androgen binding protein


Summary: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.

Top Publications

  1. Emes R, Riley M, Laukaitis C, Goodstadt L, Karn R, Ponting C. Comparative evolutionary genomics of androgen-binding protein genes. Genome Res. 2004;14:1516-29 pubmed
    ..We propose a role for ABPalpha/beta/gamma proteins as pheromones, or in modulating odorant detection. This would account for the extraordinary adaptive evolution of these genes, and surrounding genomic regions, in murid rodents. ..
  2. Sullivan P, Petrusz P, Szpirer C, Joseph D. Alternative processing of androgen-binding protein RNA transcripts in fetal rat liver. Identification of a transcript formed by trans splicing. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:143-54 pubmed
    ..Expression of the fusion cDNA in COS cells yielded HDC activity and the predicted size protein (Mr = 93,000) on Western immunoblots. ..
  3. Asamoto M, Hokaiwado N, Cho Y, Shirai T. Effects of genetic background on prostate and taste bud carcinogenesis due to SV40 T antigen expression under probasin gene promoter control. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:463-7 pubmed
    ..These results clearly show that genetic background influences prostate carcinogenesis and taste bud tumorigenesis in rats and that the present transgenic rats could provide a good model to identify specific factors. ..
  4. Karn R, Nachman M. Reduced nucleotide variability at an androgen-binding protein locus (Abpa) in house mice: evidence for positive natural selection. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:1192-7 pubmed
    ..The combined observations of no variation at Abpa within M. m: domesticus and uniformly high Ka/Ks values between species suggest that positive directional selection has acted recently at this locus. ..
  5. Hwang J, Hofstetter J, Bonhomme F, Karn R. The microevolution of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) paralleled subspeciation of Mus musculus. J Hered. 1997;88:93-7 pubmed
    ..We speculate on the potential significance of this with respect to the proposal that ABP is involved in assortive mate kin selection. ..
  6. Senthil kumar J, Banudevi S, Sharmila M, Murugesan P, Srinivasan N, Balasubramanian K, et al. Effects of Vitamin C and E on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress, androgen binding protein and lactate in rat Sertoli cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2004;19:201-8 pubmed
    ..Lipid peroxidation (LPO), hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical were estimated. Sertoli cellular androgen binding protein (ABP) and lactate were also quantified...
  7. Dlouhy S, Taylor B, Karn R. The genes for mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits alpha and gamma are located on chromosome 7. Genetics. 1987;115:535-43 pubmed
    We demonstrate that the previously described gene Androgen binding protein (Abp; Dlouhy and Karn, 1984) codes for the Alpha subunit of ABP and rename the locus Androgen binding protein alpha (Abpa)...
  8. Joseph D, Hall S, Conti M, French F. The gene structure of rat androgen-binding protein: identification of potential regulatory deoxyribonucleic acid elements of a follicle-stimulating hormone-regulated protein. Mol Endocrinol. 1988;2:3-13 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis of rat genomic DNA indicated that there is a single gene for ABP in the rat. The existence of one gene supports the idea that sex hormone binding globulin produced by fetal rat liver is coded by the same gene. ..
  9. Zeng Y, Yokohira M, Saoo K, Takeuchi H, Chen Y, Yamakawa K, et al. Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats by raloxifene, an antiestrogen with anti-androgen action, but not nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1109-16 pubmed

More Information


  1. Asamoto M, Hokaiwado N, Cho Y, Takahashi S, Ikeda Y, Imaida K, et al. Prostate carcinomas developing in transgenic rats with SV40 T antigen expression under probasin promoter control are strictly androgen dependent. Cancer Res. 2001;61:4693-700 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that our model is suitable to investigate mechanisms of carcinogenesis, including androgen dependence, involution, and apoptosis. ..
  2. Cho Y, Takahashi S, Asamoto M, Suzuki S, Inaguma S, Hokaiwado N, et al. Age-dependent histopathological findings in the prostate of probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats: lack of influence of carcinogen or testosterone treatment. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:153-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that our TG rats are suitable for clarification of mechanisms in early stages of prostate carcinogenesis, that is, from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to non-invasive and then invasive lesions. ..
