annexin a1

Summary

Summary: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.

Top Publications

  1. Dalli J, Consalvo A, Ray V, Di Filippo C, D Amico M, Mehta N, et al. Proresolving and tissue-protective actions of annexin A1-based cleavage-resistant peptides are mediated by formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A4 receptor. J Immunol. 2013;190:6478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we engineered novel Annexin A1 (AnxA1)-based peptides, AnxA1(2-50), that displayed specific binding to the AnxA1 receptor (formyl peptide ..
  2. Biaoxue R, Xiling J, Shuanying Y, Wei Z, Xiguang C, Jinsui W, et al. Upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 correlates with poor survival and lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer patients. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012;31:70 pubmed
    Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 were investigated as prognostic factors because of their apparent association with tumorigenesis. However, the effect of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 in lung cancer remains poorly understood...
  3. Dempsey A, Walsh M, Shaw G. Unmasking the annexin I interaction from the structure of Apo-S100A11. Structure. 2003;11:887-97 pubmed
    ..In apo-S100A11, this results in a "masked" binding surface that prevents annexin I binding but is uncovered upon calcium binding. ..
  4. Bizzarro V, Fontanella B, Franceschelli S, Pirozzi M, Christian H, Parente L, et al. Role of Annexin A1 in mouse myoblast cell differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:757-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein involved in a broad range of cellular events. This study used molecular and microscopy approaches to explore the role of ANXA1 in mouse myoblast C2C12 cell differentiation...
  5. Behrouz G, Farzaneh G, Leila J, Jaleh Z, Eskandar K. Presence of auto-antibody against two placental proteins, annexin A1 and vitamin D binding protein, in sera of women with pre-eclampsia. J Reprod Immunol. 2013;99:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that two placental proteins, annexin A1 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP), might be targeted by PE sera...
  6. Leoni G, Alam A, Neumann P, Lambeth J, Cheng G, McCoy J, et al. Annexin A1, formyl peptide receptor, and NOX1 orchestrate epithelial repair. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a novel intestinal epithelial FPR signaling pathway that is activated by an endogenous FPR ligand, annexin A1 (ANXA1), and its cleavage product Ac2-26, which mediate activation of ROS by an epithelial NADPH oxidase, NOX1...
  7. Babiychuk E, Monastyrskaya K, Draeger A. Fluorescent annexin A1 reveals dynamics of ceramide platforms in living cells. Traffic. 2008;9:1757-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ceramide increases affinity of annexin A1-membrane interaction...
  8. Rodrigues Lisoni F, Mehet D, Mehemet D, Peitl P, John C, da Silva Júnior W, et al. In vitro and in vivo studies on CCR10 regulation by Annexin A1. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1431-8 pubmed
    The mode of action of annexin A1 (ANXA1) is poorly understood. By using rapid subtraction hybridization we studied the effects of human recombinant ANXA1 and the N-terminal ANXA1 peptide on gene expression in a human larynx cell line...
  9. Perretti M. The annexin 1 receptor(s): is the plot unravelling?. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003;24:574-9 pubmed
    ..This line of research will facilitate the development of ANXA1 mimetics and take advantage of >20 years of biological research into the functions of this glucocorticoid-modulated protein. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhu F, Xu C, Jiang Z, Jin M, Wang L, Zeng S, et al. Nuclear localization of annexin A1 correlates with advanced disease and peritoneal dissemination in patients with gastric carcinoma. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1310-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a multifunctional molecule, which mediates various important physiologic processes depending on its subcelluar localization...
  2. Oliani S, Ciocca G, Pimentel T, Damazo A, Gibbs L, Perretti M. Fluctuation of annexin-A1 positive mast cells in chronic granulomatous inflammation. Inflamm Res. 2008;57:450-6 pubmed publisher
  3. Bai X, Ni X, Zhao P, Liu S, Wang H, Guo B, et al. Overexpression of annexin 1 in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1466-70 pubmed
    ..Annexin 1 overexpression is a frequent biological marker and correlates with the differentiation of pancreatic cancer during tumorigenesis. ..
