Summary: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.

Top Publications

  1. Hayes M, Moss S. Annexins and disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:1166-70 pubmed
    The annexins are a family of closely related calcium- and membrane-binding proteins expressed in most eukaryotic cell types...
  2. Satoh H, Shibata H, Nakano Y, Kitaura Y, Maki M. ALG-2 interacts with the amino-terminal domain of annexin XI in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:1166-72 pubmed
  3. Turnay J, Lecona E, Fernandez Lizarbe S, Guzman Aranguez A, Fernandez M, Olmo N, et al. Structure-function relationship in annexin A13, the founder member of the vertebrate family of annexins. Biochem J. 2005;389:899-911 pubmed
    Annexin A13 is considered the original progenitor of the 11 other members of vertebrate annexins, a superfamily of calcium/phospholipid-binding proteins...
  4. Creutz C, Snyder S. Interactions of annexins with the mu subunits of the clathrin assembly proteins. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13795-806 pubmed
    A number of biochemical and genetic studies have suggested that certain annexins play important roles in the endocytic pathway, possibly involving the generation, localization, or fusion of endocytic compartments...
  5. Balcerzak M, Hamade E, Zhang L, Pikula S, Azzar G, Radisson J, et al. The roles of annexins and alkaline phosphatase in mineralization process. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:1019-38 pubmed
    ..Special attention is given to two families of proteins present in MVs, annexins (AnxAs) and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatases (TNAPs)...
  6. Lennon N, Kho A, Bacskai B, Perlmutter S, Hyman B, Brown R. Dysferlin interacts with annexins A1 and A2 and mediates sarcolemmal wound-healing. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50466-73 pubmed vitro investigations that point to an interaction between dysferlin and the Ca2+ and lipid-binding proteins, annexins A1 and A2, and define a role for dysferlin in Ca2+-dependent repair of sarcolemmal injury through a process of ..
  7. Hofmann S, Franke A, Fischer A, Jacobs G, Nothnagel M, Gaede K, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies ANXA11 as a new susceptibility locus for sarcoidosis. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Annexin A11 has complex and essential functions in several biological pathways, including apoptosis and proliferation. ..
  8. Morgan R, Martin Almedina S, Iglesias J, Gonzalez Florez M, Fernandez M. Evolutionary perspective on annexin calcium-binding domains. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1742:133-40 pubmed
    ..Conversely, a tandem pair of novel annexins from the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae resembled annexin A13 in gene structure and conserved the charged amino ..
  9. Gerke V, Creutz C, Moss S. Annexins: linking Ca2+ signalling to membrane dynamics. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005;6:449-61 pubmed
    ..A unique class of these proteins - annexins - can bind to certain membrane phospholipids in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, providing a link between Ca(2+) ..

More Information


  1. Matschke K, Da Silva Azevedo L, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V, Baum O. Annexins as cell-type-specific markers in the developing chicken chorionallantoic membrane. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;323:395-404 pubmed
    ..cell types in the chorionic epithelium, we determined the expression patterns of various calcium-binding annexins in the developing chicken CAM...
  2. Skrahina T, Piljic A, Schultz C. Heterogeneity and timing of translocation and membrane-mediated assembly of different annexins. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1039-47 pubmed publisher
    Many cell types, including neurons and epithelial cells, express a variety of annexins. Although the overall function has only been partially unravelled, a dominant feature is the formation of two-dimensional assemblies under the plasma ..
  3. Laohavisit A, Mortimer J, Demidchik V, Coxon K, Stancombe M, Macpherson N, et al. Zea mays annexins modulate cytosolic free Ca2+ and generate a Ca2+-permeable conductance. Plant Cell. 2009;21:479-93 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of reactive oxygen species and cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) is central to plant function. Annexins are small proteins capable of Ca(2+)-dependent membrane binding or membrane insertion...
