acyl carrier protein

Summary

Summary: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.

Top Publications

  1. Jenni S, Leibundgut M, Boehringer D, Frick C, Mikolásek B, Ban N. Structure of fungal fatty acid synthase and implications for iterative substrate shuttling. Science. 2007;316:254-61 pubmed
    ..The mode of acyl carrier protein attachment in the reaction chamber, together with the spatial distribution of active sites, suggests that ..
  2. Reed M, Schweizer M, Szafranska A, Arthur C, Nicholson T, Cox R, et al. The type I rat fatty acid synthase ACP shows structural homology and analogous biochemical properties to type II ACPs. Org Biomol Chem. 2003;1:463-71 pubmed
    ..A region from the mammalian (rat) FAS, including the putative acyl carrier protein (ACP), has been cloned and over-expressed...
  3. Waters N, Kopydlowski K, Guszczynski T, Wei L, Sellers P, Ferlan J, et al. Functional characterization of the acyl carrier protein (PfACP) and beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase III (PfKASIII) from Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;123:85-94 pubmed
    ..Here we report the functional characterization of two proteins from this system. Purified recombinant acyl carrier protein (ACP) and beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (KASIII) from P...
  4. Carreras C, Gehring A, Walsh C, Khosla C. Utilization of enzymatically phosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier proteins and acetyl-acyl carrier proteins by the actinorhodin polyketide synthase. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11757-61 pubmed
    The functional reconstitution of two purified proteins of an aromatic polyketide synthase pathway, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) and holo-ACP synthase (ACPS), is described...
  5. Hadfield A, Limpkin C, Teartasin W, Simpson T, Crosby J, Crump M. The crystal structure of the actIII actinorhodin polyketide reductase: proposed mechanism for ACP and polyketide binding. Structure. 2004;12:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The polyketide chain enters the active site and reduction occurs. The model also suggests a general mechanism for ACP recognition which is applicable to a range of protein families...
  6. Shields J, Rahman A, Arthur C, Crosby J, Hothersall J, Simpson T, et al. Phosphopantetheinylation and specificity of acyl carrier proteins in the mupirocin biosynthetic cluster. Chembiochem. 2010;11:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acid alignments identified mACPs A and D as having C-terminal extensions. Mutation of these regions generated defective ACPs, the activity of which could be restored by overexpression of the macp genes on separate plasmids. ..
  7. Fox B, Lyle K, Rogge C. Reactions of the diiron enzyme stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase. Acc Chem Res. 2004;37:421-9 pubmed
    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein Delta(9) desaturase (Delta9D) produces oleic acid, a nutritionally valuable fatty acid containing a cis double bond between C-9 and C-10...
  8. Maier T, Leibundgut M, Ban N. The crystal structure of a mammalian fatty acid synthase. Science. 2008;321:1315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..2 angstrom resolution covering five catalytic domains, whereas the flexibly tethered terminal acyl carrier protein and thioesterase domains remain unresolved...
  9. Zhang Y, Wu B, Zheng J, Rock C. Key residues responsible for acyl carrier protein and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabG) interaction. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52935-43 pubmed
    ..Each enzyme interacts with acyl carrier protein (ACP), which shuttles the pathway intermediates between the proteins...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Worsham L, Earls L, Jolly C, Langston K, Trent M, Ernst Fonberg M. Amino acid residues of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein involved in heterologous protein interactions. Biochemistry. 2003;42:167-76 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small, highly conserved protein with an essential role in a myriad of reactions throughout lipid metabolism in plants and bacteria where it interacts with a remarkable diversity of proteins...
  2. Keating M, Gong H, Byers D. Identification of a key residue in the conformational stability of acyl carrier protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1601:208-14 pubmed
    Conformational flexibility of acyl carrier protein (ACP) is important for its ability to interact with multiple enzymes in bacterial fatty acid metabolism...
