bence jones protein


Summary: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.

Top Publications

  1. Stone M. Myeloma and macroglobulinemia: what are the criteria for diagnosis?. Clin Lymphoma. 2002;3:23-5 pubmed
  2. Iijima S, Cho H, Sakai N, Shiba K, Toyoshima Y, Nishida K, et al. Development of a new method for measuring total urinary protein using acid violet 6B pigment. J Clin Lab Anal. 2003;17:147-54 pubmed
    ..406x-29.15, r=0.786). In conclusion, the AV6B method was more useful than the CBB and PRM methods for low levels of urinary protein. ..
  3. Nakano T, Miyazaki S, Takahashi H, Matsumori A, Maruyama T, Komoda T, et al. Immunochemical quantification of free immunoglobulin light chains from an analytical perspective. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:522-32 pubmed
    ..We also discuss difficulties in the standardization and setting of normal reference intervals for FLC assays. ..
  4. Amadi K, Sabo A, Ogunkeye O, Oluwole F. Thyroid hormone: a "prime suspect" in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients?. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2008;23:61-6 pubmed
    ..05) higher than control. BJP was also isolated in the urine of patients. The findings suggest that thyroid hormone deficiency is a primary culprit for the other inert or dormant factors to be activated. ..
  5. Hauke G, Krawinkel U, Schiltz E, Metz B, Hollmann A, Peter H. [Gamma-1 heavy chain disease with the demonstration of Bence-Jones proteins]. Immun Infekt. 1991;19:89-90 pubmed
    ..These findings show that the gamma-1-heavy-chain disease of the patient involves a defective regulation of Ig-light-chain-gene activation as well. ..
  6. Audard V, Damaj G, Rubio M, Aucouturier P, Hermine O, Varet B. Idiopathic light-chain proteinuria: case report and review of the literature. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:293-4 pubmed
    ..The prognosis of the disease is apparently good. We report here a case of idiopathic BJP and review the literature. ..
  7. Mateos M, San Miguel J. Smoldering multiple myeloma: when to observe and when to treat?. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015;:e484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the need to follow a correct diagnosis by an accurate risk stratification to plan an optimized follow-up according to the risk of disease progression. ..
  8. Mian M, Franz I, Wasle I, Herold M, Griesmacher A, Prokop W, et al. "Idiopathic Bence-Jones proteinuria": a new characterization of an old entity. Ann Hematol. 2013;92:1263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that MGUS+BJP being closer to malignant transformation may be due to the higher portion of genetically heterogeneous, pre-malignant plasma cell subclones. ..
  9. Nagao T, Okura T, Miyoshi K, Watanabe S, Manabe S, Kurata M, et al. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance showing lambda-type Bence Jones protein. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2005;9:247-51 pubmed
    ..Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis showed positive for the lambda type of Bence Jones protein. A bone marrow aspiration test revealed mild plasmacytosis (6.4% of the total cells)...

More Information


  1. Kadokura M, Tanio N, Nonaka M, Yamamoto S, Kataoka D, Kushima M, et al. A surgical case of solitary plasmacytoma of rib origin with biclonal gammopathy. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2000;30:191-5 pubmed
    ..Adjuvant chemotherapy using melphalan and prednisolone was performed. He is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years following his initial diagnosis. ..
  2. Lueck N, Agrawal Y. Lack of utility of free light chain-specific antibodies in the urine immunofixation test. Clin Chem. 2006;52:906-7 pubmed
  3. Graziani M, Merlini G, Petrini C. Guidelines for the analysis of Bence Jones protein. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41:338-46 pubmed
    The detection and quantification of monoclonal free light chains in urine (Bence Jones protein, BJP) are thorny issues for the laboratorian...
  4. Sinclair D, Resouly A, Spedding A. Stridor: unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:829-31 pubmed
    ..Chemotherapy and localized radiotherapy were commenced. This is a most unusual presentation of multiple myeloma and shows that immunoglobulin profiles should be properly investigated in such cases. ..
  5. Méndez Arredondo J, Rodríguez López I, González Morales I, Debén Ariznavarreta G, Fernández Rodríguez F, Sánchez Mozo P. Patient with double bence jones proteinuria after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129:937-9 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of double Bence Jones proteinuria after hematopoietic cell transplantation. ..
  6. Tanioka F, Tamashima S, Shimizu S, Kobayashi H, Kobayashi Y, Sugimura H. A case of primary plasma cell leukemia with hairy-cell morphology and lambda-type Bence-Jones protein. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:232-7 pubmed
  7. Bret P, Stan H, Streichenberger N, Sebban C, Guyotat J. [Solitary plasmacytoma of the sphenoid. A case report]. Neurochirurgie. 2002;48:431-5 pubmed
    ..Only 7 comparable cases have been reported in the literature. The diagnostic, pathological and nosographic features of sphenoid plasmacytomas are discussed. ..
