immunoglobulin kappa chains


Summary: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.

Top Publications

  1. VELA J, Ait Azzouzene D, Duong B, Ota T, Nemazee D. Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production. Immunity. 2008;28:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells. ..
  2. Smith B, Roman C. The unique and immunoglobulin-like regions of surrogate light chain component lambda5 differentially interrogate immunoglobulin heavy-chain structure. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, lambda5 differentially relies on the lambda-like Ig and UR to probe H chain structure to best accommodate diversity among H chains. ..
  3. Liu Z, Ma Z, Terada L, Garrard W. Divergent roles of RelA and c-Rel in establishing chromosomal loops upon activation of the Igkappa gene. J Immunol. 2009;183:3819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have thus identified both essential and nonessential events that establish higher order chromatin reorganization during Igkappa gene activation. ..
  4. Takemura Y, Ikeda M, Kobayashi K, Nakazawa Y, Mori Y, Mitsuishi T, et al. Plasma cell leukemia producing monoclonal immunoglobulin E. Int J Hematol. 2009;90:402-406 pubmed publisher
    ..He died of tumor progression after 4-month admission. The clinical and biological characteristics of IgE-producing PCL, a very rare type of plasma cell dyscrasia, are discussed, reviewing the past literature. ..
  5. Sthaneshwar P, Nadarajan V, Maniam J, Nordin N, Gin Gin G. Serum free light chains: diagnostic and prognostic value in multiple myeloma. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:1101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, baseline measurement of the kappa/lambda ratio provides prognostic information in these same patients. ..
  6. Vinocur J, Fesnak A, Liu Y, Charan D, Prak E. Violations of the 12/23 rule at the mouse immunoglobulin kappa locus, including V kappa-V kappa rearrangement. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A signal joint derived from the inversional rearrangement of two neighboring V kappas was also recovered. These data suggest that the V kappa-V kappa structures arise via RAG-mediated, intrachromosomal recombination. ..
  7. De Re V, Simula M, Pavan A, Garziera M, Marin D, Dolcetti R, et al. Characterization of antibodies directed against the immunoglobulin light kappa chain variable chain region (VK) of hepatitis C virus-related type-II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell proliferations. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:152-60 pubmed publisher
  8. Vermeersch P, Vercammen M, Holvoet A, Vande Broek I, Broeck I, Delforge M, et al. Use of interval-specific likelihood ratios improves clinical interpretation of serum FLC results for the diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorders. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;410:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interpreting serum FLC kappa/lambda ratios using LRs for different result intervals improves the clinical interpretation for the diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorders excluding plasmacytoma. ..
  9. Montialoux H, Savoye G, Savoye Collet C, Ramirez S, Francois A, Lerebours E, et al. Jaundice revealing a k light chain myeloma because of liver light chain deposits. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21:827-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Jaundice is a very rare way of presentation for myeloma. In our observation, diagnosis was made by liver biopsy, which found light chain deposits infiltrating perisinusoidal spaces. We discuss jaundice's possible mechanisms in myeloma. ..

More Information


  1. Colonna A, Gualco G, Bacchi C, Leite M, Rocco M, Demaglio G, et al. Plasma cell myeloma presenting with diffuse pleural involvement: a hitherto unreported pattern of a new mesothelioma mimicker. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010;14:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although rarely, it seems that plasmacytoma may present with an exclusive or preponderant pleural involvement; and it may therefore be added to the list of pseudomesotheliomatous tumors. ..
  2. Ji Y, Resch W, Corbett E, Yamane A, Casellas R, Schatz D. The in vivo pattern of binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to antigen receptor loci. Cell. 2010;141:419-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that recombination centers coordinate V(D)J recombination by providing discrete sites within which gene segments are captured for recombination. ..
  3. Davids M, Murali M, Kuter D. Serum free light chain analysis. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:787-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes laboratory testing for serum FLC, with a particular focus on clinical applications for the test. ..
  4. Balamuthusamy S, Hamrahian M, Zhang R, Batuman V. Myeloma kidney with isolated tubulointerstitial light chain deposition in a renal allograft. Clin Transplant. 2009;23:848-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, the ultrastructural changes seen in our patient have not been described in literature previously. Our patient was treated with steroids, which resulted in short-term improvement in allograft dysfunction. ..
