calreticulin

Summary

Summary: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.

Top Publications

  1. Zitvogel L, Kepp O, Senovilla L, Menger L, Chaput N, Kroemer G. Immunogenic tumor cell death for optimal anticancer therapy: the calreticulin exposure pathway. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:3100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the peculiarities of immunogenic apoptosis is the early cell surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT), a protein that usually resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  2. Tesniere A, Schlemmer F, Boige V, Kepp O, Martins I, Ghiringhelli F, et al. Immunogenic death of colon cancer cells treated with oxaliplatin. Oncogene. 2010;29:482-91 pubmed publisher
    Both the pre-apoptotic exposure of calreticulin (CRT) and the post-apoptotic release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are required for immunogenic cell death elicited by anthracyclins...
  3. Korbelik M, Zhang W, Merchant S. Involvement of damage-associated molecular patterns in tumor response to photodynamic therapy: surface expression of calreticulin and high-mobility group box-1 release. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011;60:1431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of two prototypical DAMPs, calreticulin and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, was examined following Photofrin-photodynamic therapy (PDT) of ..
  4. Panaretakis T, Kepp O, Brockmeier U, Tesniere A, Bjorklund A, Chapman D, et al. Mechanisms of pre-apoptotic calreticulin exposure in immunogenic cell death. EMBO J. 2009;28:578-90 pubmed publisher
    Dying tumour cells can elicit a potent anticancer immune response by exposing the calreticulin (CRT)/ERp57 complex on the cell surface before the cells manifest any signs of apoptosis...
  5. Naresha S, Suryawanshi A, Agarwal M, Singh B, Joshi P. Mapping the complement C1q binding site in Haemonchus contortus calreticulin. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;166:42-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The parasite secretes calreticulin (CalR), a Ca(++) binding protein which modulates the host immune response...
  6. Gabillet J, Millet A, Pederzoli Ribeil M, Tacnet Delorme P, Guillevin L, Mouthon L, et al. Proteinase 3, the autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis, associates with calreticulin on apoptotic neutrophils, impairs macrophage phagocytosis, and promotes inflammation. J Immunol. 2012;189:2574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon neutrophil apoptosis, PR3 is coexternalized with phosphatidylserine and impaired macrophage phagocytosis. Calreticulin (CRT), a protein involved in apoptotic cell recognition, was found to be a new PR3 partner coexpressed with PR3 ..
  7. Jheng J, Lau K, Tang W, Wu M, Horng J. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced and modulated by enterovirus 71. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:796-813 pubmed publisher
    ..enterovirus 71 (EV71), a picornavirus, caused overexpression of the ER-resident chaperone proteins, BiP and calreticulin, and phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, but infection with UV-inactivated virus did not, indicating that ER stress ..
  8. Ryu S, Hong G, Kim D, Ro J. Enolase 1 and calreticulin regulate the differentiation and function of mouse mast cells. Cell Signal. 2012;24:60-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Enolase 1 is a glycolytic enzyme expressed in most tissues and calreticulin, known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperon, has multifunctional responses...
  9. Singh P, Ponnan P, Krishnan S, Tyagi T, Priya N, Bansal S, et al. Protein acyltransferase function of purified calreticulin. Part 1: characterization of propionylation of protein utilizing propoxycoumarin as the propionyl group donor. J Biochem. 2010;147:625-32 pubmed publisher
    We have earlier reported that an endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein calreticulin (CR) mediated the acetylation of certain receptor proteins such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) by polyphenolic acetates, leading to irreversible ..

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Saijo Y, Tintor N, Lu X, Rauf P, Pajerowska Mukhtar K, Häweker H, et al. Receptor quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum for plant innate immunity. EMBO J. 2009;28:3439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a critical and selective function of N-glycosylation for different layers of plant immunity, likely through quality control of membrane-localized regulators. ..
  2. Alur M, Nguyen M, Eggener S, Jiang F, Dadras S, Stern J, et al. Suppressive roles of calreticulin in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:882-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is an essential, multifunctional Ca(2+)-binding protein that participates in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, cell adhesion, and chaperoning...