  8. Robson E, Mead G, Carr Smith H, Bradwell A. In reply to Tate et al. Clin Chim Acta 2007;376:30-6. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;380:247; author reply 250-1 pubmed
  9. Levinson S, Elin R, Yam L. Light chain proteinuria and lysozymuria in a patient with acute monocytic leukemia. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1131-2 pubmed
  10. Nicastri A, Prado M, Dominguez W, Prado E. Nephrotoxicity of Bence-Jones proteins: interference in renal epithelial cell acidification. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002;35:357-60 pubmed
    ..Lysosomal acidification is fundamental for adequate protein processing and catabolism. ..
  11. Yamada T. [Current status regarding detection of monoclonal component in Japan]. Rinsho Byori. 2010;58:397-400 pubmed
    ..b>Bence Jones protein (BJP), once detected, can support the diagnoses of MM and primary AL-amyloidosis...
  12. Makino D, Henschen Edman A, Larson S, McPherson A. Bence Jones KWR protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007;63:780-92 pubmed
    A Bence Jones protein isolated in the early 1960s from a patient (initials KWR) suffering from plasma-cell dyscrasia was crystallized and its structure was analyzed in four different unit cells by X-ray diffraction...
  13. Bergner R, Hoffmann M, Uppenkamp M. Reply. Kastritis E. et al. Reversibility of renal failure in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with high dose dexamethasone containing regimes and the impact of novel agents. Haematologica 2007; 92:546-9. Haematologica. 2008;93:e18-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Petrosian A, Britan A. [Lectin-enzyme assay as a method of estimation of immunoglobulins' glycosylation]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2006;78:151-9 pubmed
    ..These findings and the glycosylation analysis of paraproteins and Bence-Jones proteins of multiple myeloma patients help to understand the details of interaction of immunoglobulins and lectins. ..
  15. Alpay N, Artim Esen B, Kamali S, Gul A, Kalayoglu Besisik S. Amyloid arthropathy mimicking seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in multiple myeloma: case reports and review of the literature. Amyloid. 2009;16:226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..multiple myeloma based on deposition of kappa-light chain-immunoreactive amyloid in biopsied tissue and Bence Jones protein in urine. Systemic AL amyloidosis may be important in the differential diagnosis of chronic polyarthralgia.
  16. Hata H, Nishi K, Oshihara W, Arai J, Shimizu K, Kawakita T, et al. Adsorption of Bence-Jones protein to polymethylmethacrylate membrane in primary amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2009;16:108-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that removal of BJP by PMMA membrane could serve as an alternate therapeutic method in the treatment of primary amyloidosis. ..
  17. Ikezawa Y, Oka K, Nagayama R, Okubo Y, Yonekawa N, Hirai F, et al. Bence-Jones protein-type myeloma with amyloid myopathy presenting as amyloidomas and extensive amyloid deposits in the muscularis propria: a rapidly fatal autopsy case. Int J Surg Pathol. 2012;20:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Massive amyloid materials deposited diffusely in the propria muscularis of the gastrointestinal tract: the tongue to the rectum. ..
  18. Bradwell A. Serum free light chain measurements move to center stage. Clin Chem. 2005;51:805-7 pubmed
  19. Wall J, Kennel S, Williams A, Richey T, Stuckey A, Huang Y, et al. AL amyloid imaging and therapy with a monoclonal antibody to a cryptic epitope on amyloid fibrils. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52686 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the 2A4 mAb might be of interest for potential imaging and immunotherapy in patients with AL amyloidosis. ..
  20. Blancas Mejia L, Martin E, Williams A, Wall J, Ramirez Alvarado M. Kinetic stability and sequence/structure studies of urine-derived Bence-Jones proteins from multiple myeloma and light chain amyloidosis patients. Biophys Chem. 2017;230:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The location of the mutations were analyzed and compared with the stability and amyloidogenic properties for the proteins in this study, increasing our understanding of light chain unfolding and amyloidogenic potential. ..
  21. Cohen F, Sternberg M, Taylor W. Analysis of the tertiary structure of protein beta-sheet sandwiches. J Mol Biol. 1981;148:253-72 pubmed
  22. Le Bricon T, Erlich D, Bengoufa D, Dussaucy M, Garnier J, Bousquet B. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis of urinary proteins: application to multiple myeloma. Clin Chem. 1998;44:1191-7 pubmed
    ..SDS-AGE allows easy evaluation of renal dysfunction and shows high sensitivity for BJP detection. In a specialized laboratory, it is useful for following the progress of MM patients through the semiquantification of BJP. ..