  5. Roche B, Claës A, Rougeon F. Deoxyuridine triphosphate incorporation during somatic hypermutation of mouse VkOx genes after immunization with phenyloxazolone. J Immunol. 2010;185:4777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, error-prone DNA polymerases would participate in SHM via low-fidelity replication and incorporation of dUTP. ..
  6. Agata M, Sameshima Y, Oda T, Kondo T, Ishiyama M, Yasunami T, et al. [Factors affecting the response of thalidomide therapy for patients with multiple myeloma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2010;51:189-95 pubmed
    ..Frequent adverse reactions were numbness (47.5%), constipation (32.5%), and eruption (30.0%). In patients previously treated with vincristine, numbness occurred in a significantly higher percentage of patients. ..
  7. Schott S, Artunc F, Haap M, Mackensen Haen S, Fend F, Riessen R. [Two autopsy cases with systemic amyloidosis--case 11/2010]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:2186 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cases were subjected to autopsy. The vast majority (90%) of amyloidoses are due to acquired AA or AL amyloidosis. Prognosis remains poor, in particular when cardiac and vascular involvement occurs. ..
  8. Poon I, Hulett M, Parish C. Histidine-rich glycoprotein is a novel plasma pattern recognition molecule that recruits IgG to facilitate necrotic cell clearance via FcgammaRI on phagocytes. Blood. 2010;115:2473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HRG has the unique property of complexing with IgG and facilitating a proinflammatory innate immune response to promote the clearance of necrotic cells...
  9. Xu Z, Wang Q, Zhuang Y, Frederick B, Yan H, Bouman Thio E, et al. Subcutaneous bioavailability of golimumab at 3 different injection sites in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Golimumab 100 mg was generally well tolerated in this study. Results support the flexibility in the choice of an injection site for SC administration of golimumab. ..
  10. Martins R, Roncon Albuquerque R, Cabral R, Frazão J, von Hafe P. [Primary amyloidosis associated with kappa light chain myeloma]. Acta Med Port. 2010;23:281-4 pubmed
    ..Primary amyloidosis associated with light chain myeloma is a rare, and often late, diagnosis with a dismal prognosis. Renal failure is a frequent initial presentation of the disease and infection an important cause of death. ..
  11. Mukherjee S, Pondaven S, Höfer N, Jaroniec C. Backbone and side-chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of LEN, a human immunoglobulin kappaIV light-chain variable domain. Biomol NMR Assign. 2009;3:255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with previously published biophysical data and the high-resolution X-ray structure of LEN. ..
  12. Dispenzieri A, Katzmann J, Kyle R, Larson D, Melton L, Colby C, et al. Prevalence and risk of progression of light-chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a retrospective population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2010;375:1721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We define a clinical entity representing the light-chain equivalent of conventional MGUS and posing a risk of progression to light-chain multiple myeloma and related disorders. US National Cancer Institute. ..
  13. Trikha R, Yeung C, Modjtahedi S, Martin S, Dwyre D, Telander D. B-cell lymphoma line (Raji) viability and surface marker expression minimally affected by 20- and 25-gauge vitrectomy systems analyzed by flow cytometry. Retina. 2010;30:1505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies need to be conducted to study and compare 20-G versus 25-G vitrectomy on lymphoma cells in human vitreous or in an animal model. ..
  14. Matheson L, Osborn M, Smith J, Corcos D, Hamon M, Chaouaf R, et al. Light chain-deficient mice produce novel multimeric heavy-chain-only IgA by faulty class switching. Int Immunol. 2009;21:957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be accomplished by imprecise class-switch recombination (CSR) from Smu into the alpha constant region, which removes all or part of the Calpha1 exon at the genomic level. ..
  15. Tomita N, Takeuchi K, Hyo R, Hashimoto C, Takemura S, Taguchi J, et al. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma without immunoglobulin light chain restriction by flow cytometry. Acta Haematol. 2009;121:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no survival difference in the groups. LCR-negative DLBCL accounts for about one fourth of all DLBCL and their prognosis is similar to that of LCR-positive DLBCL. CD10-negative status might characterize LCR-negative DLBCL. ..