  3. Liu H, Peatman E, Wang W, Abernathy J, Liu S, Kucuktas H, et al. Molecular responses of calreticulin genes to iron overload and bacterial challenge in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, calreticulin is a 46-kDa multifunctional calcium binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that has many critical ..
  4. Sonnemann J, Gressmann S, Becker S, Wittig S, Schmudde M, Beck J. The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces calreticulin exposure in childhood brain tumour cells in vitro. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;66:611-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that anticancer chemotherapy can elicit an immunogenic form of apoptosis characterised by the exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the surface of dying tumour cells, entailing an immune response that contributes to the therapeutic ..
  5. Qiu Y, Michalak M. Transcriptional control of the calreticulin gene in health and disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:531-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a multifunctional Ca(2+) binding chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and expression of the protein is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level...
  6. Wijeyesakere S, Rizvi S, Raghavan M. Glycan-dependent and -independent interactions contribute to cellular substrate recruitment by calreticulin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35104-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone with specificity for monoglucosylated glycoproteins...
  7. Ling S, Cheng A, Pumpens P, Michalak M, Holoshitz J. Identification of the rheumatoid arthritis shared epitope binding site on calreticulin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11703 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the SE acts as a ligand that interacts with cell surface calreticulin (CRT) and activates innate immune signaling...
  8. An Y, Lin R, Wang F, Feng J, Xu Y, Xu S. Molecular cloning of a new wheat calreticulin gene TaCRT1 and expression analysis in plant defense responses and abiotic stress resistance. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3576-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin proteins play essential roles in regulating various metabolic processes and in molecular signal transduction in animals and plants...
  9. Hong C, Qiu X, Li Y, Huang Q, Zhong Z, Zhang Y, et al. Functional analysis of recombinant calreticulin fragment 39-272: implications for immunobiological activities of calreticulin in health and disease. J Immunol. 2010;185:4561-9 pubmed publisher
    Although calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca(2+)-binding luminal resident protein, it can also appear on the surface of various types of cells and it functions as an immunopotentiating molecule...
  10. Cheng C, Su C. Tanshinone IIA inhibits Hep-J5 cells by increasing calreticulin, caspase 12 and GADD153 protein expression. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:379-85 pubmed
    ..The cytotoxicity was assayed by MTT. The protein expression of p53, p21, Bax, Bcl-2, Cdc25c, Cdc2, calreticulin, caspase 12, GADD153, caspase 3 and beta-actin in J5 cells were determined by Western blotting...
  11. Pawaria S, Binder R. CD91-dependent programming of T-helper cell responses following heat shock protein immunization. Nat Commun. 2011;2:521 pubmed publisher
    The immunogenic heat shock proteins (HSPs) gp96, hsp70 and calreticulin (CRT) bind to CD91 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for cross-presentation of the HSP-chaperoned peptides. This event leads to priming of T-cell responses...
  12. Higashino A, Kageyama T, Kantha S, Terao K. Detection of elevated antibody against calreticulin by ELISA in aged cynomolgus monkey plasma. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:85-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (Crt) is a molecular chaperone ubiquitously present in the endoplasmic reticulum. In non-human primates, age-related occurrence of anti-Crt antibody has not been reported...
  13. Jaouannet M, Magliano M, Arguel M, Gourgues M, Evangelisti E, Abad P, et al. The root-knot nematode calreticulin Mi-CRT is a key effector in plant defense suppression. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that Mi-CRT, a calreticulin (CRT) secreted by the nematode into the apoplasm of infected tissues, plays an important role in infection ..
  14. Zamanian M, Veerakumarasivam A, Abdullah S, Rosli R. Calreticulin and cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2013;19:149-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) as a multi-functional endoplasmic reticulum protein is involved in a spectrum of cellular processes which ranges from calcium homeostasis and chaperoning to cell adhesion and finally malignant formation and progression...
  15. Zimmerman K, Graham L, Pallero M, Murphy Ullrich J. Calreticulin regulates transforming growth factor-?-stimulated extracellular matrix production. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14584-98 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Calreticulin (CRT) is an ER chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) signaling up-regulated by ER stress and in fibrotic tissues...