  4. Xin W, Rhodes D, Ingold C, Chinnaiyan A, Rubin M. Dysregulation of the annexin family protein family is associated with prostate cancer progression. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:255-61 pubmed
    ..The annexins are a group of calcium-binding structural proteins that may play a role in the regulation of membrane trafficking,..
  5. Kim J, Kim M, Jee C, Jung E, Kim W. Reduced expression and homozygous deletion of annexin A10 in gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1842-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexins (ANXs) are a family of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins that have been implicated in diverse important biological and physiological process...
  6. Clark G, Morgan R, Fernandez M, Roux S. Evolutionary adaptation of plant annexins has diversified their molecular structures, interactions and functional roles. New Phytol. 2012;196:695-712 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexins are an homologous, structurally related superfamily of proteins known to associate with membrane lipid and cytoskeletal components...
  7. Sacre S, Moss S. Intracellular localization of endothelial cell annexins is differentially regulated by oxidative stress. Exp Cell Res. 2002;274:254-63 pubmed
    b>Annexins are calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins that are implicated in the regulation of both intracellular and extracellular thrombostatic mechanisms in the vascular endothelium...
  8. Hongli Y, Shuhan S, Ruiwen C, Yingjun G. Cloning and functional identification of a novel annexin subfamily in Cysticercus cellulosae. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;119:1-5 pubmed
    ..since its N-terminus is distinct and the core domain only has 32-44% amino acid identity to the tetrads of other annexins, the cDNA encodes a member of a novel annexin subfamily, which is designed as annexin B1...
  9. Jami S, Clark G, Ayele B, Ashe P, Kirti P. Genome-wide comparative analysis of annexin superfamily in plants. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47801 pubmed publisher
    Most annexins are calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding proteins with suggested functions in response to environmental stresses and signaling during plant growth and development...
  10. Creutz C, Hira J, Gee V, Eaton J. Protection of the membrane permeability barrier by annexins. Biochemistry. 2012;51:9966-83 pubmed publisher
    ..As annexins are known to bind to lipid headgroups in the presence of calcium and increase the order of the bilayer lipids, ..
  11. Nishioka S, Aikawa J, Ida M, Matsumoto I, Street M, Tsujimoto M, et al. Ligand-binding activity and expression profile of annexins in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biochem. 2007;141:47-55 pubmed
    Mammalian annexins are implicated in several physiological mechanisms based on their calcium-dependent phospholipid/membrane binding and carbohydrate-binding activities...
  12. Lee M, Yu G, Yoo H, Kim J, Yoon B, Choi Y, et al. ANXA8 down-regulation by EGF-FOXO4 signaling is involved in cell scattering and tumor metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1138-50, 1150.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that FOXO4 and ANXA8 play key roles in growth factor-mediated tumor progression and metastasis during the EMT change in CC. ..
  13. Fatimathas L, Moss S. Annexins as disease modifiers. Histol Histopathol. 2010;25:527-32 pubmed publisher
    The annexins are a family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins which are present in all eukaryotes...
  14. Hayes M, Rescher U, Gerke V, Moss S. Annexin-actin interactions. Traffic. 2004;5:571-6 pubmed
    ..Although the roles of annexins in actin dynamics are not understood at a mechanistic level, annexins have the requisite properties to integrate ..
  15. Tomas A, Moss S. Calcium- and cell cycle-dependent association of annexin 11 with the nuclear envelope. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20210-6 pubmed
  16. Zhang Y, Guo Y, Sun S, Yan H, He Y. Non-fusion expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and characterization of a novel Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding protein annexin B1. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;34:68-74 pubmed
    ..The expression, purification, and initial characterization of annexin B1 set an important stage for further characterization of the protein...
  17. Rescher U, Gerke V. Annexins--unique membrane binding proteins with diverse functions. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2631-9 pubmed
    b>Annexins are a well-known multigene family of Ca(2+)-regulated phospholipid-binding and membrane-binding proteins...