  3. Park S, Kim J, Son W, Lee B. pH-induced conformational transition of H. pylori acyl carrier protein: insight into the unfolding of local structure. J Biochem. 2004;135:337-46 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small acidic protein and its primary structure is highly conserved in various bacterial sources. Despite its small size, it interacts with diverse proteins associated with many biosynthetic pathways...
  4. Wong F, Chen A, Cane D, Khosla C. Protein-protein recognition between acyltransferases and acyl carrier proteins in multimodular polyketide synthases. Biochemistry. 2010;49:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..g., malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA) and an acyl carrier protein (ACP)...
  5. Chirgadze N, Briggs S, McAllister K, Fischl A, Zhao G. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae acyl carrier protein synthase: an essential enzyme in bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. EMBO J. 2000;19:5281-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the formation of holo-ACP, which mediates the essential transfer of acyl fatty acid intermediates during the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids in the cell...
  6. McAllister K, Peery R, Meier T, Fischl A, Zhao G. Biochemical and molecular analyses of the Streptococcus pneumoniae acyl carrier protein synthase, an enzyme essential for fatty acid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30864-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in all bacteria...
  7. Carty S, Sreekumar K, Raetz C. Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9677-85 pubmed
    ..coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA...
  8. Zornetzer G, Fox B, Markley J. Solution structures of spinach acyl carrier protein with decanoate and stearate. Biochemistry. 2006;45:5217-27 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor in a variety of biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism. Thus, it is of interest to determine structures of physiologically relevant ACP-fatty acid complexes...
  9. Guo X, Liu T, Deng Z, Cane D. Essential role of the donor acyl carrier protein in stereoselective chain translocation to a fully reducing module of the nanchangmycin polyketide synthase. Biochemistry. 2012;51:879-87 pubmed publisher
  10. Li W, Ju J, Osada H, Shen B. Utilization of the methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein biosynthesis locus for cloning of the tautomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces spiroverticillatus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4148-52 pubmed
    ..primers was used to clone genes from Streptomyces spiroverticillatus for formation of the methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein. This locus was found to contain five genes (ttmC, ttmA, ttmD, ttmB, and ttmE), one of which was used as a ..
  11. De Lay N, Cronan J. In vivo functional analyses of the type II acyl carrier proteins of fatty acid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20319-28 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key component of the fatty acid synthesis pathways of both type I and type II synthesis systems...
  12. Rawlings M, Cronan J. The gene encoding Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein lies within a cluster of fatty acid biosynthetic genes. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:5751-4 pubmed
    The gene encoding Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein (ACP) has been isolated and sequenced...
  13. Sharma A, Sharma S, Surolia A, Surolia N, Sarma S. Solution structures of conformationally equilibrium forms of holo-acyl carrier protein (PfACP) from Plasmodium falciparum provides insight into the mechanism of activation of ACPs. Biochemistry. 2006;45:6904-16 pubmed
    b>Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (PfACP) in its holo form is found to exist in two conformational states in solution...
  14. Zhu K, Rock C. RhlA converts beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates in fatty acid synthesis to the beta-hydroxydecanoyl-beta-hydroxydecanoate component of rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..by competing with the enzymes of the type II fatty acid synthase (FASII) cycle for the beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) pathway intermediates...
  15. Branen J, Shintani D, Engeseth N. Expression of antisense acyl carrier protein-4 reduces lipid content in Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:748-56 pubmed
    Arabidopsis plants were transformed with acyl carrier protein (ACP)-4 in antisense conformation driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
  16. Kato Y, Bai L, Xue Q, Revill W, Yu T, Floss H. Functional expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the novel polyketide chain extension unit, methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein, and engineered biosynthesis of 2-desmethyl-2-methoxy-6-deoxyerythronolide B. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:5268-9 pubmed
    ..Deletion of asm17, encoding a methyltransferase, from the cassette gave 6-DEB instead of its hydroxy analogue, indicating that methylation of the extender unit is required for its incorporation. ..