  16. Rumi E, Harutyunyan A, Pietra D, Milosevic J, Casetti I, Bellini M, et al. CALR exon 9 mutations are somatically acquired events in familial cases of essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis. Blood. 2014;123:2416-9 pubmed publisher
    Somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene were recently discovered in patients with sporadic essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations...
  17. Sosoniuk E, Vallejos G, Kenawy H, Gaboriaud C, Thielens N, Fujita T, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibits the complement lectin pathway activation by direct interaction with L-Ficolin. Mol Immunol. 2014;60:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..CRPs, T-DAF, sialic acid and lipases explain at least part of this resistance. In vitro, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a chaperone molecule that translocates from the ER to the parasite surface: (a) Inhibits the human ..
  18. Tesniere A, Apetoh L, Ghiringhelli F, Joza N, Panaretakis T, Kepp O, et al. Immunogenic cancer cell death: a key-lock paradigm. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008;20:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunogenic cell death is characterized by the early cell surface exposure of chaperones including calreticulin and/or heat shock proteins, which determine the uptake of tumor antigens and/or affect DC maturation...
  19. Pallero M, Elzie C, Chen J, Mosher D, Murphy Ullrich J. Thrombospondin 1 binding to calreticulin-LRP1 signals resistance to anoikis. FASEB J. 2008;22:3968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal domain of TSP1 binds to the calreticulin-LRP1 receptor co-complex to signal down-regulation of cell adhesion and increased cell motility through focal ..
  20. Tarr J, Winyard P, Ryan B, Harries L, Haigh R, Viner N, et al. Extracellular calreticulin is present in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inhibits FasL (CD95L)-mediated apoptosis of T cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:2919-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine which factors might inhibit FasL-Fas binding in vivo and those that would inhibit apoptosis of T lymphocytes in an in vitro model system...
  21. Nanney L, Woodrell C, Greives M, Cardwell N, Pollins A, Bancroft T, et al. Calreticulin enhances porcine wound repair by diverse biological effects. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:610-30 pubmed publisher
    Extracellular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein calreticulin (CRT) are emerging. Here we show novel roles for exogenous CRT in both cutaneous wound healing and diverse processes associated with repair...
  22. Oladiran A, Belosevic M. Trypanosoma carassii calreticulin binds host complement component C1q and inhibits classical complement pathway-mediated lysis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the parasite molecules identified in the ES of T. carassii was calreticulin. We cloned and produced T...
  23. Zhang Y, Kozlov G, Pocanschi C, Brockmeier U, Ireland B, Maattanen P, et al. ERp57 does not require interactions with calnexin and calreticulin to promote assembly of class I histocompatibility molecules, and it enhances peptide loading independently of its redox activity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10160-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Since ERp57 associates with the lectin chaperones calnexin and calreticulin, it is thought that ERp57 requires these chaperones to gain access to its substrates...
  24. Michaud M, Martins I, Sukkurwala A, Adjemian S, Ma Y, Pellegatti P, et al. Autophagy-dependent anticancer immune responses induced by chemotherapeutic agents in mice. Science. 2011;334:1573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, autophagy is essential for the immunogenic release of ATP from dying cells, and increased extracellular ATP concentrations improve the efficacy of antineoplastic chemotherapies when autophagy is disabled. ..
  25. Wang W, Groenendyk J, Michalak M. Calreticulin signaling in health and disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:842-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) binding chaperone that has multiple functions inside and outside of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  26. Hisaoka M, Matsuyama A, Nakamoto M. Aberrant calreticulin expression is involved in the dedifferentiation of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..several unique genes that were highly expressed in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR), a major Ca(2+)-buffering protein that can inhibit adipocyte differentiation, was found to be ..
  27. Qiu Y, Xi J, Du L, Poovaiah B. The function of calreticulin in plant immunity: new discoveries for an old protein. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:907-10 pubmed publisher
    ..as a high affinity Ca ( 2+) -binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calreticulin (CRT) has been documented to be a multifunctional protein in both animal and plant cells...
