relevance of urinary S100B protein levels as a short-term prognostic biomarker in asphyxiated infants treated with hypothermia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8453 pubmed publisher
    ..The method is convenient, noninvasive, and has a higher sensitivity and specificity than measurement of serum S100B or NSE. ..
  2. Dong L, Wang S, Li Y, Zhao Z, Shen Y, Liu L, et al. RU486 Reverses Emotional Disorders by Influencing Astrocytes and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Restraint Stress Challenged Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1098-1108 pubmed publisher
    ..RU486 can significantly ameliorate abnormal behaviors in CRS-induced anxiety model rats. The protective effects of RU486 could be attributed to its anti-ER stress, anti-apoptosis and astrocyte increasing effects. ..
  3. He Z, Xu N, Qi S. Remote ischemic preconditioning improves the cognitive function of elderly patients following colon surgery: A randomized clinical trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6719 pubmed publisher
    ..The cognitive protective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning are partially related to the inhibition of inflammation. ..
  4. Hu J, Ferreira A, Van Eldik L. S100beta induces neuronal cell death through nitric oxide release from astrocytes. J Neurochem. 1997;69:2294-301 pubmed
    ..Cell death correlated with the levels of NO and was blocked by a specific NOS inhibitor. Our data support the idea that overexpression of S100beta may be an exacerbating factor in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  5. Moutsatsou P, Tsoporis J, Salpeas V, Bei E, Alevizos B, Anagnostara C, et al. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with bipolar disorder demonstrate apoptosis and differential regulation of advanced glycation end products and S100B. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014;52:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study shows decreased AGEs and increased S100B levels and caspase down-stream apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes of BD patients that may underlie disease etiopathogenesis. ..
  6. Donato R, Riuzzi F, Sorci G. Causes of elevated serum levels of S100B protein in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:819-20 pubmed publisher
  7. Jackson R, Samra G, Radcliffe J, Clark G, Price C. The early fall in levels of S-100 beta in traumatic brain injury. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2000;38:1165-7 pubmed
    ..If S-100 beta is to be assessed as a monitor of ongoing brain injury in the intensive therapy unit sampling must be frequent (e.g. every 4 hours) to be able to detect rises in serum levels before they have decayed to baseline. ..
  8. Yamada J, Ohgomori T, Jinno S. Alterations in expression of Cat-315 epitope of perineuronal nets during normal ageing, and its modulation by an open-channel NMDA receptor blocker, memantine. J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:2035-2049 pubmed publisher
  9. Bustamante A, López Cancio E, Pich S, Penalba A, Giralt D, García Berrocoso T, et al. Blood Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Stroke: The Stroke-Chip Study. Stroke. 2017;48:2419-2425 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional discovery of new biomarkers and improvement on laboratory techniques seem necessary for achieving a molecular diagnosis of stroke. ..

More Information


  1. Kuhlmann J, Wimberger P, Wilsch K, Fluck M, Suter L, Brunner G. Increased level of circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments indicates metastasis in melanoma patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2015;53:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a rationale for further defining clinical utility of circulating RNU2-1f in metastasis detection in the management of melanoma patients at risk of relapse and/or with advanced disease. ..
  2. Schroeter M, Steiner J. Elevated serum levels of the glial marker protein S100B are not specific for schizophrenia or mood disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:235-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Beaudeux J, Leger P, Dequen L, Gandjbakhch I, Coriat P, Foglietti M. Influence of hemolysis on the measurement of S-100beta protein and neuron-specific enolase plasma concentrations during coronary artery bypass grafting. Clin Chem. 2000;46:989-90 pubmed
  4. Haimoto H, Hosoda S, Kato K. Differential distribution of immunoreactive S100-alpha and S100-beta proteins in normal nonnervous human tissues. Lab Invest. 1987;57:489-98 pubmed
    ..Based on the wide distribution and the characteristic differential localization, the possible biologic significance of S100 proteins and their application for diagnostic pathology were discussed. ..
  5. Haglid K, Yang Q, Hamberger A, Bergman S, Widerberg A, Danielsen N. S-100beta stimulates neurite outgrowth in the rat sciatic nerve grafted with acellular muscle transplants. Brain Res. 1997;753:196-201 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that S-100beta is a physiological growth factor for peripheral nerve axons. ..
  6. Raabe A, Grolms C, Keller M, Döhnert J, Sorge O, Seifert V. Correlation of computed tomography findings and serum brain damage markers following severe head injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1998;140:787-91; discussion 791-2 pubmed
    ..Serum S-100B protein may provide independent information about the severity of primary brain damage after head injury. ..
  7. Schroeter M, Steiner J, Schönknecht P, Mueller K. Further evidence for a role of S100B in mood disorders: a human gene expression mega-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;53:84-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Jonsson H, Johnsson P, Hoglund P, Alling C, Blomquist S. Elimination of S100B and renal function after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000;14:698-701 pubmed
    ..The elimination of S100B after cardiac surgery is faster than reported earlier and not affected by a moderate decrease in GFR. This finding is important when evaluating S100B levels after cardiac surgery. ..
  9. Cao Y, Chi P, Zhao Y, Dong X. Effect of bispectral index-guided anesthesia on consumption of anesthetics and early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after liver transplantation: An observational study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7966 pubmed publisher
    ..S100? protein and NSE are well correlative with neural injury, but NSE is more suitable for assessment of incidence of postoperative cognitive deficits after surgery. ..
  10. Birlea S. S100B: Correlation with Active Vitiligo Depigmentation. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:1408-1410 pubmed publisher
    ..These authors have proposed S100B as a potential disease activity marker in vitiligo. ..