  17. Veyron Churlet R, Molle V, Taylor R, Brown A, Besra G, Zanella Cleon I, et al. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III activity is inhibited by phosphorylation on a single threonine residue. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6414-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs ..
  18. Rafi S, Novichenok P, Kolappan S, Stratton C, Rawat R, Kisker C, et al. Structure of acyl carrier protein bound to FabI, the FASII enoyl reductase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39285-39293 pubmed publisher
    ..FabI is a proven target for drug discovery and the present structure provides insight into the molecular determinants that regulate the interaction of ACPs with target proteins. ..
  19. Zornetzer G, Tanem J, Fox B, Markley J. The length of the bound fatty acid influences the dynamics of the acyl carrier protein and the stability of the thioester bond. Biochemistry. 2010;49:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..methods as an approach to improving our understanding of the effect of fatty acid length on the dynamics of acyl carrier protein. A chemical assay of the accessibility of the acyl thioester to solvent revealed a positive correlation ..
  20. Chan Y, Thomas M. Recognition of (2S)-aminomalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and (2R)-hydroxymalonyl-ACP by acyltransferases in zwittermicin A biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..backbone by condensing carboxylic acid precursors that are thioesterified to either coenzyme A or an acyl carrier protein (ACP)...
  21. Keating D, Carey M, Cronan J. The unmodified (apo) form of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein is a potent inhibitor of cell growth. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22229-35 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the carrier of fatty acids during their synthesis and utilization. ACPs (or ACP-like protein domains) have been found throughout biology and share significant amino acid sequence similarities...
  22. Mosiewicz K, Johnsson K, Lutolf M. Phosphopantetheinyl transferase-catalyzed formation of bioactive hydrogels for tissue engineering. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:5972-4 pubmed publisher
    ..3D encapsulation of cells resulted in high cell viability (ca. 95%) and single cell migration over long distances within RGDS-modified gels. ..
  23. Jha J, Sinha S, Maiti M, Basu A, Mukhopadhyay U, Sen S. Functional expression of an acyl carrier protein (ACP) from Azospirillum brasilense alters fatty acid profiles in Escherichia coli and Brassica juncea. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:490-500 pubmed
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a central cofactor for de novo fatty acid synthesis, acyl chain modification and chain-length termination during lipid biosynthesis in living organisms...
  24. Lomakin I, Xiong Y, Steitz T. The crystal structure of yeast fatty acid synthase, a cellular machine with eight active sites working together. Cell. 2007;129:319-32 pubmed
    ..Six of the catalytic sites are in the wall of the assembly facing an acyl carrier protein (ACP) bound to the ketoacyl synthase domain...
  25. Sun Y, Hong H, Gillies F, Spencer J, Leadlay P. Glyceryl-S-acyl carrier protein as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of tetronate antibiotics. Chembiochem. 2008;9:150-6 pubmed
    ..an atypical member of the FkbH family of enzymes, which has previously been shown to synthesise glyceryl-S-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the first step in production of unusual extender units for modular polyketide biosynthesis...
  26. Jiang H, Zirkle R, Metz J, Braun L, Richter L, Van Lanen S, et al. The role of tandem acyl carrier protein domains in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:6336-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Acyl carrier protein (ACP) plays an essential role in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis, and most of the fatty acid synthases (FASs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) known to date are characterized with a single ACP for each cycle of ..
  27. Cryle M, Schlichting I. Structural insights from a P450 Carrier Protein complex reveal how specificity is achieved in the P450(BioI) ACP complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis forms a seven-carbon diacid through a multistep oxidative cleavage of a fatty acid linked to acyl carrier protein (ACP)...
  28. Ducasse Cabanot S, Cohen Gonsaud M, Marrakchi H, Nguyen M, Zerbib D, Bernadou J, et al. In vitro inhibition of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase MabA by isoniazid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:242-9 pubmed
    ..is structurally and functionally related to the in vivo target of isoniazid, InhA, an NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase...
