leukocyte l1 antigen complex


Summary: A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.

Top Publications

  1. Rodrigo L. [Fecal calprotectin]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007;99:683-8 pubmed
  2. Sipponen T, Savilahti E, Kärkkäinen P, Kolho K, Nuutinen H, Turunen U, et al. Fecal calprotectin, lactoferrin, and endoscopic disease activity in monitoring anti-TNF-alpha therapy for Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:1392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..During anti-TNF-alpha therapy these fecal neutrophil-derived proteins may thus be useful surrogate markers for mucosal healing. ..
  3. Van de Vijver E, Schreuder A, Cnossen W, Muller Kobold A, van Rheenen P. Safely ruling out inflammatory bowel disease in children and teenagers without referral for endoscopy. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97:1014-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Mohan R, Koebnick C, Schildt J, Mueller M, Radke M, Blaut M. Effects of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation on body weight, fecal pH, acetate, lactate, calprotectin, and IgA in preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:418-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin was lower in the probiotic group (p = 0.041), while fecal IgA was higher in this group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.021). ..
  5. Zoppelli L, Güttel C, Bittrich H, Andrée C, Wirth S, Jenke A. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in premature infants have a lower limit and show postnatal and gestational age dependence. Neonatology. 2012;102:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking these observations into account when defining reference values and interpreting fCP data in the clinical context, fCP can be a useful marker in identifying premature infants with gastrointestinal distress and NEC in particular. ..
  6. Fundaro C, Fantacci C, Ansuini V, Giorgio V, Filoni S, Barbaro F, et al. Fecal calprotectin concentration in children affected by SIBO. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:1328-35 pubmed
    ..The presence of high FC levels in children affected by SIBO might not be caused by bacterial overgrowth itself and, in this case, another cause should be investigated. ..
  7. Gisbert J, Bermejo F, Pérez Calle J, Taxonera C, Vera I, McNicholl A, et al. Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin for the prediction of inflammatory bowel disease relapse. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:1190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin determination may be useful in predicting impending clinical relapse-especially during the following 3 months-in both CD and UC patients. ..
  8. Diamanti A, Colistro F, Basso M, Papadatou B, Francalanci P, Bracci F, et al. Clinical role of calprotectin assay in determining histological relapses in children affected by inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:1229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of this test in clinical practice may enable the avoidance of invasive tests as well as targeting treatment. ..
  9. Lasson A, Simren M, Stotzer P, Isaksson S, Ohman L, Strid H. Fecal calprotectin levels predict the clinical course in patients with new onset of ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19:576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of FC 3 months after the initial therapy in patients with new onset of UC predict the disease course over the following years, and they are of value in the clinical management of these patients. ..

More Information


  1. van Rheenen P. Role of fecal calprotectin testing to predict relapse in teenagers with inflammatory bowel disease who report full disease control. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:2018-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are warranted to determine the impact of fecal calprotectin testing on treatment management and outcome. ..
  2. Hämäläinen A, Sipponen T, Kolho K. Infliximab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease rapidly decreases fecal calprotectin levels. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:5166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..05). When treated with infliximab, fecal calprotectin levels reflecting intestinal inflammation normalized rapidly in one third of pediatric patients suggesting complete mucosal healing. ..
  3. Diamanti A, Panetta F, Basso M, Forgione A, Colistro F, Bracci F, et al. Diagnostic work-up of inflammatory bowel disease in children: the role of calprotectin assay. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:1926-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This test, simple and inexpensive, could be included in the first noninvasive phase of an IBD diagnostic work-up. ..
  4. Jung S, Park Y, Ha Y, Lee K, Lee S. Serum calprotectin as a marker for disease activity and severity in adult-onset Still's disease. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:1029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that serum calprotectin can provide a reliable clinical marker for monitoring the disease activity and severity of AOSD. ..
  5. Shastri Y, Bergis D, Povse N, Schäfer V, Shastri S, Weindel M, et al. Prospective multicenter study evaluating fecal calprotectin in adult acute bacterial diarrhea. Am J Med. 2008;121:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..As a screening test, calprotectin can generate results within hours to support presumptive diagnosis of infectious diarrhea, which can decide suitability of stool samples for culture. ..
  6. Ødegaard E, Davidson B, Engh V, Onsrud M, Staff A. Assessment of endoglin and calprotectin as potential biomarkers in ovarian carcinoma and borderline tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:533.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to analyze circulating endoglin concentration in ovarian carcinoma and evaluate a prognostic role for calprotectin and endoglin in effusions in advanced-stage disease...
