Summary: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.

Top Publications

  1. Sapp E, Schwarz C, Chase K, Bhide P, Young A, Penney J, et al. Huntingtin localization in brains of normal and Huntington's disease patients. Ann Neurol. 1997;42:604-12 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that there may be changes in the neuronal expression and transport of wild-type and/or mutant huntingtin at early and late stages of neuronal degeneration in affected areas of the HD brain. ..
  2. Fortin M, Marchand R, Parent A. Calcium-binding proteins in primate cerebellum. Neurosci Res. 1998;30:155-68 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, calretinin appears to be a particularly reliable molecular maker for all the neuronal elements associated with the granular layer in the primate cerebellum. ..
  3. Eriksson P, Perfilieva E, Bjork Eriksson T, Alborn A, Nordborg C, Peterson D, et al. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nat Med. 1998;4:1313-7 pubmed
    ..Our results further indicate that the human hippocampus retains its ability to generate neurons throughout life. ..
  4. Nilsson M, Perfilieva E, Johansson U, Orwar O, Eriksson P. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus and improves spatial memory. J Neurobiol. 1999;39:569-78 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that environmental cues can enhance neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal region, which is associated with improved spatial memory. ..
  5. Różycka A, Liguz Lecznar M. The space where aging acts: focus on the GABAergic synapse. Aging Cell. 2017;16:634-643 pubmed publisher
  6. Ichimiya Y, Emson P, Mountjoy C, Lawson D, Heizmann C. Loss of calbindin-28K immunoreactive neurones from the cortex in Alzheimer-type dementia. Brain Res. 1988;475:156-9 pubmed
    ..When compared with the controls, the number and size of calbindin immunoreactive neurones were significantly reduced in the cortices of patients with ATD. These findings suggest that calbindin containing neurones are affected in ATD. ..
  7. Kawaguchi Y, Kubota Y. Correlation of physiological subgroupings of nonpyramidal cells with parvalbumin- and calbindinD28k-immunoreactive neurons in layer V of rat frontal cortex. J Neurophysiol. 1993;70:387-96 pubmed
  8. Roy J, Minotti S, Dong L, Figlewicz D, Durham H. Glutamate potentiates the toxicity of mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in motor neurons by postsynaptic calcium-dependent mechanisms. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9673-84 pubmed
  9. Damier P, Hirsch E, Agid Y, Graybiel A. The substantia nigra of the human brain. I. Nigrosomes and the nigral matrix, a compartmental organization based on calbindin D(28K) immunohistochemistry. Brain. 1999;122 ( Pt 8):1421-36 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kuemmerle S, Gutekunst C, Klein A, Li X, Li S, Beal M, et al. Huntington aggregates may not predict neuronal death in Huntington's disease. Ann Neurol. 1999;46:842-9 pubmed
    ..Rather than a harbinger of neuronal death, mutant huntingtin aggregation may be a cytoprotective mechanism against polyglutamine-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  2. Kovács Valasek A, Szabadfi K, Denes V, Szalontai B, Tamas A, Kiss P, et al. Accelerated retinal aging in PACAP knock-out mice. Neuroscience. 2017;348:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the conclusion that endogenous PACAP contributes to protection against aging of the nervous system. ..
  3. Morishita M, Maejima S, Tsukahara S. Gonadal Hormone-Dependent Sexual Differentiation of a Female-Biased Sexually Dimorphic Cell Group in the Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3512-3525 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian hormones may act to feminize the BNSTpv during the pubertal/adolescent period. ..
  4. Yang Q, Hashizume Y, Yoshida M, Wang Y, Goto Y, Mitsuma N, et al. Morphological Purkinje cell changes in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. Acta Neuropathol. 2000;100:371-6 pubmed
  5. Hosp J, Strüber M, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Vida I, Jonas P, et al. Morpho-physiological criteria divide dentate gyrus interneurons into classes. Hippocampus. 2014;24:189-203 pubmed