  16. Chang X, Cui Y, Zong M, Zhao Y, Yan X, Chen Y, et al. Identification of proteins with increased expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional classification indicated that these identified proteins were related with cell differentiation, glycol metabolism, immunoactivation, and endogenous antioxidant reaction. ..
  17. Alter Wolf S, Blomberg B, Riley R. Old mice retain bone marrow B1 progenitors, but lose B2 precursors, and exhibit altered immature B cell phenotype and light chain usage. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009;130:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is associated with decreased surrogate light chain expression, a characteristic held in common by B1 progenitors as well as B2 precursors in old mice. ..
  18. Lieberman A, Kuraoka M, Davila M, Kelsoe G, Cowell L. Conserved cryptic recombination signals in Vkappa gene segments are cleaved in small pre-B cells. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:37 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which these sequences are conserved, and their pattern of conservation, suggest that they may serve an as yet unidentified purpose. ..
  19. Henry R, Kendall P, Woodward E, Hulbert C, Thomas J. Vkappa polymorphisms in NOD mice are spread throughout the entire immunoglobulin kappa locus and are shared by other autoimmune strains. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:507-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Predicted amino acid changes preferentially occur in CDR, and thus could alter antigen recognition by the germline B cell repertoire of autoimmune versus non-autoimmune mouse strains. ..
  20. Chen W, Wang J, Wang E, Lu Y, Lau S, Weiss L, et al. Detection of clonal lymphoid receptor gene rearrangements in langerhans cell histiocytosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide genotypic evidence supporting the current notion of lineage plasticity of hematopoietic cells and their associated neoplasms. ..
  21. Richter A, Harding S, Huissoon A, Drayson M, Pratt G. Multiple myeloma with monoclonal free IgG3 heavy chains and free kappa light chains. Acta Haematol. 2010;123:158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first description, investigation and treatment of MM with a plasma cell population producing truncated gamma(3)HC and kappaFLC M-proteins and illustrates a number of unique immunological and clinical features. ..
  22. Tamimi W, Alaskar A, Alassiri M, Alsaeed W, Alarifi S, Alenzi F, et al. Monoclonal gammopathy in a tertiary referral hospital. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:709-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of the studied population had MGUS. This observation is in concord with other western populations. The sensitivity and specificity of protein electrophoresis is diagnostically and reasonably acceptable. ..
  23. Nakamura Y, Kayano H, Shimada T, Ito Y, Bessho M. Plasma cell granuloma of the sigmoid colon associated with diverticular disease and accompanying IgM-type monoclonal gammopathy. Intern Med. 2010;49:227-30 pubmed
    ..Recurrent inflammatory process with diverticular disease was considered as a pathogenesis of the pseudoneoplasm and a possible cause of monoclonal proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in this case. ..
  24. Zhang S, Mao Y, Huang J, Ma T, Zhang L, Zhu X, et al. Immunoglobulin gene locus events in epithelial cells of lactating mouse mammary glands. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that IgG is expressed by mammary gland epithelial cells of lactating mice, and suggest that the IgG found in murine colostrum is at least partially produced by the mammary gland epithelial cells. ..
  25. Gioeva Z, Kieninger B, Rocken C. [Amyloidosis in liver biopsies]. Pathologe. 2009;30:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In 4 (9%) cases, amyloid remained unclassified. Hepatic amyloidosis is most commonly AL amyloid of lambda- and kappa-light chain origin and is often associated with marked parenchymal atrophy. ..
  26. Luo J, Obmolova G, Huang A, Strake B, Teplyakov A, Malia T, et al. Coevolution of antibody stability and V? CDR-L3 canonical structure. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:708-19 pubmed publisher
  27. Das S, Nikolaidis N, Nei M. Genomic organization and evolution of immunoglobulin kappa gene enhancers and kappa deleting element in mammals. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of the three IGK enhancers, KDE, and other recombining elements (REs) in all mammals (including platypus) suggest that these genomic elements were in place before the mammalian radiation. ..
  28. Kaneko S, Usui J, Narimatsu Y, Ito H, Narimatsu H, Hagiwara M, et al. Renal involvement of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with an unusual monoclonal immunoglobulin A glycan profile. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present case suggests that any variation in Ig glycosylation may be a step in the pathogenesis of MIDD with renal involvement and/or contribute to some cases of IgA nephropathy. ..