  23. Bouillot S, Vital A, Favereaux A, Ferrer X, Lagueny A, Vital C. [Amyloid neuropathies. Histopathological study of peripheral nerve biopsy in 18 cases]. Ann Pathol. 2003;23:114-20 pubmed
    ..Nerve biopsy revealed amyloidosis in 10 patients: 5 of them had a mutation in TTR gene, without any family history. ..
  24. Sirohi B, Powles R, Kulkarni S, Rudin C, Saso R, Lal R, et al. Comparison of new patients with Bence-Jones, IgG and IgA myeloma receiving sequential therapy: the need to regard these immunologic subtypes as separate disease entities with specific prognostic criteria. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;28:29-37 pubmed
  25. Tamura A, Yamashiro A, Mizutani F, Oita T, Maeda A, Takahashi T. [Immunochemical properties of free mu-chain protein in a patient with mu-heavy chain disease]. Rinsho Byori. 2003;51:847-51 pubmed
    ..The serum of the patient was found to have free mu-heavy chain. The patient also had a kappa type-Bence Jones protein in serum and urine...
  26. Bhandari M, Mazumder A, Vesole D. Liver involvement in multiple myeloma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2007;7:538-40 pubmed
    ..A liver biopsy revealed a diffuse portal and sinusoidal infiltration of plasma cells with lambda light-chain restriction. In this report, we review the literature of liver involvement in MM. ..
  27. Preud homme J, Bauwens M, DuMont G, Goujon J, Dreyfus B, Touchard G. Cast nephropathy in mu heavy chain disease. Clin Nephrol. 1997;48:118-21 pubmed
    ..The hematological and renal condition improved after reinitiation of chemotherapy. This appears to be the first documented report of a light chain-dependent visceral complication in HCD. ..
  28. Thakar Y, Chande C, Pande S, Dhanvijay A, Shrikhande A, Saoji A. Immunochemical studies in multiple myeloma. Indian J Cancer. 1997;34:151-8 pubmed
    ..diagnosis of paraproteinemia with a special emphasis on immunoelectrophoresis for typing multiple myeloma and allied disorders along with disc electrophoresis for the demonstration of urinary Bence Jones protein in the routine set up.
  29. Alim M, Yamaki S, Hossain M, Takeda K, Yamagata F, Takashi I, et al. Structural relationship of lambda-type light chains with AL amyloidosis. Clin Immunol. 1999;90:399-403 pubmed
    ..It would seem that any substitution that causes an alteration in the protein conformation may lead to its being more prone to association with the amyloid processes. ..
  30. Mukherjee S, Pondaven S, Jaroniec C. Conformational flexibility of a human immunoglobulin light chain variable domain by relaxation dispersion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: implications for protein misfolding and amyloid assembly. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5845-57 pubmed publisher
  31. Marshall T, Williams K. Electrophoretic analysis of Bence Jones proteinuria. Electrophoresis. 1999;20:1307-24 pubmed
    ..Refinements of sample processing designed to improve the standardisation of analysis of BJP by high resolution electrophoretic methods are reported. ..
  32. Levinson S. Urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis supplement one another in characterizing proteinuria. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2000;30:79-84 pubmed
  33. Molina Garrido M, Guillen Ponce C, Mora A, Guirado Risueño M, Molina M, Molina M, et al. Deposition-associated diseases related with a monoclonal compound. Clin Transl Oncol. 2007;9:777-83 pubmed
  34. Burkhardt O, Dickgreber N, Buhling F, Waldburg N, Merker H, Welte T. [Diagnosis of multiple myeloma by demonstrating plasma cells in bronchoalveolar lavage]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2003;128:1951-4 pubmed
    ..His general condition increased after administration of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Cardiopulmonary involvement is seldom seen in multiple myeloma but should be excluded when clinical symptoms are present. ..
  35. Lundin J, Osterborg A, Bjorkholm M, Bjorkstrand B, Celsing F, Hjalmar V, et al. Phase II study of cyclophosphamide, interferon-alpha and betamethasone (CIB) as induction therapy for patients 60-75 years of age with multiple myeloma stages II and III. Hematol J. 2003;4:248-52 pubmed
  36. Viedma J, Garrigós N, Morales S. Comparison of the sensitivity of 2 automated immunoassays with immunofixation electrophoresis for detecting urine Bence Jones proteins. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1505-7 pubmed
  37. Weber D, Treon S, Emmanouilides C, Branagan A, Byrd J, Blade J, et al. Uniform response criteria in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: consensus panel recommendations from the Second International Workshop on Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia. Semin Oncol. 2003;30:127-31 pubmed
  38. Naraev B, Linthicum F. Temporal bone involvement in multiple myeloma. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27:580-1 pubmed
  39. Bradwell A, Carr Smith H, Mead G, Harvey T, Drayson M. Serum test for assessment of patients with Bence Jones myeloma. Lancet. 2003;361:489-91 pubmed
    b>Bence Jones protein in urine (immunoglobulin free-light-chains) is characteristic of light-chain multiple myeloma. We aimed to compare a quantitative immunoassay for serum free-light-chains with urine tests...
