immunoglobulin lambda chains


Summary: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.

Top Publications

  1. VELA J, Ait Azzouzene D, Duong B, Ota T, Nemazee D. Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production. Immunity. 2008;28:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells. ..
  2. Giarin M, Giaccone L, Sorasio R, Sfiligoi C, Amoroso B, Cavallo F, et al. Serum free light chain ratio, total kappa/lambda ratio, and immunofixation results are not prognostic factors after stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Clin Chem. 2009;55:1510-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis with a small cohort of patients did not show a significant impact of achieving complete response (CR) or stringent CR on patient survival. ..
  3. Yang S, Chen X, Wu B, Wang M, Cai C, Cho D, et al. Immunoglobulin kappa and immunoglobulin lambda are required for expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL in human colorectal cancer tissue. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that expression of Igk and Iglambda is required to stabilize Bcl-xL expression in cancer cells. ..
  4. Wu Q, Wei Z, Yang Z, Wang T, Ren L, Hu X, et al. Phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of lambda and kappa immunoglobulin light chain genes in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results help us to understand the generation of the immunoglobulin repertoire in reptiles and immunoglobulin evolution in vertebrates...
  5. Avila A, Villalpando A, Montoya G, Luna M. Clinical features and differential diagnoses of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid: a case report. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2009;13:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, no standard treatment exists for this entity. In this report, we discuss the differential diagnosis of SEP of the thyroid and the clinical features observed in this case...
  6. Oh H, Lee M, Park G, Moon D, Park Y, Jang S. [A case of lambda-expressing pulmonary MALT lymphoma with dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene]. Korean J Lab Med. 2009;29:256-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first case in Korea of lambda-expressing MALT lymphoma that is shown to have dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene by multiplex PCR. ..
  7. Larsen C, Walker P, Weiss D, Solomon A. Prevalence and morphology of leukocyte chemotactic factor 2-associated amyloid in renal biopsies. Kidney Int. 2010;77:816-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we believe that ALECT2 represents the third common form of renal amyloidosis. ..
  8. Bradwell A, Harding S, Fourrier N, Wallis G, Drayson M, Carr Smith H, et al. Assessment of monoclonal gammopathies by nephelometric measurement of individual immunoglobulin kappa/lambda ratios. Clin Chem. 2009;55:1646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoassays for intact Ig kappa/lambda pairs are possible and should assist in the management of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. ..
  9. Kim Y, Tian M. The recruitment of activation induced cytidine deaminase to the immunoglobulin locus by a regulatory element. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1860-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we provide evidence that the regulatory element plays a role in recruiting AID to the Ig lambda locus. ..

More Information


  1. Kyriakou E, Kolovou K, Kotsopoulou M, Mahera H, Spiliotopoulou I. IgG-lambda secreting B-lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with disseminated cutaneous infiltration: report of a rare case. J BUON. 2009;14:695-8 pubmed
    ..The patient died from severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to acute respiratory bacterial infection, before receiving any kind of treatment. ..
  2. Kim K, Woo K, Kim Y. Myeloma of the eyelid: a rare necrotizing lesion. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:142-4 pubmed publisher
  3. Serefhanoglu S, Haznedaroglu I, Goker H, Buyukasik Y, Ozcebe O. Multiple bulky cutaneous plasmacytomas with CNS relapse without bone marrow involvement during the course of a lambda light chain myeloma. Onkologie. 2009;32:662-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the skin was associated with advanced disease status and, therefore, with a poor prognosis. This is the first reported case of cutaneous involvement of lambda light chain MM. ..
  4. Sinapi I, Caers J, Connerotte T, Koutaissoff S, Lambert M. [Retroperitoneal fibrosis and multiple myeloma: fortuitous association?]. Rev Med Interne. 2010;31:e4-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the pathophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. ..