  11. Okun E, Marton D, Cohen D, Griffioen K, Kanfi Y, Illouz T, et al. Sirt6 alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179681 pubmed publisher
    ..This work adds to the expanding body of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and describes novel roles for SIRT6 as a regulator of cell fate during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ..
  12. Povysheva T, Shmarov M, Logunov D, Naroditsky B, Shulman I, Ogurcov S, et al. Post-spinal cord injury astrocyte-mediated functional recovery in rats after intraspinal injection of the recombinant adenoviral vectors Ad5-VEGF and Ad5-ANG. J Neurosurg Spine. 2017;27:105-115 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, gene therapy with Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG vectors is an effective therapeutic method for SCI treatment. ..
  13. Kojima K, Wekerle H, Lassmann H, Berger T, Linington C. Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by CD4+ T cells specific for an astrocyte protein, S100 beta. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1997;49:43-51 pubmed
  14. Charmsaz S, Hughes E, Bane F, Tibbitts P, McIlroy M, Byrne C, et al. S100? as a serum marker in endocrine resistant breast cancer. BMC Med. 2017;15:79 pubmed publisher
    ..ClinicalTrials.gov,  NCT01840293 ). Registered on 23 April 2013. Retrospectively registered. ..
  15. Lapa A, Postal M, Sinicato N, Bellini B, Fernandes P, Marini R, et al. S100? is associated with cognitive impairment in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Lupus. 2017;26:478-483 pubmed publisher
    ..006). Conclusions S100? protein levels are increased in cSLE with cognitive impairment. S100? may be considered a potential biomarker that underlies central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment. ..
  16. Chi Y, Li Z, Lin C, Wang Q, Zhou Y. Evaluation of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients with general anesthesia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:1346-1354 pubmed
    ..The preoperative intramuscular injection of scopolamine butylbromide has important clinical significance for the prevention of POCD. ..
  17. Barger S, Van Eldik L. S100 beta stimulates calcium fluxes in glial and neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:9689-94 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that although the final biological responses of neuronal and glial cells to S100 beta are different, transduction of the S100 beta signal in both cell types involves changes in [Ca2+]i. ..
  18. Bouvier D, Duret T, Rouzaire P, Jabaudon M, Rouzaire M, Nourrisson C, et al. Preanalytical, analytical, gestational and pediatric aspects of the S100B immuno-assays. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2016;54:833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Data provided here is useful for interpreting serum S100B test results, in terms of preanalytical conditions, analytical performances, pediatric and pregnancy' environment. ..
  19. Lagerstedt L, Egea Guerrero J, Bustamante A, Montaner J, Rodríguez Rodríguez A, El Rahal A, et al. H-FABP: A new biomarker to differentiate between CT-positive and CT-negative patients with mild traumatic brain injury. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175572 pubmed publisher
    ..e. hospital arrival within 24 h of trauma onset. H-FABP out-performed S100B and thus seems to be an interesting protein for detecting all CT-positive mTBI patients with a GCS score of 15 and at least one clinical symptom. ..
  20. Herajärvi J, Anttila T, Dimova E, Laukka T, Myllymäki M, Haapanen H, et al. Exploring effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in a pig model of hypothermic circulatory arrest. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2017;51:233-241 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact humoural factor remains unclear. ..
  21. Kothur K, Gill D, Wong M, Mohammad S, Bandodkar S, Arbunckle S, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid cyto-/chemokine profile during acute herpes simplex virus induced anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis and in chronic neurological sequelae. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017;59:806-814 pubmed publisher
  22. Jones V, Atkinson Dell R, Verkhratsky A, Mohamet L. Aberrant iPSC-derived human astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2696 pubmed publisher
  23. Zhang Q, Li Y, Guo Y, Yin C, Gao F, Xin X, et al. Effects of preconditioning of electro-acupuncture on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7375 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that preconditioning of electro-acupuncture could improve the postoperative cognitive function, and the reduction of inflammatory reaction and brain injury may be involved in the mechanism. ..
  24. Dodman N, Karlsson E, Moon Fanelli A, Galdzicka M, Perloski M, Shuster L, et al. A canine chromosome 7 locus confers compulsive disorder susceptibility. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:8-10 pubmed publisher
  25. Isobe T, Ishioka N, Masuda T, Takahashi Y, Ganno S, Okuyama T. A rapid separation of S100 subunits by high performance liquid chromatography: the subunit compositions of S100 proteins. Biochem Int. 1983;6:419-26 pubmed
  26. Damude S, Wevers K, Murali R, Kruijff S, Hoekstra H, Bastiaannet E. A prediction tool incorporating the biomarker S-100B for patient selection for completion lymph node dissection in stage III melanoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43:1753-1759 pubmed publisher
    ..If validated in future studies, this tool could help to identify patients with low risk for NSN-involvement. ..
  27. Raabe A, Grolms C, Sorge O, Zimmermann M, Seifert V. Serum S-100B protein in severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1999;45:477-83 pubmed
    ..S-100B may be a promising serum marker for assessing the extent of primary injury and the time course of secondary damage after severe head injury. ..
  28. McAdory B, Van Eldik L, Norden J. S100B, a neurotropic protein that modulates neuronal protein phosphorylation, is upregulated during lesion-induced collateral sprouting and reactive synaptogenesis. Brain Res. 1998;813:211-7 pubmed
    ..These data show that during lesion-induced sprouting and reactive synaptogenesis, S100B is upregulated in astrocytes and can be found in pre- and post-synaptic compartments where it might influence neuronal protein phosphorylation. ..
  29. Cattani D, Cesconetto P, Tavares M, Parisotto E, de Oliveira P, Rieg C, et al. Developmental exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide and depressive-like behavior in adult offspring: Implication of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Toxicology. 2017;387:67-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These neurochemical events may contribute, at least in part, to the depressive-like behavior observed in adult offspring. ..