gamma globulins


Summary: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.

Top Publications

  1. Olivares N, Leon A, López Y, Puig A, Cadiz A, Falero G, et al. The effect of the administration of human gamma globulins in a model of BCG infection in mice. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006;86:268-72 pubmed
    The effect of the administration of a commercial preparation of human gamma globulins has been evaluated in a mouse model of intranasal infection with BCG...
  2. Olivares N, Puig A, Aguilar D, Moya A, Cadiz A, Otero O, et al. Prophylactic effect of administration of human gamma globulins in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009;89:218-20 pubmed publisher
    The protective effect of human gamma globulins on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was evaluated in a mouse model of intratracheal infection...
  3. Delannoy M, Alves G, Vertommen D, Ma J, Boutry M, Navarre C. Identification of peptidases in Nicotiana tabacum leaf intercellular fluid. Proteomics. 2008;8:2285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventeen peptides showing identity or similarity to predicted plant aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases have been identified. The extracellular localization of a cysteine peptidase aleurain homolog was also shown. ..
  4. Muszkat L, Feigelson L, Bir L, Muszkat K. Titanium dioxide photocatalyzed oxidation of proteins in biocontaminated waters. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001;60:32-6 pubmed
    ..Intermediate degradation rate was noticed in Ser, Arg, Val, Cys and Phe. ..
  5. Xu B, Ishii M, Ding L, Fischer N, Inaba T. Interaction of serum proteins with CYP isoforms in human liver microsomes: inhibitory effects of human and bovine albumin, alpha-globulins, alpha-1-acid glycoproteins and gamma-globulins on CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. Life Sci. 2003;72:1953-62 pubmed
    ..A direct interaction of these serum proteins with CYP enzymes is postulated. Differential effects of bovine and human serum proteins and CYP specific inhibition were observed. ..
  6. Croonenberghs J, Wauters A, Devreese K, Verkerk R, Scharpe S, Bosmans E, et al. Increased serum albumin, gamma globulin, immunoglobulin IgG, and IgG2 and IgG4 in autism. Psychol Med. 2002;32:1457-63 pubmed
    ..protein (TSP) and the serum concentrations of albumin, alpha1 globulin, alpha2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulins, IgA, IgM and IgG and the IgG subclasses IgG 1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, compared with normal controls...
  7. Bowden T, Adamson K, MacLachlan P, Pert C, Bricknell I. Long-term study of antibody response and injection-site effects of oil adjuvants in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;14:363-9 pubmed
    ..However, the adhesions were not very severe and did not appear to affect the halibut. Crown ..
  8. Jokinen E, Vielma J, Aaltonen T, Koskela J. The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the immune responses of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;15:159-68 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that P deficiency has only minor effects on the immune parameters in whitefish, and the practical aquafeed with P contents sufficient for normal growth does not compromise immune functions of this species...
  9. Maroto Hernando M, Soler Palacin P, Martin Nalda N, Oliveras Arenas M, Español Borén T, Figueras Nadal C. [Subcutaneous gammaglobulin in common variable immunodeficiency. First experience in Spain]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2009;70:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Median trough serum IgG levels were higher with SCIg. Local AE were common but mild and the incidence decreased over time. Quality of life is significantly improved. ..

More Information


  1. Casado Collado A, Luengo Pascual L, Herdman M, Bonafont Pujol X, Clemente Bautista S, Jodar Masanes R, et al. [Financial assessment of device for the preparation of intravenous mixtures in hospital pharmacy]. Farm Hosp. 2004;28:243-50 pubmed
    ..g., sterility and precision). ..
  2. Takei Suzuki M, Hayashi Y, Kimura A, Nagasawa M, Koumura A, Sakurai T, et al. [Case of varicella myelitis in nursing care worker]. Brain Nerve. 2008;60:79-83 pubmed
    ..Care persons without anti-IgG antibodies against VZV are at a high risk of contracting varicella infection. Guidelines for infection control in home care, as well as hospitals, are necessary for caregivers. ..
  3. Ramos Paesa C, Marcilla F, Lopez G, Hueso E, Pascual A, Aguirre J. [Valuation of APRI and Forns models for non-invasive diagnosis of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C in coinfected and non-coinfected with HIV]. An Med Interna. 2007;24:369-74 pubmed
    ..The combination of these index with gammaglobulins, Gamma-GT, AST, ALT and platelet levels and protrombine time, only may be an approach to degree of fibrosis or inflammation liver in HIV co-infected patients. ..