  18. Pittis M, Muzzolin L, Giulianini P, Garcia R. Mycobacteria-containing phagosomes associate less annexins I, VI, VII and XI, but not II, concomitantly with a diminished phagolysosomal fusion. Eur J Cell Biol. 2003;82:9-17 pubmed
    We have studied the intracellular localization of annexins I,II, VI, VII, and XI in cells containing latex beads or Mycobacterium avium at different times after ingestion in order to establish whether a correlation existed between the ..
  19. Brachvogel B, Dikschas J, Moch H, Welzel H, von der Mark K, Hofmann C, et al. Annexin A5 is not essential for skeletal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2907-13 pubmed
    b>Annexins are highly conserved proteins that are characterized by their ability to interact with phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner...
  20. Ignotz G, Cho M, Suarez S. Annexins are candidate oviductal receptors for bovine sperm surface proteins and thus may serve to hold bovine sperm in the oviductal reservoir. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:906-13 pubmed
    ..of approximately 34 and 36 kDa were eluted by EGTA from the beads and identified by tandem mass spectrometry as annexins (ANXAs) 1, 2, 4, and 5...
  21. Liu S, Lin C, Peng S, Jeng Y, Pan H, Lai P, et al. Down-regulation of annexin A10 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with vascular invasion, early recurrence, and poor prognosis in synergy with p53 mutation. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:1831-7 pubmed
    b>Annexins (ANXs) are a large group of calcium-binding proteins participating in diverse important biological processes. ANXA10 is the least expressed new member of unknown function...
  22. Jami S, Dalal A, Divya K, Kirti P. Molecular cloning and characterization of five annexin genes from Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47:977-90 pubmed publisher
    Plant annexins constitute a multigene family having suggested roles in a variety of cellular processes including stress responses...
  23. Montaville P, Neumann J, Russo Marie F, Ochsenbein F, Sanson A. A new consensus sequence for phosphatidylserine recognition by annexins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24684-93 pubmed
    b>Annexins are abundant and ubiquitous proteins that bind, by their four structurally identical domain cores, to phosphatidylserine-containing membranes in the presence of Ca2+...
  24. Nakayama H, Fukuda S, Inoue H, Nishida Fukuda H, Shirakata Y, Hashimoto K, et al. Cell surface annexins regulate ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding of proamphiregulin. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1964-75 pubmed publisher
    ..precursor (proAREG) and ADAM17 during an early shedding phase, which enabled the identification of cell surface annexins as components of their shedding complex...
  25. Yan H, Wang W, He Y, Zhao Z, Gao Y, Zhang Y, et al. Construction, expression, and characterization of a recombinant annexin B1-low molecular weight urokinase chimera in Escherichia coli. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2004;36:184-90 pubmed
    ..These findings indicated that AnxB1ScuPA might have advantages over current available thrombolytic agents. ..
  26. Draeger A, Wray S, Babiychuk E. Domain architecture of the smooth-muscle plasma membrane: regulation by annexins. Biochem J. 2005;387:309-14 pubmed
    ..Eukaryotic cells harbour numerous, tissue-specific subsets of annexins. By examining the significance of this variety in a smooth muscle, we demonstrate that four different annexins ..
  27. Kirsch T. Annexins - their role in cartilage mineralization. Front Biosci. 2005;10:576-81 pubmed
    b>Annexins II, V and VI are highly expressed by hypertrophic and terminally differentiated growth plate chondrocytes and by osteoblasts...
  28. Patel N, Hamamouch N, Li C, Hewezi T, Hussey R, Baum T, et al. A nematode effector protein similar to annexins in host plants. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..phospholipid binding proteins, and it had a predicted signal peptide for secretion that was present in nematode annexins of only Heterodera spp...
  29. Domon M, Nasir M, Matar G, Pikula S, Besson F, Bandorowicz Pikula J. Annexins as organizers of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched membrane microdomains in Niemann-Pick type C disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, annexins were implicated in the interactions between cytosolic and membrane molecules, in the turnover and storage of ..