  5. Vermeersch P, Vercammen M, Holvoet A, Vande Broek I, Broeck I, Delforge M, et al. Use of interval-specific likelihood ratios improves clinical interpretation of serum FLC results for the diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorders. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;410:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interpreting serum FLC kappa/lambda ratios using LRs for different result intervals improves the clinical interpretation for the diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorders excluding plasmacytoma. ..
  6. Sthaneshwar P, Nadarajan V, Maniam J, Nordin N, Gin Gin G. Serum free light chains: diagnostic and prognostic value in multiple myeloma. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:1101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, baseline measurement of the kappa/lambda ratio provides prognostic information in these same patients. ..
  7. Rijnierse A, Redegeld F, Blokhuis B, van der Heijden M, te Velde A, Pronk I, et al. Ig-free light chains play a crucial role in murine mast cell-dependent colitis and are associated with human inflammatory bowel diseases. J Immunol. 2010;185:653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that IgLCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD, which provides novel therapeutic means to prevent or ameliorate the adverse gastrointestinal manifestations of IBD. ..
  8. Harrington A, Hari P, Kroft S. Utility of CD56 immunohistochemical studies in follow-up of plasma cell myeloma. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;132:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CD56 immunohistochemical analysis is useful for detecting residual PCM, particularly in morphologically equivocal cases in which light chain restriction cannot be demonstrated, and may serve as a potential response criterion. ..
  9. Landgren O, Goedert J, Rabkin C, Wilson W, Dunleavy K, Kyle R, et al. Circulating serum free light chains as predictive markers of AIDS-related lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION Elevated FLCs may represent sensitive markers of polyclonal B-cell activation and dysfunction and could be useful for identifying HIV-infected persons at increased NHL risk. ..
  10. Wei F, Zaprazna K, Wang J, Atchison M. PU.1 can recruit BCL6 to DNA to repress gene expression in germinal center B cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The recruitment of BCL6 to promoter regions by PU.1 represents a new regulatory mechanism that expands the number of genes regulated by this important transcriptional repressor. ..
  11. Matheson L, Osborn M, Smith J, Corcos D, Hamon M, Chaouaf R, et al. Light chain-deficient mice produce novel multimeric heavy-chain-only IgA by faulty class switching. Int Immunol. 2009;21:957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be accomplished by imprecise class-switch recombination (CSR) from Smu into the alpha constant region, which removes all or part of the Calpha1 exon at the genomic level. ..
  12. Pasman Y, Saini S, Smith E, Kaushik A. Organization and genomic complexity of bovine lambda-light chain gene locus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite more potential germline encoded combinatorial diversity, restricted V(lambda)1-J(lambda)3-C(lambda)3 recombinations encode the most lambda-light chain repertoire in cattle. ..
  13. Schott S, Artunc F, Haap M, Mackensen Haen S, Fend F, Riessen R. [Two autopsy cases with systemic amyloidosis--case 11/2010]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:2186 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cases were subjected to autopsy. The vast majority (90%) of amyloidoses are due to acquired AA or AL amyloidosis. Prognosis remains poor, in particular when cardiac and vascular involvement occurs. ..
  14. Mawet J, Adam J, Errera M, Oksenhendler E, Gray F, Massin P, et al. Cerebral immunoglobulin light chain amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhages. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2009;165:583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrent ICH may be due to amyloid deposition of IgM lambda produced by monotypic proliferation of lymphocytes and plasma cells purely localized to the brain. ..
  15. Trikha R, Yeung C, Modjtahedi S, Martin S, Dwyre D, Telander D. B-cell lymphoma line (Raji) viability and surface marker expression minimally affected by 20- and 25-gauge vitrectomy systems analyzed by flow cytometry. Retina. 2010;30:1505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies need to be conducted to study and compare 20-G versus 25-G vitrectomy on lymphoma cells in human vitreous or in an animal model. ..
  16. Davids M, Murali M, Kuter D. Serum free light chain analysis. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:787-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes laboratory testing for serum FLC, with a particular focus on clinical applications for the test. ..