  7. Sutherland A, Gearry R, Frizelle F. Review of fecal biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008;51:1283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin are useful triage tools to differentiate organic intestinal disorders from functional disorders. They also have a role in monitoring inflammatory bowel disease activity and predicting relapse. ..
  8. Selimoglu M, Temel I, Yildirim C, Ozyaln F, Aktaş M, Karabiber H. The role of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13:452-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies on wider necrotizing enterocolitis series are needed for a more definite conclusion. ..
  9. Kehl Fie T, Chitayat S, Hood M, Damo S, Restrepo N, Garcia C, et al. Nutrient metal sequestration by calprotectin inhibits bacterial superoxide defense, enhancing neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that calprotectin contributes to host defense by rendering bacterial pathogens more sensitive to host immune effectors and reducing bacterial growth. ..
  10. Hestvik E, Tumwine J, Tylleskar T, Grahnquist L, Ndeezi G, Kaddu Mulindwa D, et al. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for further understanding and investigations of gut inflammation in children living in low-income countries. ..
  11. Gisbert J, McNicholl A. Questions and answers on the role of faecal calprotectin as a biological marker in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater faecal calprotectin concentration has been shown in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting that there is a high prevalence of subclinical intestinal inflammation in them. ..
  12. Kostakis I, Cholidou K, Kallianidis K, Perrea D, Antsaklis A. The role of calprotectin in obstetrics and gynecology. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;151:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies must be conducted to elucidate this role. ..
  13. Sipponen T, Kärkkäinen P, Savilahti E, Kolho K, Nuutinen H, Turunen U, et al. Correlation of faecal calprotectin and lactoferrin with an endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and histological findings. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;28:1221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A normal faecal-marker concentration was a reliable surrogate marker for endoscopically and histologically inactive CD. Ileal endoscopic score and histological findings failed, however, to correlate with faecal markers. ..
  14. Dorosko S, MacKenzie T, Connor R. Fecal calprotectin concentrations are higher in exclusively breastfed infants compared to those who are mixed-fed. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:117-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Jeffery J, Lewis S, Ayling R. Fecal dimeric M2-pyruvate kinase (tumor M2-PK) in the differential diagnosis of functional and organic bowel disorders. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:1630-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required, alone or in combination with other markers, before its usefulness in this setting can be recommended. ..
  16. Rouge C, Piloquet H, Butel M, Berger B, Rochat F, Ferraris L, et al. Oral supplementation with probiotics in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00290576. ..
  17. Quail M, Russell R, Van Limbergen J, Rogers P, Drummond H, Wilson D, et al. Fecal calprotectin complements routine laboratory investigations in diagnosing childhood inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:756-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin measurement is a significant advance when used contemporaneously and in addition to a routine panel of blood tests in the diagnosis of pediatric IBD. ..
  18. Eder P, Stawczyk Eder K, Krela Kaźmierczak I, Linke K. Clinical utility of the assessment of fecal calprotectin in Le?niowski-Crohn's disease. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2008;118:622-6 pubmed
    ..The assessment of fecal calprotectin concentration may be useful in differential diagnoses of CD and monitoring patients with CD. ..
  19. Ho G, Lee H, Brydon G, Ting T, Hare N, Drummond H, et al. Fecal calprotectin predicts the clinical course of acute severe ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first data set to demonstrate that FC levels are dramatically elevated in severe UC. These data raise the possibility that this biomarker can predict response to first or second-line medical therapy in this setting. ..
  20. Kallel L, Ayadi I, Matri S, Fekih M, Mahmoud N, Feki M, et al. Fecal calprotectin is a predictive marker of relapse in Crohn's disease involving the colon: a prospective study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and was found to be an independent predictive factor of relapse (P=0.02). Fecal calprotectin seems to be a reliable marker of relapse in quiescent Crohn's disease patients. ..
  21. Hammer H, Ødegård S, Syversen S, Landewe R, van der Heijde D, Uhlig T, et al. Calprotectin (a major S100 leucocyte protein) predicts 10-year radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Calprotectin was an independent predictor of clinical and radiographic joint damage after 10 years. These findings support the proposal that calprotectin may be a prognostic biomarker for erosive disease in patients with RA. ..
  22. Ezri J, Nydegger A. [Pediatrics. Fecal calprotectin in children: use and interpretation]. Rev Med Suisse. 2011;7:69-70 pubmed
    ..It is not a specific marker of IBD but is increased in other situations of gastro-intestinal inflammation. In patients with IBD, fecal calprotectin is used to monitor treatment response. ..
  23. Davidson B, Stavnes H, Førsund M, Berner A, Staff A. CD105 (Endoglin) expression in breast carcinoma effusions is a marker of poor survival. Breast. 2010;19:493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001 and p = 0.038, respectively). Our data suggest that endoglin may be an important therapeutic target in metastatic breast cancer...