  28. Madeo F, Durchschlag M, Kepp O, Panaretakis T, Zitvogel L, Frohlich K, et al. Phylogenetic conservation of the preapoptotic calreticulin exposure pathway from yeast to mammals. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:639-42 pubmed
    The pre-apoptotic exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the cell surface determines the efficient engulfment of mouse or human tumor cells by antigen-presenting dendritic cells...
  29. Sánchez Valdéz F, Pérez Brandan C, Zago M, Labriola C, Ferreira A, Basombrío M. Trypanosoma cruzi carrying a monoallelic deletion of the calreticulin (TcCRT) gene are susceptible to complement mediated killing and defective in their metacyclogenesis. Mol Immunol. 2013;53:198-205 pubmed publisher
    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) can hijack complement C1, mannan-binding lectin and ficolins from serum thus inhibiting the classical and lectin complement pathway activation respectively...
  30. Raghavan M, Wijeyesakere S, Peters L, Del Cid N. Calreticulin in the immune system: ins and outs. Trends Immunol. 2013;34:13-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone that has several functions in the immune response...
  31. Olkku A, Mahonen A. Calreticulin mediated glucocorticoid receptor export is involved in beta-catenin translocation and Wnt signalling inhibition in human osteoblastic cells. Bone. 2009;44:555-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In further studies, a chaperone protein calreticulin (CRT), known to bind the DNA binding domain of GR and regulate receptor export, was found to be involved in the ..
  32. Nangalia J, Massie C, Baxter E, Nice F, Gundem G, Wedge D, et al. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2391-2405 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls...
  33. Rotunno G, Mannarelli C, Guglielmelli P, Pacilli A, Pancrazzi A, Pieri L, et al. Impact of calreticulin mutations on clinical and hematological phenotype and outcome in essential thrombocythemia. Blood. 2014;123:1552-5 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene were recently discovered in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) lacking the JAK2V617F and MPLW515 mutations, but no information is available on the clinical correlates...
  34. Liu R, Gong J, Chen J, Li Q, Song C, Zhang J, et al. Calreticulin as a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012;61:855-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum luminal Ca(2+)-binding chaperone protein. By immunizing mice with recombinant fragment (rCRT/39-272), six clones of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated and characterized...
  35. Trotta A, Konert G, Rahikainen M, Aro E, Kangasjärvi S. Knock-down of protein phosphatase 2A subunit B'? promotes phosphorylation of CALRETICULIN 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:1665-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In pp2a-b’?, strong phosphorylation of CRT 1 may partially imbalance the quality control of protein folding, thereby eliciting ER-stress and premature yellowing in leaves. ..
  36. Pocanschi C, Kozlov G, Brockmeier U, Brockmeier A, Williams D, Gehring K. Structural and functional relationships between the lectin and arm domains of calreticulin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27266-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin and calnexin are key components in maintaining the quality control of glycoprotein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum...
  37. Kumari R, Bansal S, Gupta G, Arora S, Kumar A, Goel S, et al. Calreticulin transacylase: genesis, mechanism of action and biological applications. Biochimie. 2010;92:1173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..wt) of 55kDa. Further, by N-terminal sequencing TAase was identified as Calreticulin (CR), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein in ER lumen...
  38. Shen W, Yan P, Gao L, Pan X, Wu J, Zhou P. Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) protein of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya calreticulin. Mol Plant Pathol. 2010;11:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed that the full-length papaya calreticulin, designated PaCRT (GenBank accession no...
  39. Bibi A, Agarwal N, Dihazi G, Eltoweissy M, Van Nguyen P, Mueller G, et al. Calreticulin is crucial for calcium homeostasis mediated adaptation and survival of thick ascending limb of Henle's loop cells under osmotic stress. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..ER resident calcium binding proteins especially calreticulin (CALR) play an important role in different stress balance mechanisms...
  40. Singh U, Kumar A, Sinha R, Manral S, Arora S, Ram S, et al. Calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed modification of the TNF-alpha mediated pathway in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by polyphenolic acetates. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;185:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous investigations, we have conclusively established calreticulin transacetylase catalyzed activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by polyphenolic acetates...