  17. Friedrich L, Stangl S, Hahne H, Kuster B, KOHLER P, Multhoff G, et al. Bacterial production and functional characterization of the Fab fragment of the murine IgG1/lambda monoclonal antibody cmHsp70.1, a reagent for tumour diagnostics. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2010;23:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the Fab fragment sensitively recognizes the membrane-associated Hsp70 on tumour cell lines both in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, thus showing potential for tumour detection in vitro and in vivo. ..
  18. Hernandez Santoyo A, del Pozo Yauner L, Fuentes Silva D, Ortiz E, Rudiño Piñera E, Sánchez López R, et al. A single mutation at the sheet switch region results in conformational changes favoring lambda6 light-chain fibrillogenesis. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:280-92 pubmed publisher
  19. Das S. Evolutionary origin and genomic organization of micro-RNA genes in immunoglobulin lambda variable region gene family. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1179-89 pubmed publisher
  20. Padoa C, Larsen S, Hampe C, Gilbert J, Dagdan E, Hegedus L, et al. Clonal relationships between thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-stimulating antibodies illustrate the effect of hypermutation on antibody function. Immunology. 2010;129:300-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Dispenzieri A, Katzmann J, Kyle R, Larson D, Melton L, Colby C, et al. Prevalence and risk of progression of light-chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a retrospective population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2010;375:1721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We define a clinical entity representing the light-chain equivalent of conventional MGUS and posing a risk of progression to light-chain multiple myeloma and related disorders. US National Cancer Institute. ..
  22. Agata M, Sameshima Y, Oda T, Kondo T, Ishiyama M, Yasunami T, et al. [Factors affecting the response of thalidomide therapy for patients with multiple myeloma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2010;51:189-95 pubmed
    ..Frequent adverse reactions were numbness (47.5%), constipation (32.5%), and eruption (30.0%). In patients previously treated with vincristine, numbness occurred in a significantly higher percentage of patients. ..
  23. Alter Wolf S, Blomberg B, Riley R. Old mice retain bone marrow B1 progenitors, but lose B2 precursors, and exhibit altered immature B cell phenotype and light chain usage. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009;130:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is associated with decreased surrogate light chain expression, a characteristic held in common by B1 progenitors as well as B2 precursors in old mice. ..
  24. Tomita N, Takeuchi K, Hyo R, Hashimoto C, Takemura S, Taguchi J, et al. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma without immunoglobulin light chain restriction by flow cytometry. Acta Haematol. 2009;121:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no survival difference in the groups. LCR-negative DLBCL accounts for about one fourth of all DLBCL and their prognosis is similar to that of LCR-positive DLBCL. CD10-negative status might characterize LCR-negative DLBCL. ..
  25. Mishima T, Ohkuri T, Monji A, Kanemaru T, Abe Y, Ueda T. Residual structures in the acid-unfolded states of Vlambda6 proteins affect amyloid fibrillation. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:1033-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It was suggested that the residual structure in highly unfolded state has a crucial role in amyloid fibril formation in many proteins, even pathogenic ones. ..
  26. Hsu V, Agarwal M, Chen C, Rossi C. IgA orbital plasmacytoma in multiple myeloma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:126-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient is currently undergoing salvage chemotherapy for relapse of multiple myeloma. This is the third reported case of IgA myeloma involving the orbit. ..
  27. Zgouras D, Engels K, Lindhoff Last E. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia as a reason for peripheral arterial perfusion disorders. Vasa. 2009;38:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma separation is the most effective acute treatment for symptomatic hyperviscosity syndrome. In a second step patients with clinical symptoms of M. Waldenstrom have to be treated by chemotherapy. ..