  29. Stok J, De Voss J. Expression, purification, and characterization of BioI: a carbon-carbon bond cleaving cytochrome P450 involved in biotin biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;384:351-60 pubmed
    ..BioI copurifies with acylated Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein (ACP), suggesting that in vivo a fatty acid substrate may be presented to BioI as an acyl-ACP...
  30. Méjean A, Mann S, Vassiliadis G, Lombard B, Loew D, Ploux O. In vitro reconstitution of the first steps of anatoxin-a biosynthesis in Oscillatoria PCC 6506: from free L-proline to acyl carrier protein bound dehydroproline. Biochemistry. 2010;49:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..three polyketide synthases for which the starter would be (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate bound to an acyl carrier protein, AnaD...
  31. Angelini S, My L, Bouveret E. Disrupting the Acyl Carrier Protein/SpoT interaction in vivo: identification of ACP residues involved in the interaction and consequence on growth. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36111 pubmed publisher
    In bacteria, Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is the central cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis. It carries the acyl chain in elongation and must therefore interact successively with all the enzymes of this pathway...
  32. Bartling C, Raetz C. Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5290-302 pubmed publisher
    LpxD catalyzes the third step of lipid A biosynthesis, the (R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-acyl carrier protein ( R-3-OHC14-ACP)-dependent N-acylation of UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine [UDP-3-O-(R-3-OHC14)-GlcN]...
  33. De Lay N, Cronan J. Gene-specific random mutagenesis of Escherichia coli in vivo: isolation of temperature-sensitive mutations in the acyl carrier protein of fatty acid synthesis. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:287-96 pubmed
    ..Moreover, recent data indicate that the acyl carrier protein of Escherichia coli has a large protein interaction network that extends beyond lipid synthesis...
  34. Maier T, Jenni S, Ban N. Architecture of mammalian fatty acid synthase at 4.5 A resolution. Science. 2006;311:1258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..active sites and conformational differences between the reaction chambers demonstrate that mobility of the acyl carrier protein and general flexibility of the multienzyme must accompany handover of the reaction intermediates during the ..
  35. Miller J, Busby R, Jordan S, Cheek J, Henshaw T, Ashley G, et al. Escherichia coli LipA is a lipoyl synthase: in vitro biosynthesis of lipoylated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from octanoyl-acyl carrier protein. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15166-78 pubmed
    ..These results provide information about the mechanism of LipA catalysis and place LipA within the family of iron-sulfur proteins that utilize AdoMet for radical-based chemistry. ..
  36. Qiu X, Janson C. Structure of apo acyl carrier protein and a proposal to engineer protein crystallization through metal ions. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1545-54 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli apo acyl carrier protein was chosen as a test case because of its high content of negatively charged carboxylates suitable for metal ..
  37. Weissman K, Hong H, Popovic B, Meersman F. Evidence for a protein-protein interaction motif on an acyl carrier protein domain from a modular polyketide synthase. Chem Biol. 2006;13:625-36 pubmed
    During biosynthesis on modular polyketide synthases (PKSs), chain extension intermediates are tethered to acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains through phosphopantetheinyl prosthetic groups...
  38. Sweet C, Lin S, Cotter R, Raetz C. A Chlamydia trachomatis UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase selective for myristoyl-acyl carrier protein. Expression in Escherichia coli and formation of hybrid lipid A species. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19565-74 pubmed
    ..Re-engineering the structure of E. coli lipid A should facilitate the microbiological production of novel agonists or antagonists of the innate immunity receptor TLR-4, with possible uses as adjuvants or anti-inflammatory agents. ..
  39. Runswick M, Fearnley I, Skehel J, Walker J. Presence of an acyl carrier protein in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 1991;286:121-4 pubmed
    ..At present the function of the acyl carrier protein in mitochondrial complex I is not understood.
  40. Kater M, Koningstein G, Nijkamp H, Stuitje A. cDNA cloning and expression of Brassica napus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol Biol. 1991;17:895-909 pubmed
    ..We describe a rapid and simple purification procedure for the plastid-localized NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase from developing B. napus seed, based on its affinity towards the acyl carrier protein (ACP)...