  30. Iglesias J, Morgan R, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Fernandez M. Comparative genetics and evolution of annexin A13 as the founder gene of vertebrate annexins. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:608-18 pubmed
    ..of mouse, rat, zebrafish, and pufferfish genomic DNA and determined to be the most distinct of all vertebrate annexins. The putative promoter region was identified by phylogenetic footprinting of potential binding sites for ..
  31. Konopka Postupolska D, Clark G, Goch G, Debski J, Floras K, Cantero A, et al. The role of annexin 1 in drought stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1394-410 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexins act as targets of calcium signals in eukaryotic cells, and recent results suggest that they play an important role in plant stress responses...
  32. Reutelingsperger C. Annexins: key regulators of haemostasis, thrombosis, and apoptosis. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:413-9 pubmed
    b>Annexins form a family of proteins on the basis of structural and functional criteria. Their physiological relevance is still not fully understood, but is thought to involve phospholipid membrane associated processes...
  33. Gorecka K, Thouverey C, Buchet R, Pikula S. Potential role of annexin AnnAt1 from Arabidopsis thaliana in pH-mediated cellular response to environmental stimuli. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:792-803 pubmed
    Plant annexins, Ca(2+)- and membrane-binding proteins, are probably implicated in the cellular response to stress resulting from acidification of cytosol...
  34. Gorecka K, Konopka Postupolska D, Hennig J, Buchet R, Pikula S. Peroxidase activity of annexin 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:868-75 pubmed
    ..Indeed, site-directed mutagenesis within this domain resulted in a complete abrogation of the activity of AnnAt1. Furthermore, this activity was found to be sensitive to the phosphorylation state of the protein. ..
  35. Cantero A, Barthakur S, Bushart T, Chou S, Morgan R, Fernandez M, et al. Expression profiling of the Arabidopsis annexin gene family during germination, de-etiolation and abiotic stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:13-24 pubmed
    b>Annexins are a multigene family in most plant species and are suggested to play a role in a wide variety of essential cellular processes...
  36. Divya K, Jami S, Kirti P. Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;73:293-308 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca(2+) dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions...
  37. Patel D, Isas J, Ladokhin A, Jao C, Kim Y, Kirsch T, et al. The conserved core domains of annexins A1, A2, A5, and B12 can be divided into two groups with different Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding properties. Biochemistry. 2005;44:2833-44 pubmed
    ..Despite the structural similarity between the core domains, studies reported herein showed that annexins A1, A2, A5, and B12 could be divided into two groups with distinctively different Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-..
  38. Tomas A, Futter C, Moss S. Annexin 11 is required for midbody formation and completion of the terminal phase of cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:813-22 pubmed
    b>Annexins are Ca(2+)-binding, membrane-fusogenic proteins with diverse but poorly understood functions...
  39. Iaccarino L, Ghirardello A, Canova M, Zen M, Bettio S, Nalotto L, et al. Anti-annexins autoantibodies: their role as biomarkers of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:553-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Annexins are a group of 12 highly conserved proteins which exert several regulatory functions on cell biology...
  40. Ding F, Yan H, Lu Y, Xue G, Mei Q, Huang J, et al. Cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of a thrombus-ditargeting thrombolytic agent, comprised of annexin B1, ScuPA-32K and fibrin-adherent peptide. J Biotechnol. 2006;126:394-405 pubmed
    ..Thus, the chimera appeared to be suitable for thrombolytic therapy of thrombus diseases. ..