  29. Tsaur I, Probst M, Chow K, Renne C, Cerovac I, Pelekanos C, et al. [Gross haematuria as the primary symptom of extramedullary IgM plasmacytoma of the bladder]. Urologe A. 2010;49:850-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The case of a 40-year-old man with recurrent gross haematuria due to extremely rare bladder infiltration through an IgM plasmacytoma is presented. ..
  30. Våtsveen T, Tian E, Kresse S, Meza Zepeda L, Gabrea A, Glebov O, et al. OH-2, a hyperdiploid myeloma cell line without an IGH translocation, has a complex translocation juxtaposing MYC near MAFB and the IGK locus. Leuk Res. 2009;33:1670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..OH-2 provides a unique example of an HMCL and the corresponding primary tumor that are shown to share the same HRD genotype. ..
  31. Saha S, Gonzalez J, Rosenfeld G, Keiser H, Peeva E. Prolactin alters the mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1743-52 pubmed publisher
  32. Ozdemir E, Bayraktar M, Sokmensuer C, Kir K, Kansu E. Late relapse of a light-chain myeloma as extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland after second allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2009;23:981-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible pathogenesis of the late extramedullary relapse of myeloma after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and management options are discussed. ..
  33. Arai M, Kusunoki S. [A case of multifocal motor neuropathy with IgM lambda anti-GM1 antibody and IgM kappa paraprotein reacting exclusively with GM2]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2009;49:123-6 pubmed
    ..This case showed previously unreported antigenic specificity of paraproteins in cases of MMN. ..
  34. Garzaro M, Pecorari G, Pezzoli M, Arrondini M, Novero D, Nadalin J, et al. Mucous membrane plasmacytosis of the nose in a patient affected by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1651-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no standardized treatment for MMP: we have reported good result of surgical approach in a unique case of nasal MMP in a patient with B-CLL; the relation between these two diseases deserves more studies. ..
  35. Wang J, Gostissa M, Yan C, Goff P, Hickernell T, Hansen E, et al. Mechanisms promoting translocations in editing and switching peripheral B cells. Nature. 2009;460:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show peripheral B cells that attempt secondary V(D)J recombination, and determine a role for mechanistic factors in promoting recurrent translocations in tumours...
  36. Sari I, Erkurt M, Ifran A, Kaptan K, Beyan C. Multiple myeloma presenting with acquired factor VIII inhibitor. Int J Hematol. 2009;90:166-169 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians should be alert to the presence of rare underlying neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma, in patients with acquired FVIII inhibitor. ..
  37. Boer K, Deufel T. Quantitation of serum free light chains does not compensate for serum immunofixation only when screening for monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:1109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening of serum without performing an IFE as a standard procedure leads to a reduction of sensitivity when compared to screening of serum that includes IFE. ..
  38. Fernández Sánchez A, García Ocaña M, De los Toyos J. Mouse monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide backbone show restricted usage of VH-DH-JH gene segments and share the same kappa chain. Immunol Lett. 2009;123:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Their CDR-H3s do not show any recognizable patterns resembling those found in antibodies to bacterial polysaccharides that have already been characterized. ..
  39. Briand P, Decaux O, Caillon H, Grosbois B, Le Treut A, Guenet L. Analytical performance of the serum free light chain assay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the results of the FLC assay must be interpreted jointly by the clinician and the biologist, taking into account the individual patient's clinical and biological characteristics. ..
  40. Allen M, Guo A, Martinez T, Han M, Flynn G, Wypych J, et al. Interchain disulfide bonding in human IgG2 antibodies probed by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate the feasibility of applying site-directed mutagenesis to reduce disulfide bond heterogeneity in human IgG2 while preserving the activity of this therapeutically important class of human antibodies. ..
  41. Derudder E, Cadera E, Vahl J, Wang J, Fox C, Zha S, et al. Development of immunoglobulin lambda-chain-positive B cells, but not editing of immunoglobulin kappa-chain, depends on NF-kappaB signals. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This second phase of development is dependent on NF-kappaB signals, which can be substituted by transgenic expression of the prosurvival factor Bcl-2. ..