  4. Omer S, Meredith D, Morris J, Christian H. Evidence for the role of adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC)-A1 in the externalization of annexin 1 from pituitary folliculostellate cells and ABCA1-transfected cell models. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3219-27 pubmed
    ..Expression of ABCA1 in AtT20 D1 cells significantly increased the amount of cell surface ANXA1, compared with mock-transfected and ANXA1-only transfected controls. Together these data provide evidence for a role of ABCA1 in ANXA1 export...
  5. Yona S, Buckingham J, Perretti M, Flower R. Stimulus-specific defect in the phagocytic pathways of annexin 1 null macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:890-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that participation of endogenous annexin 1 during zymosan phagocytosis is critical and that this protein plays a tonic inhibitory role during macrophage activation. ..
  6. Santos J, González Sánchez L, Matabuena Deyzaguirre M, Villa Morales M, Cozar P, Lopez Nieva P, et al. A role for stroma-derived annexin A1 as mediator in the control of genetic susceptibility to T-cell lymphoblastic malignancies through prostaglandin E2 secretion. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2577-87 pubmed publisher
  7. Kang J, Li M, Chen X, Yin X. Proteomics analysis of starved cells revealed Annexin A1 as an important regulator of autophagic degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, we found that Annexin A1 was significantly upregulated following starvation at both mRNA and protein levels...
  8. Arur S, Uche U, Rezaul K, Fong M, Scranton V, Cowan A, et al. Annexin I is an endogenous ligand that mediates apoptotic cell engulfment. Dev Cell. 2003;4:587-98 pubmed
    ..These results provide novel mechanistic insights into how apoptotic cells are removed and may explain a pathogenic mechanism of chronic inflammatory diseases where annexin I autoantibodies have been described. ..
  9. Bena S, Brancaleone V, Wang J, Perretti M, Flower R. Annexin A1 interaction with the FPR2/ALX receptor: identification of distinct domains and downstream associated signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24690-7 pubmed publisher
    ..FPR) family, conveys the biological functions of a variety of ligands, including the proresolution mediators annexin A1 (AnxA1) and lipoxin A(4), as well as the activating and proinflammatory protein serum amyloid A...
  10. Chen Z, Yoshihara E, Son A, Matsuo Y, Masutani H, Sugie K, et al. Differential roles of Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin) and thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP) in glucocorticoid signaling of HTLV-I-transformed T cells. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:11-8 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used for therapeutic purposes in immunological and hematological disorders. Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin), a GC-inducible molecule, was regarded as a vital anti-inflammatory mediator of GC...
  11. Xia S, Hu L, Hu H, Ying W, Xu X, Cai Y, et al. Three isoforms of annexin I are preferentially expressed in normal esophageal epithelia but down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:6641-8 pubmed
    ..Down-expression of three annexin I isoforms was a frequent event in esophageal carcinogenesis. ..
  12. Cao Y, Li Y, Edelweiss M, Arun B, Rosen D, Resetkova E, et al. Loss of annexin A1 expression in breast cancer progression. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2008;16:530-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a potential marker of development of breast cancer. However, previous studies of ANXA1 expression in primary breast carcinoma and lymph node metastasis have yielded conflicting results...
  13. Tagoe C, Marjanovic N, Park J, Chan E, Abeles A, Attur M, et al. Annexin-1 mediates TNF-alpha-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase secretion from rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. J Immunol. 2008;181:2813-20 pubmed
  14. Lecona E, Barrasa J, Olmo N, Llorente B, Turnay J, Lizarbe M. Upregulation of annexin A1 expression by butyrate in human colon adenocarcinoma cells: role of p53, NF-Y, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4665-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexin A1 is a member of a phospholipid and calcium binding family of proteins; it is involved in anti-inflammation and in the regulation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis...
  15. Herbert S, Odell A, Ponnambalam S, Walker J. The confluence-dependent interaction of cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha with annexin A1 regulates endothelial cell prostaglandin E2 generation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34468-78 pubmed
    ..Golgi apparatus of confluent endothelial cells, cPLA(2)alpha is associated with the phospholipid-binding protein annexin A1. Furthermore, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous annexin A1 significantly reverses the inhibitory effect ..