  28. Ioannou M, Stathakis E, Lazaris A, Papathomas T, Tsiambas E, Koukoulis G. Immunohistochemical evaluation of 95 bone marrow reactive plasmacytoses. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:25-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Tamimi W, Alaskar A, Alassiri M, Alsaeed W, Alarifi S, Alenzi F, et al. Monoclonal gammopathy in a tertiary referral hospital. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:709-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of the studied population had MGUS. This observation is in concord with other western populations. The sensitivity and specificity of protein electrophoresis is diagnostically and reasonably acceptable. ..
  30. Garzaro M, Pecorari G, Pezzoli M, Arrondini M, Novero D, Nadalin J, et al. Mucous membrane plasmacytosis of the nose in a patient affected by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1651-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no standardized treatment for MMP: we have reported good result of surgical approach in a unique case of nasal MMP in a patient with B-CLL; the relation between these two diseases deserves more studies. ..
  31. Roy B, Shukla S, Stoermann B, Kremmer E, Düber S, Weiss S. Loss of lambda2(315) transgene copy numbers influences the development of B1 cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1542-50 pubmed publisher
  32. Beck K, Peak M, Ota T, Nemazee D, Murre C. Distinct roles for E12 and E47 in B cell specification and the sequential rearrangement of immunoglobulin light chain loci. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in the pre-B and immature B cell compartments, gradients of E12 and E47 activities are established to mechanistically regulate the sequential rearrangement of the Ig light chain genes. ..
  33. Boer K, Deufel T. Quantitation of serum free light chains does not compensate for serum immunofixation only when screening for monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:1109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening of serum without performing an IFE as a standard procedure leads to a reduction of sensitivity when compared to screening of serum that includes IFE. ..
  34. Pereira J, An J, Xu Y, Huang Y, Cyster J. Cannabinoid receptor 2 mediates the retention of immature B cells in bone marrow sinusoids. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify unique requirements for the retention of B cells in the bone marrow sinusoidal niche and suggest involvement of CB2 in the generation of the B cell repertoire. ..
  35. Wang J, Gostissa M, Yan C, Goff P, Hickernell T, Hansen E, et al. Mechanisms promoting translocations in editing and switching peripheral B cells. Nature. 2009;460:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show peripheral B cells that attempt secondary V(D)J recombination, and determine a role for mechanistic factors in promoting recurrent translocations in tumours...
  36. Saha S, Gonzalez J, Rosenfeld G, Keiser H, Peeva E. Prolactin alters the mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1743-52 pubmed publisher
  37. Gioeva Z, Kieninger B, Rocken C. [Amyloidosis in liver biopsies]. Pathologe. 2009;30:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In 4 (9%) cases, amyloid remained unclassified. Hepatic amyloidosis is most commonly AL amyloid of lambda- and kappa-light chain origin and is often associated with marked parenchymal atrophy. ..
  38. Arai M, Kusunoki S. [A case of multifocal motor neuropathy with IgM lambda anti-GM1 antibody and IgM kappa paraprotein reacting exclusively with GM2]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2009;49:123-6 pubmed
    ..This case showed previously unreported antigenic specificity of paraproteins in cases of MMN. ..
  39. Derudder E, Cadera E, Vahl J, Wang J, Fox C, Zha S, et al. Development of immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells, but not editing of immunoglobulin kappa-chain, depends on NF-kappaB signals. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This second phase of development is dependent on NF-kappaB signals, which can be substituted by transgenic expression of the prosurvival factor Bcl-2. ..
  40. Vettermann C, Schlissel M. Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes: models and mechanisms. Immunol Rev. 2010;237:22-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the physiological consequences of Ig allelic exclusion and speculate on the importance of monospecificity of B cells for immune recognition. ..
  41. Phipps J, Kestler D, Foster J, Kennel S, Donnell R, Weiss D, et al. Inhibition of pathologic immunoglobulin-free light chain production by small interfering RNA molecules. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:1006-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have shown that RNA interference can markedly reduce LC synthesis and provide the basis for testing the therapeutic potential of this strategy using in vivo experimental models of multiple myeloma. ..