  3. Maran R, Sivakumar R, Arunakaran J, Ravisankar B, Ravichandran K, Sidharthan V, et al. Duration-dependent effect of transient neonatal hypothyroidism on sertoli and germ cell number, and plasma and testicular interstitial fluid androgen binding protein concentration. Endocr Res. 1999;25:323-40 pubmed
    ..Plasma androgen binding protein (ABP) concentration decreased in puberal rats belonging to all groups, whereas the testicular ..
  4. Laukaitis C, Dlouhy S, Emes R, Ponting C, Karn R. Diverse spatial, temporal, and sexual expression of recently duplicated androgen-binding protein genes in Mus musculus. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:40 pubmed
    ..The glands expressing Abp paralogues produce secretions (lacrimal and salivary) or detect odors (MOE and VNO) and thus it appears highly likely that ABP proteins play a role in olfactory communication. ..
  5. Karn R, Dlouhy S. Salivary androgen-binding protein variation in Mus and other rodents. J Hered. 1991;82:453-8 pubmed
    ..In a broader survey, ABP was also found in the salivas of Murid and Cricetid rodents generally. These findings suggest that ABP has an important functional role in rodent salivas. ..
  6. Jeyaraj D, Grossman G, Weaver C, Petrusz P. Dynamics of testicular germ cell proliferation in normal mice and transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein: a flow cytometric evaluation. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:877-85 pubmed
    ..Based on our observations and the analysis of the available literature, the most likely mechanism for production of these effects is sustained reduction in the bioavailability of androgens. ..
  7. Talley H, Laukaitis C, Karn R. Female preference for male saliva: implications for sexual isolation of Mus musculus subspecies. Evolution. 2001;55:631-4 pubmed
    ..m. musculus. These findings provide an explanation for the observation that this gene is evolving under strong selection. ..
  8. Karn R, Orth A, Bonhomme F, Boursot P. The complex history of a gene proposed to participate in a sexual isolation mechanism in house mice. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:462-71 pubmed
    ..Thus the selective mechanism behind the evolution of Abpa remains to be resolved, and we suggest that it may have changed during the recent colonization history of the house mouse. ..
  9. Karn R, Laukaitis C. Characterization of two forms of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP): implications for evolutionary relationships and ligand-binding function. Biochemistry. 2003;42:7162-70 pubmed
    ..Hofstetter, J., Bonhomme, F., and Karn, R. (1997) J. Hered. 88, 93-97; Karn, R., and Clements, M. (1999) Biochem. Genet. 37, 187-199]. ..
  10. Jeyaraj D, Grossman G, Petrusz P. Dynamics of testicular germ cell apoptosis in normal mice and transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:48 pubmed
    ..and compared in age-matched wild type (WT) control and in a transgenic (TG) mice homozygous to rat androgen binding protein (ABP) using flow cytometry...
  11. Laukaitis C, Dlouhy S, Karn R. The mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) gene cluster on chromosomes 7: characterization and evolutionary relationships. Mamm Genome. 2003;14:679-91 pubmed
  12. Karn R. The mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) alpha subunit closely resembles chain 1 of the cat allergen Fel dI. Biochem Genet. 1994;32:271-7 pubmed
    ..Since mice, like cats, lick themselves and each other extensively, coating their pelts with ABP may be part of this or another biological function. ..
  13. Jeyaraj D, Grossman G, Petrusz P. Altered bioavailability of testosterone in androgen-binding protein-transgenic mice. Steroids. 2005;70:704-14 pubmed
    ..As a result, a heightened wave of germ cell apoptosis during the pre-pubertal period followed by a reduction in germ cell numbers and reduced fertility is seen in these mice. ..
  14. Dlouhy S, Karn R. The tissue source and cellular control of the apparent size of androgen binding protein (Abp), a mouse salivary protein whose electrophoretic mobility is under the control of sex-limited saliva pattern (Ssp). Biochem Genet. 1983;21:1057-70 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible causes of the increase in molecular weight. ..