  16. Fan X, Krahling S, Smith D, Williamson P, Schlegel R. Macrophage surface expression of annexins I and II in the phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2863-72 pubmed
    ..Annexin bridging is vectorial, because annexin is bound to PS molecules on targets but not on macrophages, suggesting annexins serve as both ligand and receptor in promoting phagocytosis. ..
  17. Parente L, Solito E. Annexin 1: more than an anti-phospholipase protein. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:125-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, ANXA1 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory signalling that allows safe post-apoptotic clearance of dead cells. ..
  18. Wang K, Wu T, Resetkova E, Wang H, Correa A, Hofstetter W, et al. Expression of annexin A1 in esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: association with poor outcome. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:4598-604 pubmed
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium-binding protein involved in arachidonic acid metabolism and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase pathway...
  19. Rosengarth A, Luecke H. A calcium-driven conformational switch of the N-terminal and core domains of annexin A1. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:1317-25 pubmed
    In 1993, Huber and co-workers published the structure of an N-terminally truncated version of human annexin A1 lacking the first 32 amino acid residues (PDB code: 1AIN)...
  20. Cicek M, Samant R, Kinter M, Welch D, Casey G. Identification of metastasis-associated proteins through protein analysis of metastatic MDA-MB-435 and metastasis-suppressed BRMS1 transfected-MDA-MB-435 cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004;21:149-57 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that annexin I and alpha B-crystallin are important cellular proteins that are down regulated through BRMS1 mediated metastasis suppression. ..
  21. Faria P, Sena A, Nascimento R, Carvalho W, Loyola A, Silva S, et al. Expression of annexin A1 mRNA in peripheral blood from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:25-30 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have been suggesting annexin A1 protein as an active player in tumorigenesis of many organs. Nevertheless, its tumor biomarker role has been mainly studied in tissues by immunohistochemistry or cell culture...
  22. Yazid S, Solito E, Christian H, McArthur S, Goulding N, Flower R. Cromoglycate drugs suppress eicosanoid generation in U937 cells by promoting the release of Anx-A1. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1814-26 pubmed publisher
    ..1.3.16), which probably forms part of a control loop to limit Anx-A1 release. These experiments provide a basis for a novel mechanism of action for the cromolyns, a group of drugs that have long puzzled investigators. ..
  23. Ang E, Nguyen H, Sim H, Putti T, Lim L. Annexin-1 regulates growth arrest induced by high levels of estrogen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that ANXA1-deficient mice exhibit faster carcinogen-induced tumor growth. Our data suggest that ANXA1 may act as a tumor suppressor gene and modulate the proliferative functions of estrogens. ..
  24. Chuthapisith S, Bean B, Cowley G, Eremin J, Samphao S, Layfield R, et al. Annexins in human breast cancer: Possible predictors of pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:1274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms by which annexins confer chemoresistance have not been identified, but may be due to inhibition of apoptosis. Annexin-A1 has been shown to enhance apoptosis, whilst annexin-A2, by contrast, inhibits apoptosis. ..
  25. Protzel C, Richter M, Poetsch M, Kakies C, Zimmermann U, Woenckhaus C, et al. The role of annexins I, II and IV in tumor development, progression and metastasis of human penile squamous cell carcinomas. World J Urol. 2011;29:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Annexins are potential prognostic markers in a variety of tumors, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of Annexins I, II and IV (ANX AI, ANX AII and ANX AIV) in PSCC...
  26. McNeil A, Rescher U, Gerke V, McNeil P. Requirement for annexin A1 in plasma membrane repair. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35202-7 pubmed
    ..These events serve to erect a reparative membrane patch and then anneal it to the defect site. Annexin A1 is a cytosolic protein that, when activated by micromolar Ca2+, binds to membrane phospholipids, promoting ..
  27. Williams S, Milne I, Bagley C, Gamble J, Vadas M, Pitson S, et al. A proinflammatory role for proteolytically cleaved annexin A1 in neutrophil transendothelial migration. J Immunol. 2010;185:3057-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the soluble neutrophil factor is a truncated form of annexin A1 (AnxA1) that can be generated by calpain 1 cleavage of the N terminus, thus identifying a novel proinflammatory ..