  41. Nørgaard Toft K, Larsen N, Steen Jørgensen F, Højrup P, Houen G, Vestergaard B. Small angle X-ray scattering study of calreticulin reveals conformational plasticity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:1265-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin plays a central role in vital cell processes such as protein folding, Ca(2+) homeostasis and immunogenicity. Even so, only limited three-dimensional structural information is presently available...
  42. Tarr J, Young P, Morse R, Shaw D, Haigh R, Petrov P, et al. A mechanism of release of calreticulin from cells during apoptosis. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:799-812 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone responsible for glycoprotein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. CRT also has extracellular functions, e.g...
  43. Garg A, Nowis D, Golab J, Vandenabeele P, Krysko D, Agostinis P. Immunogenic cell death, DAMPs and anticancer therapeutics: an emerging amalgamation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1805:53-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Various intracellular molecules like calreticulin (CRT), heat-shock proteins (HSPs), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, have been shown to be DAMPs ..
  44. Lundberg P, Karow A, Nienhold R, Looser R, Hao Shen H, Nissen I, et al. Clonal evolution and clinical correlates of somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Blood. 2014;123:2220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in calreticulin (CALR) were detected using a sensitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction...
  45. Papp S, Dziak E, Kabir G, Backx P, Clement S, Opas M. Evidence for calreticulin attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and soluble agonists. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1113-21 pubmed publisher
    While calreticulin has been shown to be critical for cardiac development, its role in cardiac pathology is unclear...
  46. Wang X, Shang L, Zhang Y, Hao J, Shi F, Luo W, et al. PTP1B contributes to calreticulin-induced metastatic phenotypes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:986-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca(2+)-binding chaperone protein that alters cellular Ca(2+)-homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  47. Erić A, Juranic Z, Milovanovic Z, Markovic I, Inic M, Stanojević Bakić N, et al. Effects of humoral immunity and calreticulin overexpression on postoperative course in breast cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:89-90 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to investigate whether the humoral immunity and overexpression of calreticulin in tumor tissue determined before surgery, correlate with incidence of metastases in breast cancer patients within two years after operation...
  48. Liu Y, Li J. A conserved basic residue cluster is essential for the protein quality control function of the Arabidopsis calreticulin 3. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e23864 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved chaperone-like lectin that regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis and participates in protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  49. Wemeau M, Kepp O, Tesniere A, Panaretakis T, Flament C, de Botton S, et al. Calreticulin exposure on malignant blasts predicts a cellular anticancer immune response in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e104 pubmed publisher
    ..that anthracyclines stimulate immunogenic cell death that is characterized by the pre-apoptotic exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the surface of dying tumor cells...
  50. Yang Y, Li X, Chen Z, Zhu X, Wang J, Zhang L, et al. Wogonin induced calreticulin/annexin A1 exposure dictates the immunogenicity of cancer cells in a PERK/AKT dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50811 pubmed publisher
    ..for the first time that wogonin elicits a potent antitumor immunity effect by inducing the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and Annexin A1 to cell plasma membrane as well as the release of high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) ..
  51. Ihara Y, Inai Y, Ikezaki M. Alteration of integrin-dependent adhesion and signaling in EMT-like MDCK cells established through overexpression of calreticulin. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2518-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT) is a multi-functional Ca(2+) -binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  52. León Cabrera S, Cruz Rivera M, Mendlovic F, Romero Valdovinos M, Vaughan G, Salazar A, et al. Immunological mechanisms involved in the protection against intestinal taeniosis elicited by oral immunization with Taenia solium calreticulin. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:334-40 pubmed publisher
    Oral immunization with functional recombinant Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) induces 37% reduction in tapeworm burden in the experimental model of intestinal taeniosis in hamsters...
  53. Van Duyn Graham L, Sweetwyne M, Pallero M, Murphy Ullrich J. Intracellular calreticulin regulates multiple steps in fibrillar collagen expression, trafficking, and processing into the extracellular matrix. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7067-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Calreticulin (CRT), a chaperone and Ca(2+) regulator, enhances wound healing, and its expression correlates with fibrosis in animal models, suggesting that CRT regulates production of the extracellular matrix...