  15. Zaphiropoulos P. Exon skipping and circular RNA formation in transcripts of the human cytochrome P-450 2C18 gene in epidermis and of the rat androgen binding protein gene in testis. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2985-93 pubmed
    ..a similar analysis allowed the detection of a circular RNA molecule composed of exons 6 and 7 of the androgen binding protein (ABP) gene, with the donor splice site of exon 7 joined to the acceptor splice site of exon 6, and of an ..
  16. Wang Y, Sullivan P, Petrusz P, Yarbrough W, Joseph D. The androgen-binding protein gene is expressed in CD1 mouse testis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1989;63:85-92 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ABP is expressed in the mouse and past failures to detect androgen-binding activity were due to the low level of ABP protein. ..
  17. Karn R. Steroid binding by mouse salivary proteins. Biochem Genet. 1998;36:105-17 pubmed
    ..Another protein that is not a member of the ABP family bound cholesterol specifically but no protein that specifically bound estradiol was observed. ..
  18. Karn R, Russell R. The amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP), with a comparison to the partial sequence of the beta subunit and to other ligand-binding proteins. Biochem Genet. 1993;31:307-19 pubmed
  19. Dlouhy S, Karn R. Multiple gene action determining a mouse salivary protein phenotype: identification of the structural gene for androgen binding protein (Abp). Biochem Genet. 1984;22:657-67 pubmed
    A novel variation in electrophoretic phenotype is described for a mouse salivary androgen binding protein (Abp)...
  20. Dlouhy S, Nichols W, Karn R. Production of an antibody to mouse salivary androgen binding protein (ABP) and its use in identifying a prostate protein produced by a gene distinct from Abp. Biochem Genet. 1986;24:743-63 pubmed
    ..polymorphism of a mouse salivary protein which, because of its ability to bind androgen, we designated androgen binding protein (ABP) and its structural gene, Androgen binding protein (Abp)...
  21. Kandori H, Suzuki S, Asamoto M, Murasaki T, Mingxi T, Ogawa K, et al. Influence of atrazine administration and reduction of calorie intake on prostate carcinogenesis in probasin/SV40 T antigen transgenic rats. Cancer Sci. 2005;96:221-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the observed atrazine-related suppression of prostate carcinogenesis was probably caused by the decrease in calorie intake, rather than by atrazine-related endocrine disruption. ..
  22. Maki M, Matsukawa N, Yuasa H, Otsuka Y, Yamamoto T, Akatsu H, et al. Decreased expression of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor protein mRNA in the hippocampus in Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002;61:176-85 pubmed
  23. Papaioannou M, Reeb C, Asim M, Dotzlaw H, Baniahmad A. Co-activator and co-repressor interplay on the human androgen receptor. Andrologia. 2005;37:211-2 pubmed
  24. de Brouwer A, Bouma B, Van Tiel C, Heerma W, Brouwers J, Bevers L, et al. The binding of phosphatidylcholine to the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein: affinity and role in folding. Chem Phys Lipids. 2001;112:109-19 pubmed
    ..7 (2000) 408). Replacement of Lys(55) present in one of the beta-strands forming the lipid-binding site, with an isoleucine residue yielded an inactive protein. This suggests that Lys(55) be involved in the binding of the PC molecule. ..
  25. Song S, Hong Y, Sasaki S, Roh S, Katoh K. Prostatic androgen-repressed message-1 as a regulator of adipocyte differentiation in the mouse. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009;219:311-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that mPARM-1 might be involved in the regulation of fat accumulation and adipocyte differentiation...
  26. Laukaitis C, Heger A, Blakley T, Munclinger P, Ponting C, Karn R. Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Abp genes have undergone repeated bursts of gene duplication and adaptive sequence diversification driven by these genes' participation in chemosensation and/or sexual identification. ..
  27. Murugesan P, Muthusamy T, Balasubramanian K, Arunakaran J. Effects of vitamins C and E on steroidogenic enzymes mRNA expression in polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) exposed adult rat Leydig cells. Toxicology. 2007;232:170-82 pubmed
    ..The serum androgen binding protein was also estimated. Testes were quickly removed and Leydig cells were isolated in aseptic condition...