  41. Farnaes L, Ditzel H. Dissecting the cellular functions of annexin XI using recombinant human annexin XI-specific autoantibodies cloned by phage display. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33120-6 pubmed
  42. Talukdar T, Gorecka K, de Carvalho Niebel F, Downie J, Cullimore J, Pikula S. Annexins - calcium- and membrane-binding proteins in the plant kingdom: potential role in nodulation and mycorrhization in Medicago truncatula. Acta Biochim Pol. 2009;56:199-210 pubmed
    b>Annexins belong to a family of multi-functional membrane- and Ca(2+)-binding proteins. The characteristic feature of these proteins is that they can bind membrane phospholipids in a reversible, Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
  43. Mortimer J, Laohavisit A, Macpherson N, Webb A, Brownlee C, Battey N, et al. Annexins: multifunctional components of growth and adaptation. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:533-44 pubmed publisher
    Plant annexins are ubiquitous, soluble proteins capable of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent binding to endomembranes and the plasma membrane...
  44. Goebeler V, Poeter M, Zeuschner D, Gerke V, Rescher U. Annexin A8 regulates late endosome organization and function. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5267-78 pubmed publisher
  45. Hu N, Yusof A, Winter A, Osman A, Reeve A, Hofmann A. The crystal structure of calcium-bound annexin Gh1 from Gossypium hirsutum and its implications for membrane binding mechanisms of plant annexins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18314-22 pubmed publisher
    Plant annexins show distinct differences in comparison with their animal orthologues...
  46. Clark G, Cantero Garcia A, Butterfield T, Dauwalder M, Roux S. Secretion as a key component of gravitropic growth: implications for annexin involvement in differential growth. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2005;18:113-4 pubmed
  47. Kim J, Kim P, Jung K, Noh J, Eun J, Bae H, et al. Decreased expression of annexin A10 in gastric cancer and its overexpression in tumor cell growth suppression. Oncol Rep. 2010;24:607-12 pubmed
    ..b>Annexins are a family of cytosolic calcium and membrane binding proteins that have been implicated in a wide variety of ..
  48. Mittag J, Oehr W, Heuer H, Hamalainen T, Brachvogel B, Poschl E, et al. Expression and thyroid hormone regulation of annexins in the anterior pituitary. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:385-92 pubmed
    ..We were therefore interested in analyzing the mRNA expression of the annexins in the severely disorganized pituitaries of the athyroid Pax8(-/-) mice in comparison with that of control ..
  49. Cmoch A, Strzelecka Kiliszek A, Palczewska M, Groves P, Pikula S. Matrix vesicles isolated from mineralization-competent Saos-2 cells are selectively enriched with annexins and S100 proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:683-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of constitutive proteins present in MVs, recognised as regulators of mineralization in norm and pathology, are annexins. In this report, besides the annexins already described (AnxA2 and AnxA6), we identified AnxA1 and AnxA7, but not ..
  50. Kotsyfakis M, Ehret Sabatier L, Siden Kiamos I, Mendoza J, Sinden R, Louis C. Plasmodium berghei ookinetes bind to Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster annexins. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:171-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, inclusion of antiannexin antisera in a mosquito blood meal impaired parasite development, suggesting a facilitating role for annexins in the infection of the mosquito by Plasmodium.
  51. Jami S, Clark G, Ayele B, Roux S, Kirti P. Identification and characterization of annexin gene family in rice. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:813-25 pubmed publisher
    Plant annexins are Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins and are encoded by multigene families. They are implicated in the regulation of plant development as well as protection from drought and other stresses...
  52. Gerke V, Moss S. Annexins: from structure to function. Physiol Rev. 2002;82:331-71 pubmed
    b>Annexins are Ca2+ and phospholipid binding proteins forming an evolutionary conserved multigene family with members of the family being expressed throughout animal and plant kingdoms...
  53. Sohma H, Ohkawa H, Akino T, Kuroki Y. Binding of annexins to lung lamellar bodies and the PMA-stimulated secretion of annexin V from alveolar type II cells. J Biochem. 2001;130:449-55 pubmed
    ..Four annexins (annexins III, IV, V, and VIII) were identified by partial amino acid sequence analyses as the LB-binding ..