  4. Du Z, Di Z, Du J, Lu S, Yi J, Hou A, et al. [Comparison of efficacy among early, conventional and late intravenous gamma globulin treatment of Kawasaki disease]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;89:1841-3 pubmed
    ..Children with IVIG given at Day 10 or later had a higher incidence of acute and sub-acute coronary complications. IVIG given at Day 5 - 9 seems to be the best time for IVIG therapy in KD. ..
  5. Yasuno T, Yamasaki A, Maeda Y, Fujiki A, Yagyu S. Atopic dermatitis and transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy improved simultaneously. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:406-8 pubmed
  6. Yoshioka S, Aso Y, Kojima S. Dependence of the molecular mobility and protein stability of freeze-dried gamma-globulin formulations on the molecular weight of dextran. Pharm Res. 1997;14:736-41 pubmed
    ..These parameters appear to be useful in preformulation and stability prediction of freeze-dried formulations. ..
  7. Phillips J, Romball C, Hobbs M, Ernst D, Shultz L, Weigle W. CD4+ T cell activation and tolerance induction in B cell knockout mice. J Exp Med. 1996;183:1339-44 pubmed
  8. Krenk L, Nielsen H, Christensen M. Necrotizing fasciitis in the head and neck region: an analysis of standard treatment effectiveness. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:917-22 pubmed
    ..8 days). The study concluded that the reduction in mortality was due to the combined effects of the different entities in the new treatment guidelines. It was not possible to isolate a specific factor responsible for the change. ..
  9. Dube J, Girouard J, Leclerc P, Douville P. Problems with the estimation of urine protein by automated assays. Clin Biochem. 2005;38:479-85 pubmed
    ..Most automated assays show high imprecision and poor accuracy for the measurement of urinary protein in the normal range. The Ponceau S/TCA offers a precise and accurate manual alternative to these automated assays. ..
  10. Tang H, Wang A, Liang X, Cao T, Salley S, Mcallister J, et al. Effect of surface proteins on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and colonization on silicone. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006;51:16-24 pubmed
    ..Minimizing bacterial adhesion and colonization can be attributed to the increased concentration of -NH2 group, and stability and more hydrophilic nature of the protein/OTS/silicone surfaces. ..
  11. Miura M, Ohki H, Tsuchihashi T, Yamagishi H, Katada Y, Yamada K, et al. Coronary risk factors in Kawasaki disease treated with additional gammaglobulin. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89:776-80 pubmed
    ..An additional IVGG infusion, if administered early, may prevent CAL in initial IVGG non-responders. ..
  12. Sobchak D, Monakova E. [Immune parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C and with various histologic changes]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2004;82:49-52 pubmed
    ..The latter was associated with high interferon-alpha. Thus, serum cytokines concentrations and morphological changes in the liver correlate. ..
  13. Koketsu S, Watanabe T, Hori N, Umetani N, Takazawa Y, Nagawa H. Hemophagocytic syndrome caused by fulminant ulcerative colitis and cytomegalovirus infection: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1250-3; discussion 1253-5 pubmed
    ..The patient was diagnosed with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and was successfully treated with antiviral therapy consisting of intravenous ganciclovir, gamma globulin, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. ..
  14. Takei M, Yamakami K, Mitamura K, Kitamura N, Matsukawa Y, Sawada S. A case of systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by alveolar hemorrhage and cytomegalovirus colitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:274-7 pubmed
    ..One month later, she suddenly developed melena secondary to CMV colitis. Antiviral therapy was successful. We emphasize the importance of timely and precise differential diagnosis for successful management of complicated SLE. ..
  15. Shihabi Z. Analysis of immune complexes by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:2565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reveals the composition (monoclonality) of the precipitate. Three types of IC have been detected in this method: monoclonal, polyclonal and mixed (mono-polyclonal) IC. Furthermore, the method is rapid and simple. ..