  42. Nakajima P, Kiefer K, Price A, Bosma G, Bosma M. Two distinct populations of H chain-edited B cells show differential surrogate L chain dependence. J Immunol. 2009;182:3583-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the unique CDR3 region of the tg-encoded muH chain is responsible for the lambda5 independence of tg-expressing B cells...
  43. Caudie C, Lagrange E. [Miller-Fisher syndrome associated with monoclonal IgG lambda antibodies against ganglioside GQ1b]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2010;68:351-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum and CSF immunological marker of MFS was a monoclonal IgG antibody targeting the ganglioside GQ1b with abundant expression on oculomotor nerves. ..
  44. Liu H, Luo X, Zhou S, Zheng Z. Prognosis and expression of lambda light chains in solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck: two case reports and a literature review. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:282-8 pubmed
    ..Some series have found that age, tumour size, site of origin (extramedullary versus bone), grade, M-protein, light chains and radiotherapy dose all influence the outcome in EMP patients...
  45. Sillard L, Passeron T, Cardot Leccia N, Perrin C, Lacour J, Ortonne J. [Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of scleromyxoedema]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2010;137:48-52 pubmed publisher
  46. Briand P, Decaux O, Caillon H, Grosbois B, Le Treut A, Guenet L. Analytical performance of the serum free light chain assay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the results of the FLC assay must be interpreted jointly by the clinician and the biologist, taking into account the individual patient's clinical and biological characteristics. ..
  47. Annibali O, Marchesi F, Petrucci M, Tirindelli M, Avvisati G. Relapse of IgA lambda multiple myeloma presenting as obstructive jaundice and abdominal pain. Onkologie. 2009;32:119-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case shows that extramedullary relapses of MM after ASCT are very resistant to conventional chemotherapy. The role of new drugs and the optimal treatment strategy in these cases remain to be defined. ..
  48. Thullier P, Huish O, Pelat T, Martin A. The humanness of macaque antibody sequences. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:1439-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the humanness of macaque sequences presented in patents has been analyzed. The H-score and G-score define objectively the humanness of antibody V-regions, and their use is exemplified here. ..
  49. Stankowski Drengler T, Gertz M, Katzmann J, Lacy M, Kumar S, Leung N, et al. Serum immunoglobulin free light chain measurements and heavy chain isotype usage provide insight into disease biology in patients with POEMS syndrome. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, serum immunoglobulin profiles are unique in POEMS syndrome as compared with other plasma cell disorders. ..
  50. Schroers R, Baraniskin A, Heute C, Kuhnhenn J, Alekseyev A, Schmiegel W, et al. Detection of free immunoglobulin light chains in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with central nervous system lymphomas. Eur J Haematol. 2010;85:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients with CNS lymphomas display a markedly increased FLC ratio in the CSF. ..
  51. Anastasiadou E, Vaeth S, Cuomo L, Boccellato F, Vincenti S, Cirone M, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infection leads to partial phenotypic reversion of terminally differentiated malignant B cells. Cancer Lett. 2009;284:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the restricted EBV latent gene expression may not only be the consequence but the cause of the mature B cell phenotype, actively participating in the virus persistence. ..
  52. de Alba Campomanes A, Rutar T, Crawford J, Seiff S, Goodman D, Grenert J. Crystal-storing histiocytosis and crystalline keratopathy caused by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Cornea. 2009;28:1081-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although CSH is rare, it should be part of the differential diagnosis of orbital infiltrative disease with or without crystalline keratopathy. ..
  53. Miura N, Uemura Y, Suzuki N, Suga N, Maeda K, Yamaguchi S, et al. An IgA1-lambda-type monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with membranous features in a patient with chronic hepatitis C viral infection and rectal cancer. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..One year later, the urinary protein was still present. The present case is the first report of an IgA1-lambda-type monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with membranous features. ..