  24. Kharbanda A, Rai A, Cosme Y, Liu K, Dayan P. Novel serum and urine markers for pediatric appendicitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2012;19:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC count. ..
  25. Werlin S, Benuri Silbiger I, Kerem E, Adler S, Goldin E, Zimmerman J, et al. Evidence of intestinal inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:304-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional study is required to examine the possible relation of these mucosal lesions, which may be part of a newly identified enteropathy associated with CF, with persistent intestinal malabsorption in many of these patients. ..
  26. D Haens G, Ferrante M, Vermeire S, Baert F, Noman M, Moortgat L, et al. Fecal calprotectin is a surrogate marker for endoscopic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:2218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..561, P < 0.001), but not in CD. Fecal calprotectin levels correlate significantly with endoscopic disease activity in IBD. The test appears useful in clinical practice for assessment of endoscopic activity and remission. ..
  27. Burri E, Manz M, Rothen C, Rossi L, Beglinger C, Lehmann F. Monoclonal antibody testing for fecal calprotectin is superior to polyclonal testing of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin to identify organic intestinal disease in patients with abdominal discomfort. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;416:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Monoclonal testing of calprotectin is superior to both polyclonal calprotectin testing and fecal lactoferrin in identifying symptomatic patients with organic intestinal disease. ..
  28. Jellema P, van Tulder M, van der Horst H, Florie J, Mulder C, van der Windt D. Inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review on the value of diagnostic testing in primary care. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13:239-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To assist primary care physicians in diagnostic decision making, we urgently need high quality studies performed in primary care. ..
  29. Savino F, Castagno E, Calabrese R, Viola S, Oggero R, Miniero R. High faecal calprotectin levels in healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants. Neonatology. 2010;97:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are needed to better clarify the mechanism underlying the relationship between feeding and faecal calprotectin levels in young infants. ..
  30. Burri E, Beglinger C. Faecal calprotectin -- a useful tool in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142:w13557 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, measuring faecal calprotectin can be highly useful in the diagnosis and disease management of patients with IBD and could help predict disease course. ..
  31. Gerss J, Roth J, Holzinger D, Ruperto N, Wittkowski H, Frosch M, et al. Phagocyte-specific S100 proteins and high-sensitivity C reactive protein as biomarkers for a risk-adapted treatment to maintain remission in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a comparative study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated whether patients with JIA at risk of relapse can be identified by biomarkers even if clinical signs of disease activity are absent...
  32. Ashorn S, Honkanen T, Kolho K, Ashorn M, Välineva T, Wei B, et al. Fecal calprotectin levels and serological responses to microbial antigens among children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of these markers provides valuable, noninvasive tools for the diagnosis of IBD. ..
  33. Hestvik E, Olafsdottir E, Tylleskar T, Aksnes L, Kaddu Mulindwa D, Ndeezi G, et al. Faecal calprotectin in HIV-infected, HAART-naïve Ugandan children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Children with more advanced disease had increased FC concentrations regardless of age. ..
  34. Aydemir G, Cekmez F, Tanju I, Canpolat F, Genc F, Yildirim S, et al. Increased fecal calprotectin in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Clin Lab. 2012;58:841-4 pubmed
    ..We concluded that fecal calprotectin is a useful marker for diagnosis and severity of NEC in preterm infants. ..
  35. Wang S, Wang Z, Shi H, Heng L, Juan W, Yuan B, et al. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in gastrointestinal diseases. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:1357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify faecal calprotectin concentrations in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in order to determine its diagnostic value...
  36. Bianchi M, Niemiec M, Siler U, Urban C, Reichenbach J. Restoration of anti-Aspergillus defense by neutrophil extracellular traps in human chronic granulomatous disease after gene therapy is calprotectin-dependent. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:1243-52.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the critical role of calprotectin in human innate immune defense against Aspergillus infection. ..
  37. Wagner M, Peterson C, Ridefelt P, Sangfelt P, Carlson M. Fecal markers of inflammation used as surrogate markers for treatment outcome in relapsing inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5584-9; discussion 5588 pubmed
    ..However, patients with persistent elevation of FC levels need further evaluation. FC and MPO provide superior discrimination than EPX in IBD treatment outcome. ..
  38. Yang Q, Smith P, Goldberg R, Cotten C. Dynamic change of fecal calprotectin in very low birth weight infants during the first month of life. Neonatology. 2008;94:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..FC levels may be a marker for early diagnosis and resolution of gastrointestinal illnesses in VLBW infants. Its utility for early diagnosis and assessment of resolution of NEC should be studied in a larger cohort of VLBW infants. ..