  16. Matsumoto S, Ding L, Ishii M, Fischer N, Inaba T. The interaction of human and bovine serum proteins with CYP3A in human liver microsomes: inhibition of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation by albumin, alpha-globulins, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and gamma-globulins. Toxicol Lett. 2002;136:33-41 pubmed
    ..Since the bovine serum proteins showed weaker inhibitory effects than human serum proteins, the wide use of BSA, which is viewed as interchangeable with HSA, needs to be cautioned. ..
  17. Chamlin S, McCalmont T, Cunningham B, Esterly N, Lai C, Mallory S, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of hyper-IgE syndrome in infants and children. J Pediatr. 2002;141:572-5 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome was made an average of 18 months after the onset of the initial papulopustular eruption. These findings may lead to earlier recognition of the disease and institution of appropriate treatment. ..
  18. Renkin E, Tucker V, Wiig H, Kaysen G, Sibley L, DeCarlo M, et al. Blood-tissue transport of exogenous albumin and immunoglobulin G in genetically analbuminemic rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993;74:559-66 pubmed
    ..The differences between NA and SD are small compared with the large increases in macromolecular permeabilities reported by others for organs and single microvessels perfused with albumin-free fluids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  19. Toellner K, Luther S, Sze D, Choy R, Taylor D, MacLennan I, et al. T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 characteristics start to develop during T cell priming and are associated with an immediate ability to induce immunoglobulin class switching. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1193-204 pubmed
    ..This indicates that a Th2 response to hapten-protein can proceed in a node where there is substantial Th1 activity. ..
  20. Alavi Shoushtari S, Asri Rezai S, Abshenas J. A study of the uterine protein variations during the estrus cycle in the cow: a comparison with the serum proteins. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;96:10-20 pubmed
    ..uterine proteins as well as serum proteins fluctuate during the estrus cycle and, except for the albumin and gamma globulins, its protein content is higher than the serum...
  21. Huang G, Ma X, Huang M, Chen S, Huang M, Gui Y, et al. Epidemiologic pictures of Kawasaki disease in Shanghai from 1998 through 2002. J Epidemiol. 2006;16:9-14 pubmed
    ..The increasing trend in incidence, sex distribution and cardiac abnormalities are similar to those in previous reports. The seasonal distribution is similar to the report from Beijing and different from other reports. ..
  22. Ito H, Mori K, Toda Y, Sugimoto M, Takahashi Y, Kuroda Y. A case of acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures, presenting autoantibody to glutamate receptor Gluepsilon2. Brain Dev. 2005;27:531-4 pubmed
    ..In this case, a combination of mild hypothermia therapy, steroid pulse therapy, and massive gamma-globulin therapy was effective. ..
  23. Chen Z, Koralov S, Gendelman M, Carroll M, Kelsoe G. Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence. J Immunol. 2000;164:4522-32 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that B cell activation/survival signals mediated by CD21 and/or the retention of Ag by CD21/CD35 play important roles in the generation, quality, and maintenance of serum Ab. ..
  24. Gause A, Inderrieden D, Laas R, Arlt A, Gross W. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Immunobiology. 2000;202:199-203 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates a very long lasting benign course of IBM. The occurrence with CVID may be a clinical hint for a viral pathogenesis of IBM. So far only two similar cases are reported in the literature. ..
  25. Uguz A, Yilmaz E, Ciftcioglu M, Yegin O. An unusual presentation of immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18:48-50 pubmed
    ..Approximately two-thirds of patients have chronic neutropenia associated with oral and perirectal ulcers. We report a 14-month-old girl with hyper-IgM syndrome who has recurrent cutaneous ulcers restricted to the diaper area. ..
  26. Lombardi P, Avallone L, Pagnini U, D Angelo D, Bogin E. Evaluation of buffalo colostrum quality by estimation of enzyme activity levels. J Food Prot. 2001;64:1265-7 pubmed
    ..A significant correlation (r = 0.86; P < 0.001) was seen between GGT and gamma-globulin concentration in the colostrum, supporting the suggestion of using this enzyme as a marker for the evaluation of colostrum quality. ..
  27. Lu X, Luo Z, Liu C, Zhao S. Resonance Rayleigh scattering for detection of proteins in HPLC. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:2988-93 pubmed publisher
    ..5-10 microg/mL for HSA, and 2.0-15 microg/mL for gamma-Glo, with linear regression coefficients all above 0.99. The method presented has been applied to determine HSA and gamma-Glo in human serum samples synchronously. ..