  41. Heath R, Rock C. Regulation of fatty acid elongation and initiation by acyl-acyl carrier protein in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1833-6 pubmed
    Long chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) has been implicated as a physiological inhibitor of fatty acid biosynthesis since acyl-ACP degradation by thioesterase overexpression leads to constitutive, unregulated fatty acid production...
  42. Stuible H, Meier S, Wagner C, Hannappel E, Schweizer E. A novel phosphopantetheine:protein transferase activating yeast mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22334-9 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the low molecular weight acyl carrier protein (ACP) of mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the cytoplasmic type I FAS multienzyme contain 4'-phosphopantetheine as a prosthetic group...
  43. Zhang Y, Rao M, Heath R, Price A, Olson A, Rock C, et al. Identification and analysis of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) docking site on beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:8231-8 pubmed
    The molecular details that govern the specific interactions between acyl carrier protein (ACP) and the enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are unknown...
  44. Lai C, Cronan J. Isolation and characterization of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabG) mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1869-78 pubmed
    FabG, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, performs the NADPH-dependent reduction of beta-ketoacyl-ACP substrates to beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP products, the first reductive step in the elongation cycle of fatty acid biosynthesis...
  45. Murugan E, Liang Z. Evidence for a novel phosphopantetheinyl transferase domain in the polyketide synthase for enediyne biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed a novel type of PPTase with unique structure and substrate specificity, and suggested that the polyketide synthase probably acquired the PPTase domain from a primary metabolic pathway in evolution. ..
  46. Johnson M, Peti W, Herrmann T, Wilson I, Wuthrich K. Solution structure of Asl1650, an acyl carrier protein from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 with a variant phosphopantetheinylation-site sequence. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1030-41 pubmed
    ..The protein Asl1650, which is a member of the acyl carrier protein family from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp...
  47. Zhou Z, Koglin A, Wang Y, McMahon A, Walsh C. An eight residue fragment of an acyl carrier protein suffices for post-translational introduction of fluorescent pantetheinyl arms in protein modification in vitro and in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:9925-30 pubmed publisher
  48. Jain N, Wyckoff T, Raetz C, Prestegard J. Rapid analysis of large protein-protein complexes using NMR-derived orientational constraints: the 95 kDa complex of LpxA with acyl carrier protein. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:1379-89 pubmed
    ..homotrimeric complex of the acyltransferase protein, LpxA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase), and acyl carrier protein. LpxA catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide in Gram-..
  49. Kutchma A, Hoang T, Schweizer H. Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD). J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5498-504 pubmed
    A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP ..
  50. Korman T, Hill J, Vu T, Tsai S. Structural analysis of actinorhodin polyketide ketoreductase: cofactor binding and substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14529-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Acyl carrier protein and substrate docking models shed light on the molecular basis of KR regio- and stereoselectivity, as well ..
  51. Rock C. Mixed disulfides of acyl carrier protein and coenzyme A with specific soluble proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:1298-300 pubmed
    Three soluble proteins in Escherichia coli specifically from mixed disulfides with either acyl carrier protein or coenzyme A...
  52. Kapur S, Chen A, Cane D, Khosla C. Molecular recognition between ketosynthase and acyl carrier protein domains of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22066-71 pubmed publisher
    Every polyketide synthase module has an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and a ketosynthase (KS) domain that collaborate to catalyze chain elongation. The same ACP then engages the KS domain of the next module to facilitate chain transfer...
  53. Zhao C, Ju J, Christenson S, Smith W, Song D, Zhou X, et al. Utilization of the methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein biosynthesis locus for cloning the oxazolomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus JA3453. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4142-7 pubmed
    ..Using degenerate primers to clone genes encoding methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) biosynthesis as probes, a 135-kb DNA region from Streptomyces albus JA3453 was cloned and found to ..