  28. Chiang C, Son E, Wu G. Oral treatment of the TRAMP mice with doxazosin suppresses prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Prostate. 2005;64:408-18 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of doxazosin is consistent with the established hypothesis. ..
  29. Viskochil D, Perry S, Lea O, Stafford D, Wilson E, French F. Isolation of two genomic sequences encoding the Mr = 14,000 subunit of rat prostatein. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:8861-6 pubmed
    ..Differences in restriction enzyme sites in regions of intervening sequences and flanking DNA established the uniqueness of the two genes. It is suggested that both genes may be transcribed in vivo. ..
  30. Nishi N, Tanabe H, Oya H, Urushihara M, Miyanaka H, Wada F. Identification of probasin-related antigen as cystathionine gamma-lyase by molecular cloning. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1015-9 pubmed
  31. Sutton K, Maiti S, Tribley W, Lindsey J, Meistrich M, Bucana C, et al. Androgen regulation of the Pem homeodomain gene in mice and rat Sertoli and epididymal cells. J Androl. 1998;19:21-30 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Pem gene expression in Sertoli cells requires other cell types or cellular factors in addition to androgen. ..
  32. Wu M, Boylan M, Cohen D. Cloning and gene structure of rat phosphatidylcholine transfer protein, Pctp. Gene. 1999;235:111-20 pubmed
  33. Haywood M, Tymchenko N, Spaliviero J, Koch A, Jimenez M, Gromoll J, et al. An activated human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor stimulates FSH-like activity in gonadotropin-deficient transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2582-91 pubmed
    ..This novel transgenic paradigm provides a unique approach to investigate the in vivo actions of mutated activating gonadotropin receptors. ..
  34. Myokai F, Oyama M, Nishimura F, Ohira T, Yamamoto T, Arai H, et al. Unique genes induced by mechanical stress in periodontal ligament cells. J Periodontal Res. 2003;38:255-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that many known and unknown genes are expressed in response to mechanical stress in PDL cells, and that a transcription factor, MRG 15, may be responsible for molecular events in PDL cells under mechanical stress. ..
  35. Vallée B, Tauc P, Brochon J, Maget Dana R, Lelievre D, Metz Boutigue M, et al. Behaviour of bovine phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein with model membranes. Evidence of affinity for negatively charged membranes. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5831-41 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that PEBP directly interacts with negatively charged membrane microdomains in living cells. ..
  36. Harper C, Patel B, Cook L, Wang J, Shirai T, Eltoum I, et al. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:30 pubmed publisher
  37. Imasato Y, Onita T, Moussa M, Sakai H, Chan F, Koropatnick J, et al. Rodent PSP94 gene expression is more specific to the dorsolateral prostate and less sensitive to androgen ablation than probasin. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2138-46 pubmed
    ..This may have clinical implications for strategies to target the prostate in cancer therapy. ..
  38. Chan W, Roderick S, Cohen D. Human phosphatidylcholine transfer protein: purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1596:1-5 pubmed
    ..Both native and selenomethionyl PC-TP crystallized in two distinct space groups and diffracted X-rays to 2.4 A resolution. ..
  39. Schock H, Herbert Z, Sigusch H, Figulla H, Jirikowski G, Lotze U. Expression of androgen-binding protein (ABP) in human cardiac myocytes. Horm Metab Res. 2006;38:225-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations provide evidence of an intrinsic expression of ABP in human heart. ABP may be secreted from myocytes in a paracrine manner perhaps to influence the bioavailabity of gonadal steroids in myocardium. ..
  40. Singh S, Callard G. A specific androgen-binding protein (ABP) in Necturus testis and its zonal distribution. J Exp Zool. 1989;250:73-81 pubmed
    ..The cellular source and function of this protein in Necturus testis remain to be determined...