  28. Ramanathan M. Hyponatraemic encephalopathy as the initial presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63:426-7 pubmed
    ..This patient's experience stresses the importance of monitoring serum sodium levels as hyponatraemia has been identified to be a marker of poor prognosis in GBS. ..
  29. Benesch J, Mano J, Reis R. Analysing protein competition on self-assembled mono-layers studied with quartz crystal microbalance. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:3499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The results were encouraging as the raw data were deemed to be able to point at protein adsorption competition. ..
  30. Catsman Berrevoets C, Aarsen F, van Hemsbergen M, van Noesel M, Hakvoort Cammel F, van den Heuvel Eibrink M. Improvement of neurological status and quality of life in children with opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome at long-term follow-up. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:1048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Cognitive and behavioral impairments and not a motor impairment, such as ataxia, appear to be predominant at long-term in children with OMS. ..
  31. Emancipator S. Animal models of IgA nephropathy. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001;Chapter 15:Unit 15.11 pubmed publisher
    ..Support protocols are presented for the evaluation of the extent of disease, for preparation of infectious and inactivated suspensions of viral stock, and for quantification of the virus. ..
  32. Chapman I, Kristersson A, Mathelin G, Schaeublin E, Mazzoni L, Boubekeur K, et al. Effects of a potassium channel opener (SDZ PCO 400) on guinea-pig and human pulmonary airways. Br J Pharmacol. 1992;106:423-9 pubmed
  33. Awsiuk K, Bernasik A, Kitsara M, Budkowski A, Rysz J, Haberko J, et al. Protein coverage on silicon surfaces modified with amino-organic films: a study by AFM and angle-resolved XPS. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;80:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To demonstrate the proposed approach rabbit gamma globulins (RgG) are adsorbed from a 0...
  34. Moraille P, Badia A. Spatially directed protein adsorption by using a novel, nanoscale surface template. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2002;41:4303-6 pubmed
  35. Bogner J, Matuschke A, Heinrich B, Eberle E, Goebel F. Serum neopterin levels as predictor of AIDS. Klin Wochenschr. 1988;66:1015-8 pubmed
    ..9 nmol/l to group 1 and levels below to group 2. We conclude, tentatively, that in HIV-infected patients neopterin levels of 22 nmol/l and over may indicate the manifestation of AIDS in the year to come. ..
  36. Teodósio M, Oliveira E. Urinary secretory IgA after nutritional rehabilitation. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32:421-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that malnourished children have a significantly lower urinary sIgA than eutrophic children. After nutritional rehabilitation, they develop local immunity with a significant increase in sIgA. ..
  37. Murai H, Kira J. [Multiple sclerosis: the recent progress of research and treatment]. Nihon Rinsho. 2001;59:1211-8 pubmed
    ..Vaccination with myelin reactive T cells or T cell receptor peptide also attracts a great deal of attention. ..
  38. Lindsay R, Krakoff J, Hanson R, Bennett P, Knowler W. Gamma globulin levels predict type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. Diabetes. 2001;50:1598-603 pubmed
    ..04 [0.90-1.20]; P = 0.6). Thus, gamma globulin levels predict increased risk of diabetes in the Pima population. We suggest that immune function or activation may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. ..
  39. Tatsukawa M, Sawayama Y, Nabeshima S, Hayashi J, Kashiwagi S. [A case of severe adult measles pneumonia--efficacy of combination of steroid pulse therapy, high-dose vitamin A and gamma globulins]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2001;75:989-93 pubmed
    ..A combination therapy with steroid pulse, high dose vitamin A, and gamma globulin was started, after which the patient gradually improved, indicating the effectiveness of this combination therapy for severe adult measles pneumonia. ..
  40. Li A, Zhao H, Jin L. Protein analysis with terbium (III) and sodium dodecyl sulphonate by a second-order scattering technique. Luminescence. 2007;22:9-14 pubmed
    ..1 ng/mL for gamma-globulin. The method has been applied to the detection of total proteins in human serum samples, and the results are consistent with those obtained by the Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) G-250 assay. ..