  39. Erbayrak M, Turkay C, Eraslan E, Cetinkaya H, Kasapoglu B, Bektas M. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64:421-5 pubmed
    ..Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses. ..
  40. Joshi S, Lewis S, Creanor S, Ayling R. Age-related faecal calprotectin, lactoferrin and tumour M2-PK concentrations in healthy volunteers. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010;47:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no change with age in the metabolomic marker faecal tumour M2-PK in healthy subjects. The knowledge of age-related reference ranges in healthy subjects is important to fully interpret changes in gastrointestinal disease. ..
  41. Terrin G, Passariello A, Manguso F, Salvia G, Rapacciuolo L, Messina F, et al. Serum calprotectin: an antimicrobial peptide as a new marker for the diagnosis of sepsis in very low birth weight newborns. Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:291085 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, serum calprotectin is an accurate marker of sepsis in very low birth weight newborns. ..
  42. Meucci G, D Incà R, Maieron R, Orzes N, Vecchi M, Visentini D, et al. Diagnostic value of faecal calprotectin in unselected outpatients referred for colonoscopy: A multicenter prospective study. Dig Liver Dis. 2010;42:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a normal result can help rule out organic disease among patients with diarrhoea and those with abdominal pain and/or constipation. ..
  43. Björkström M, Hall L, Söderlund S, Håkansson E, Håkansson S, Domellöf M. Intestinal flora in very low-birth weight infants. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1762-7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli Gram-negative species. In contrast to the previous studies in VLBW infants, we found an early colonization with LAB. We speculate that this may be due to early feeding of non-pasteurized breast milk. ..
  44. Reisinger K, van der Zee D, Brouwers H, Kramer B, van Heurn L, Buurman W, et al. Noninvasive measurement of fecal calprotectin and serum amyloid A combined with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective analysis is required to confirm this finding and to evaluate better treatment strategies based on noninvasive measurement of I-FABP and calprotectin. ..
  45. Chen C, Huang J, Chang C, Kong M. Fecal calprotectin as a correlative marker in clinical severity of infectious diarrhea and usefulness in evaluating bacterial or viral pathogens in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin may be a useful marker for application in children during infectious diarrhea. ..
  46. Liu J, Jellbauer S, Poe A, Ton V, Pesciaroli M, Kehl Fie T, et al. Zinc sequestration by the neutrophil protein calprotectin enhances Salmonella growth in the inflamed gut. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that Salmonella thrives in the inflamed gut by overcoming the zinc sequestration of calprotectin and highlight the importance of zinc acquisition in bacterial intestinal colonization. ..
  47. Otten C, Kok L, Witteman B, Baumgarten R, Kampman E, Moons K, et al. Diagnostic performance of rapid tests for detection of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin and their ability to discriminate inflammatory from irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The calprotectin and lactoferrin rapid tests are as good as the ELISA tests in detecting colonic inflammation. Given their simple use, FRTs can support the non-invasive exclusion of IBD, notably in primary care. ..
  48. Ertekin V, Selimoglu M, Turgut A, Bakan N. Fecal calprotectin concentration in celiac disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44:544-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenetic mechanism by which FC is increased in CD should be investigated in further studies. ..
  49. Balamtekin N, Baysoy G, Uslu N, Orhan D, Akcoren Z, Ozen H, et al. Fecal calprotectin concentration is increased in children with celiac disease: relation with histopathological findings. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012;23:503-8 pubmed
    ..Additionally, it may be used for the differentiation of celiac disease from functional disorders of the gastrointestinal system. ..
  50. Thuijls G, Derikx J, Prakken F, Huisman B, van Bijnen Ing A, van Heurn E, et al. A pilot study on potential new plasma markers for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, plasma levels of LF and CP give additional information to conventional markers WBC and CRP, making them potential new markers for AA diagnosis. ..
  51. Isidor B, Poignant S, Corradini N, Fouassier M, Quartier P, Roth J, et al. Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia: unsuccessful treatment with tacrolimus. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:410-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Tacrolimus seems to have a transient effect in the treatment of Hyperzincemia and hyperprolactinemia. ..
  52. Damms A, Bischoff S. Validation and clinical significance of a new calprotectin rapid test for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008;23:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Henceforth, it provides a precondition for the fecal calprotectin method to challenge fecal occult blood testing in further evaluations. ..
  53. Kapel N, Campeotto F, Kalach N, Baldassare M, Butel M, Dupont C. Faecal calprotectin in term and preterm neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:542-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The measurement of calprotectin levels in faeces can be a promising noninvasive clinical screening test for intestinal distress in neonates. ..