  42. Nakajima P, Kiefer K, Price A, Bosma G, Bosma M. Two distinct populations of H chain-edited B cells show differential surrogate L chain dependence. J Immunol. 2009;182:3583-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the unique CDR3 region of the tg-encoded muH chain is responsible for the lambda5 independence of tg-expressing B cells...
  43. Fujimura T, Okuyama R, Ogawa E, Aiba S. Papuloerythroderma associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. J Dermatol. 2009;36:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..His skin changes were improved, but the sharp gamma-globulin peak remained in the electrophoresis of serum protein. This case suggests an association between papuloerythroderma and MGUS. ..
  44. Zamani L, Lindholm J, Ilag L, Jacobsson S. Discrimination among IgG1-kappa monoclonal antibodies produced by two cell lines using charge state distributions in nanoESI-TOF mass spectra. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20:1030-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the IgG1-kappa molecules produced by the two production systems can be clearly distinguished using the described approach, which could be readily applied to other proteins and production systems. ..
  45. Schroers R, Baraniskin A, Heute C, Kuhnhenn J, Alekseyev A, Schmiegel W, et al. Detection of free immunoglobulin light chains in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with central nervous system lymphomas. Eur J Haematol. 2010;85:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients with CNS lymphomas display a markedly increased FLC ratio in the CSF. ..
  46. Costantino F, Loeuille D, Dintinger H, Péré P, Chary Valckenaere I. Fixed digital contractures revealing light-chain amyloidosis. Joint Bone Spine. 2009;76:404-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case is remarkable in that the musculoskeletal manifestations were at the forefront of the clinical picture and led to the diagnosis. ..
  47. Sene D, Ghillani Dalbin P, Amoura Z, Musset L, Cacoub P. Rituximab may form a complex with IgMkappa mixed cryoglobulin and induce severe systemic reactions in patients with hepatitis C virus-induced vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3848-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Rituximab should be administered with caution in MC vasculitis, with use of the 375 mg protocol and plasma exchanges prior to rituximab infusion in patients with high baseline levels of mixed cryoglobulin. ..
  48. Dezorella N, Pevsner Fischer M, Deutsch V, Kay S, Baron S, Stern R, et al. Mesenchymal stromal cells revert multiple myeloma cells to less differentiated phenotype by the combined activities of adhesive interactions and interleukin-6. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1904-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data indicate that the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells revert multiple myeloma cells to less differentiated phenotype by the combined activities of adhesive interactions and interleukin-6. ..
  49. Thullier P, Huish O, Pelat T, Martin A. The humanness of macaque antibody sequences. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:1439-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the humanness of macaque sequences presented in patents has been analyzed. The H-score and G-score define objectively the humanness of antibody V-regions, and their use is exemplified here. ..
  50. Kieninger B, Eriksson M, Kandolf R, Schnabel P, Schönland S, Kristen A, et al. Amyloid in endomyocardial biopsies. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Glu54Asp) and were classified as suffering from hereditary ATTR amyloidosis. Amyloid in endomyocardial biopsies is most commonly of immunoglobulin light chain origin, followed by non-hereditary and hereditary-type ATTR amyloid. ..
  51. Chen W, Lau S, Fong D, Wang J, Wang E, Arber D, et al. High frequency of clonal immunoglobulin receptor gene rearrangements in sporadic histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:863-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that a large subset of H/DC sarcomas have inherited B-cell genotypes, thus providing new insights for the pathogenesis of these rare but aggressive neoplasms. ..
  52. Hu C, Dougan S, Winter S, Paton A, Paton J, Ploegh H. Subtilase cytotoxin cleaves newly synthesized BiP and blocks antibody secretion in B lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential cleavage of newly synthesized versus "aged" BiP by SubAB in the ER provides insight into the architecture of the ER compartments involved. ..
  53. Cantillo J, López R, Andrade R. [Non-amyloidotic glomerular disease caused by light-chain deposits: a case report]. Biomedica. 2009;29:531-8 pubmed
    ..Herein, the clinical and histological characteristics are described regarding the first case in Colombia of light chain deposit disease without symptoms of malignancy. ..