  41. Barabas A, Cole C, Barabas A, Lafreniere R. Production of a new model of slowly progressive Heymann nephritis. Int J Exp Pathol. 2003;84:245-58 pubmed
  42. Schreiter T, Liu C, Gerken G, Treichel U. Detection of circulating autoantibodies directed against the asialoglycoprotein receptor using recombinant receptor subunit H1. J Immunol Methods. 2005;301:1-10 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the antigenic sites of the human ASGPR are mainly located on the mammalian-expressed subunit H1. Therefore, 293-H1 is a powerful tool for the detection of autoantibodies against ASGPR. ..
  43. Okazaki K, Uchida K, Matsushita M, Takaoka M. Autoimmune pancreatitis. Intern Med. 2005;44:1215-23 pubmed
    ..In addition to pancreatic and extra-pancreatic lesions, diabetes mellitus is occasionally responsive to steroid therapy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis. ..
  44. Chen Z, Liu J, Liang Y, Ren F. Use of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate in a high-sensitivity protein assay by resonance light scattering technique. J Biomol Screen. 2006;11:400-6 pubmed
    ..This method presented here is not only sensitive and simple but also reliable and suitable for practical bioassay applications. ..
  45. Clavel C, Nogueira L, Laurent L, Iobagiu C, Vincent C, Sebbag M, et al. Induction of macrophage secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha through Fcgamma receptor IIa engagement by rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins complexed with fibrinogen. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuing dissection of these molecular pathways could open the way to new therapeutic approaches in patients with RA. ..
  46. Suzuki T, Saito S, Hirabayashi Y, Harigae H, Ishii T, Kodera T, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection during the inactive stage of systemic lupus erythematosus. Intern Med. 2003;42:538-40 pubmed
    ..High dose gamma globulin was administered and the daily dose of steroid was tapered, resulting in the improvement of her condition. B19 infection should be ruled out in cases with reactivation of autoimmune diseases. ..
  47. Vu F, Dianzani U, Ware C, Mak T, Gommerman J. ICOS, CD40, and lymphotoxin beta receptors signal sequentially and interdependently to initiate a germinal center reaction. J Immunol. 2008;180:2284-93 pubmed
  48. Zadoks R, Orsel K, Verwer C, de Winter A, van Amerongen J, Wensing T. [Serum gammaglobulin titer in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of commercial colostrum replacers]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:646-50 pubmed
    ..None of the replacers was an adequate substitute for goat colostrum as a source of gammaglobulins. ..
  49. Rajam G, Skinner J, Melnick N, Martinez J, Carlone G, Sampson J, et al. A 28-aa pneumococcal surface adhesin A-derived peptide, P4, augments passive immunotherapy and rescues mice from fatal pneumococcal infection. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..P4 peptide provides a fresh direction for therapeutic intervention through augmented passive immunotherapy. ..
  50. Yan M, Wang H, Chan B, Roose Girma M, Erickson S, Baker T, et al. Activation and accumulation of B cells in TACI-deficient mice. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:638-43 pubmed
    ..In vivo antigen challenge resulted in enhanced antigen-specific antibody production. Thus, TACI may play an unexpected inhibitory role in B cell activation that helps maintain immunological homeostasis. ..
  51. Veillette A, Zhang S, Shi X, Dong Z, Davidson D, Zhong M. SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells, is required for humoral immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a critical insight into the mechanism by which SAP regulates humoral immunity. They also help elucidate the basis of a severe human immunodeficiency. ..
  52. Wei Q, Li Y, Li Y, Du B, Duan C. Rapid and highly sensitive determination of trace proteins using dibromomethyl carboxyazo-Pb(II) complex as a spectroscopic reagent. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;362:79-84 pubmed
    ..6-103% and the precision was <4.8%. Results compared favorably to the Biuret and Bradford protein methods on 50 urine samples. This method had high sensitivity and specificity and may be applicable to clinical analysis. ..
  53. Watanabe T, Matsuura O, Natsume J, Kubota T, Nakashima S, Aso K, et al. [Dramatic improvement with immunoabsorption therapy in a 7-year-old girl with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome after unsuccessful gammaglobulin therapy]. No To Hattatsu. 1998;30:255-60 pubmed
    ..The immunoabsorption therapy caused hemolysis and decrease of serum fibrinogen, but no serious complications. The clinical course of this patient suggests the efficacy of immunoabsorption therapy in GBS...