  41. Schoentgen F, Saccoccio F, Jolles J, Bernier I, Jolles P. Complete amino acid sequence of a basic 21-kDa protein from bovine brain cytosol. Eur J Biochem. 1987;166:333-8 pubmed
    ..Comparison with other proteins did not detect any significant sequence similarity, except for a short region which presents 53% sequence homology with bovine phosphatidylcholine transfer protein. ..
  42. Jirikowski G, Herbert Z, Petrusz P, Sendemir E, Caldwell J. Co-expression of vasopressin and androgen-binding protein in the rat hypothalamus. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29:233-7 pubmed
    In previous studies we have observed the expression of androgen binding protein (ABP) in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. With immunocytochemical double staining we found partial co-localization with oxytocin...
  43. Claessens F, Celis L, Peeters B, Heyns W, Verhoeven G, Rombauts W. Functional characterization of an androgen response element in the first intron of the C3(1) gene of prostatic binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;164:833-40 pubmed
    ..In fact we could show that this androgen response element (ARE) also acts as a similarly weak GRE or PRE in T-47D cells. ..
  44. Remington S, Nelson J. Secretoglobins: sexually dimorphic expression of androgen-binding protein mRNA in mouse lacrimal glands. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:31-8 pubmed
    ..These data imply compositional differences in ABPs secreted by mouse lacrimal and submandibular glands, and in ABPs secreted by male and female mouse lacrimal glands. ..
  45. Labrie C, Simard J, Zhao H, Pelletier G, Labrie F. Synthetic progestins stimulate prostatic binding protein messenger RNAs in the rat ventral prostate. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990;68:169-79 pubmed
    ..Consequently, as indicated by this sensitive and androgen-specific in vivo rat model, such compounds are not recommended for the treatment of conditions requiring an optimal blockade of androgens, especially prostate cancer. ..
  46. Cohen D, Green R. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the specific phosphatidylcholine transfer protein from bovine liver. Gene. 1995;163:327-8 pubmed
    ..Database comparisons revealed the nucleotide sequence of the clone to be unique and unrelated to other cytosolic lipid TP. ..
  47. Leclercq M, Vinci F, Galat A. Mammalian FKBP-25 and its associated proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;380:20-8 pubmed
    ..A residual quantity of FKBP-25 was also associated with the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein which is abundant in the brain. ..
  48. Roy V, Krishna A. Evidence of androgen-dependent sperm storage in female reproductive tract of Scotophilus heathi. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;165:120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study showed the presence of intense immunoreactivity of androgen binding protein (ABP) in the glandular epithelial cells of utero-tubal junction...
  49. Birbach A, Casanova E, Schmid J. A Probasin-MerCreMer BAC allows inducible recombination in the mouse prostate. Genesis. 2009;47:757-64 pubmed publisher
  50. Kelce W, Lambright C, Gray L, Roberts K. Vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE alter androgen-dependent gene expression: in vivo confirmation of an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997;142:192-200 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE act as antiandrogens in vivo by altering the expression of androgen-dependent genes. ..
  51. Della Maria J, Gerard A, Franck P, Gerard H. Effects of androgen-binding protein (ABP) on spermatid Tnp1 gene expression in vitro. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;198:131-41 pubmed
    ..This outcome, strictly requiring juxtacrine conditions, is obtained in the absence of sex steroid hormones. To our knowledge this is the first evidence of an effect of ABP itself on male germ cells. ..
  52. Fujimoto N, Suzuki T, Honda H, Kitamura S. Estrogen enhancement of androgen-responsive gene expression in hormone-induced hyperplasia in the ventral prostate of F344 rats. Cancer Sci. 2004;95:711-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that enhancing effects of E2 on transcription of androgen-responsive genes, as well as an increased level of ERalpha may play roles in the synergistic effects of E2 on T-induced prostate hyperplasia. ..
  53. Scherl A, Li J, Cardiff R, Schreiber Agus N. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intestinal metaplasia in prostates of probasin-RAS transgenic mice. Prostate. 2004;59:448-59 pubmed
    ..The Pb-RAS mouse model could be useful for elucidating the early events in prostate carcinogenesis, as well as for studying the mechanisms and potential prostate cancer relevance of intestinal metaplasia. ..