  28. Dalli J, Norling L, Renshaw D, Cooper D, Leung K, Perretti M. Annexin 1 mediates the rapid anti-inflammatory effects of neutrophil-derived microparticles. Blood. 2008;112:2512-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Buckingham J, John C, Solito E, Tierney T, Flower R, Christian H, et al. Annexin 1, glucocorticoids, and the neuroendocrine-immune interface. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1088:396-409 pubmed
    ..In addition, the role of ANXA1 in the perinatal programming of the HPA axis is discussed. ..
  30. Ayoub S, Yazid S, Flower R. Increased susceptibility of annexin-A1 null mice to nociceptive pain is indicative of a spinal antinociceptive action of annexin-A1. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:1135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ANXA1 protein modulates nociceptive processing at the spinal level, by reducing synthesis of PGE2 by modulating cPLA2 and/or COX activity. The analgesic activity of methylprednisolone is mediated by spinal ANXA1. ..
  31. Alldridge L, Bryant C. Annexin 1 regulates cell proliferation by disruption of cell morphology and inhibition of cyclin D1 expression through sustained activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK signal. Exp Cell Res. 2003;290:93-107 pubmed
    ..In summary, overexpression of ANXA1 mediates the disruption of normal cell morphology and inhibits cyclin D1 expression, therefore reducing cell proliferation through proximal modulation of the ERK signal transduction pathway. ..
  32. Lin C, Jeng Y, Chou H, Hsu H, Yuan R, Chiang C, et al. Nuclear localization of annexin A1 is a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2008;97:544-50 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether annexin A1 (ANXA1) expression is a marker in predicting the prognosis of oral cancer patients...
  33. Martin G, Perretti M, Flower R, Wallace J. Annexin-1 modulates repair of gastric mucosal injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the hypothesis that annexin-1 contributes significantly to the process of healing of gastric mucosal damage. ..
  34. Waddell L, Lemckert F, Zheng X, Tran J, Evesson F, Hawkes J, et al. Dysferlin, annexin A1, and mitsugumin 53 are upregulated in muscular dystrophy and localize to longitudinal tubules of the T-system with stretch. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:302-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of dysferlin are also implicated in membrane resealing: caveolin-3 (in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C), annexin A1, and the newly identified protein mitsugumin 53 (MG53)...
  35. Viiri L, Full L, Navin T, Begum S, Didangelos A, Astola N, et al. Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerosis: proteomic profiling reveals differences in expression of Annexin A1 and mitochondrial proteins in carotid disease. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;54:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..SMC isolated from patients with or without recent acute cerebrovascular symptoms uncovered an increase in Annexin A1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein, in the asymptomatic group...
  36. Liu Y, Wang H, Lu N, Mao Y, Liu F, Wang Y, et al. Translocation of annexin I from cellular membrane to the nuclear membrane in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:645-9 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that the translocation of annexin I protein in ESCC may correlate with the tumorigenesis of the esophageal cancer. ..
  37. Solito E, Mulla A, Morris J, Christian H, Flower R, Buckingham J. Dexamethasone induces rapid serine-phosphorylation and membrane translocation of annexin 1 in a human folliculostellate cell line via a novel nongenomic mechanism involving the glucocorticoid receptor, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase,. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1164-74 pubmed
  38. Paschalidis N, Iqbal A, Maione F, Wood E, Perretti M, Flower R, et al. Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by endogenous annexin A1. J Neuroinflammation. 2009;6:33 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reported novel biological functions for Annexin A1, an effector of endogenous anti-inflammation, to produce positive actions on the adaptive immune system by ..
  39. Chen C, Shen J, Wang F, Wan R, Wang X. Prognostic significance of annexin A1 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:4707-12 pubmed
    b>Annexin A1 is a 37-kDa calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein of the annexin superfamily considered to play an important role in tumorigenesis...
  40. Hongsrichan N, Rucksaken R, Chamgramol Y, Pinlaor P, Techasen A, Yongvanit P, et al. Annexin A1: A new immunohistological marker of cholangiocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:2456-65 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a new immunohistological marker, annexin A1 (ANXA1), in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  41. Gavins F, Yona S, Kamal A, Flower R, Perretti M. Leukocyte antiadhesive actions of annexin 1: ALXR- and FPR-related anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Blood. 2003;101:4140-7 pubmed
    ..The present findings demonstrate that endogenous regulatory autocoids such as lipoxin A(4) and annexin 1-derived peptides function to disengage adherent cells during cell-cell interactions. ..