  40. Mafune N. [Invitation to the immunoglobulin world]. Rinsho Byori. 2010;58:382-6 pubmed
    ..Further, they allot the immunological roles to fetus or baby, in other words, IgG transferred from placenta protects fetus and newborn, and then IgA secreted in milk protects baby from mucosal invasion of pathogenic organisms. ..
  41. Bethge W, Einsele H. [Early treatment of a Bence-Jones-kappa-light-chain-paraproteinemia]. Internist (Berl). 2004;45:466-7 pubmed
  42. Spicka I, Masek Z, Jirsa M, Zounar R, Prochazka B, Merta M, et al. [Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and their soluble receptors in Bence-Jones nephropathy. Possible role in pathogenesis andthe importance in the determination of prognosis in renal insufficiency]. Cas Lek Cesk. 1998;137:267-70 pubmed
    ..We suggest that IL-6 levels could be predictive factor for renal insufficiency recovery. ..
  43. Suzuki S, Konta T, Koizumi R, Nishida W, Abiko H, Kubota I. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis with hypocomplementemia. Intern Med. 2003;42:719-22 pubmed
    ..Immunosuppressive therapy did not attenuate the nephrotic-range proteinuria. Such a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis with hypocomplementemia is rare. ..
  44. Prakash M, Baliga K, Singh A, Mishra D. Non-secretory multiple myeloma with hypercalcemic acute renal failure. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002;50:1330-1 pubmed
  45. Davern S, Tang L, Williams T, Macy S, Wall J, Weiss D, et al. Immunodiagnostic capabilities of anti-free immunoglobulin light chain monoclonal antibodies. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;130:702-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our anti-FLC mAbs, with their high degree of reactivity and versatility, may provide an invaluable tool in the diagnosis and management of light chain-associated disease. ..
  46. Desikan R, Veksler Y, Raza S, Stokes B, Sabir T, Li Z, et al. Nephrotic proteinuria associated with high-dose pamidronate in multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol. 2002;119:496-9 pubmed
    ..One other patient continued to show elevated creatinine levels (272.8 micro mol/l). Renal biopsies obtained in two patients revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. ..
  47. Hill P, Forsyth J, Rai B, Mayne S. Serum free light chains: an alternative to the urine Bence Jones proteins screening test for monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1743-8 pubmed
    ..patients with monoclonal gammopathies; (b) whether serum FLC measurements could replace urinalysis for Bence Jones protein (BJP); and (c) the cost/quality implications of routinely measuring serum FLCs...
  48. Hanson B, Bunick G, Harp J, Edmundson A. Mcg in 2030: new techniques for atomic position determination of immune complexes. J Mol Recognit. 2002;15:297-305 pubmed
    ..In the near future, neutron diffraction studies should produce the first hydrogen structure for the Mcg dimer and help elucidate the ligand preferences and amyloidogenic properties of this eminently useful protein. ..
  49. Tribbick G, Rodda S. Combinatorial methods for discovery of peptide ligands which bind to antibody-like molecules. J Mol Recognit. 2002;15:306-10 pubmed
    ..The mode of binding was found to be not predictable and insight was gained into the forces determining how the so-called mimotopes interacted with binding sites. ..
  50. Strada E, Battistelli L, Savazzi G. [Bence-Jones proteinuria and kidney's damages]. Recenti Prog Med. 2008;99:389-94 pubmed
  51. Dawson M, Patil S, Spencer A. Extramedullary relapse of multiple myeloma associated with a shift in secretion from intact immunoglobulin to light chains. Haematologica. 2007;92:143-4 pubmed
    ..This is illustrated in our series of three patients showing fulminant relapse of disease with plasmablastic features, an extramedullary predilection and a shift in secretion from intact immunoglobulin to free light chains only. ..
  52. Uchihara J, Arakaki H. [The appearance of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) in BJP-? type multiple myeloma during maintenance therapy including lenalidomide]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2013;54:388-91 pubmed
    ..2) or the onset of chronic myelogenous leukemia have yet to be found. Although the cause of chronic myelogenous leukemia with the lenalidomide treatment is not yet clear, it is an interesting case. ..
  53. Kinoshita K, Yamagata T, Nozaki Y, Sugiyama M, Ikoma S, Funauchi M, et al. Mu-heavy chain disease associated with systemic amyloidosis. Hematology. 2004;9:135-7 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the third case in which systemic amyloidosis led to the patient's death. ..