  42. Ozawa H, Miyachi M, Ochiai I, Tsuchiya S, Morris J, Kawata M. Annexin-1 (lipocortin-1)-immunoreactivity in the folliculo-stellate cells of rat anterior pituitary: the effect of adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment on its subcellular distribution. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:621-8 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that glucocorticoids regulate the annexin-1 expression and demonstrate the translocation of annexin-1 from intracellular to pericellular sites in the FS cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland. ..
  43. Li G, He S, Chang L, Lu H, Zhang H, Zhang H, et al. GADD45? and annexin A1 are involved in the apoptosis of HL-60 induced by resveratrol. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in a gradual time-dependent decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and increase in that of Bax, annexin A1, growth arrest- and DNA damage-induced gene 45? (GADD45?), and cleaved caspase-3...
  44. McArthur S, Cristante E, Paterno M, Christian H, Roncaroli F, Gillies G, et al. Annexin A1: a central player in the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role of microglia. J Immunol. 2010;185:6317-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) is key to the phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes during peripheral inflammatory resolution, but the ..
  45. Wang L, Li W, Xu Y, Wei Q, Zhao H, Jiang X. Annexin 1-derived peptide Ac2-26 inhibits eosinophil recruitment in vivo via decreasing prostaglandin D?. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;154:137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Ac2-26 exhibited anti-asthmatic, immunomodulatory activity that was substantially mediated by decreasing PGD? production and its CRTH2 receptor expression in vivo. ..
  46. Vong L, D Acquisto F, Pederzoli Ribeil M, Lavagno L, Flower R, Witko Sarsat V, et al. Annexin 1 cleavage in activated neutrophils: a pivotal role for proteinase 3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29998-30004 pubmed
  47. Ernst S, Lange C, Wilbers A, Goebeler V, Gerke V, Rescher U. An annexin 1 N-terminal peptide activates leukocytes by triggering different members of the formyl peptide receptor family. J Immunol. 2004;172:7669-76 pubmed
  48. Alves V, Nonogaki S, Cury P, Wunsch Filho V, de Carvalho M, Michaluart Junior P, et al. Annexin A1 subcellular expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathology. 2008;53:715-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a soluble cytoplasmic protein, moving to membranes when calcium levels are elevated...
  49. Vergnolle N, Pages P, Guimbaud R, Chaussade S, Bueno L, Escourrou J, et al. Annexin 1 is secreted in situ during ulcerative colitis in humans. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004;10:584-92 pubmed
    ..Given the anti-inflammatory effects of annexin 1, this protein may serve to down-regulate the inflammatory response in the course of inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  50. Shen D, Nooraie F, Elshimali Y, Lonsberry V, He J, Bose S, et al. Decreased expression of annexin A1 is correlated with breast cancer development and progression as determined by a tissue microarray analysis. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:1583-91 pubmed
    b>Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein and a known mediator of glucocorticoid-regulated inflammatory responses...
  51. D Acquisto F, Perretti M, Flower R. Annexin-A1: a pivotal regulator of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;155:152-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst many different genes are regulated by the glucocorticoids, we have identified one particular protein-annexin A1 (Anx-A1)-whose synthesis and release is strongly regulated by the glucocorticoids in many cell types...
  52. D Acquisto F, Paschalidis N, Raza K, Buckley C, Flower R, Perretti M. Glucocorticoid treatment inhibits annexin-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis CD4+ T cells. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:636-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence for a novel pathway by which steroids regulate the adaptive immune response and suggest that Anx-A1 may represent a target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. ..
  53. Hu N, Bradshaw J, Lauter H, Buckingham J, Solito E, Hofmann A. Membrane-induced folding and structure of membrane-bound annexin A1 N-terminal peptides: implications for annexin-induced membrane aggregation. Biophys J. 2008;94:1773-81 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal domain of annexin A1 can adopt an alpha-helical conformation and has been implicated in mediating the membrane aggregation behavior ..