Genomes and Genes
Summary: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
- Geng J, Wang L, Wang X, Fu H, Bu Q, Liu P, et al. Potential risk of zoonotic transmission from young swine to human: seroepidemiological and genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus in human and various animals in Beijing, China. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:e583-90 pubmed publisher..Phylogenetic analysis showed that all HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, subgenotype 4d. These results suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from younger swine to farmers who rear pigs...
- Pischke S, Suneetha P, Baechlein C, Barg Hock H, Heim A, Kamar N, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection as a cause of graft hepatitis in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:74-82 pubmed publisher..The diagnosis of HEV infection should be based on HEV RNA determination in immunosuppressed patients. We suggest that immunocompromised individuals should avoid eating uncooked meat and contact with possibly HEV-infected animals. ..
- Zhao C, Ma Z, Harrison T, Feng R, Zhang C, Qiao Z, et al. A novel genotype of hepatitis E virus prevalent among farmed rabbits in China. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1371-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, the sequences isolated from the rabbits represent a novel genotype of HEV. This study provides novel information about HEV genotypes infecting rabbits as well as evidence of a new mammalian genotype of HEV. ..
- Ma H, Song X, Li Z, Harrison T, Zhang H, Huang W, et al. Varying abilities of recombinant polypeptides from different regions of hepatitis E virus ORF2 and ORF3 to detect anti-HEV immunoglobulin M. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1052-61 pubmed publisher..Thus, a combination of N- and C-terminal polypeptides of ORF2 from one genotype may be effective in EIAs to detect anti-HEV IgM. ..
- Kumar S, Ratho R, Chawla Y, Chakraborti A. The incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis in North India: a preliminary study. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:596-9 pubmed..4% and 9.4%, respectively. Serological and molecular analysis should be combined for the diagnosis of viral infections, especially in endemic areas. ..
- Reuter G, Fodor D, Forgách P, Kátai A, Szucs G. Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in humans and animals in Hungary. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:277-81 pubmed publisher..Consumption of raw or undercooked meat-products is one of the possible sources of the indigenous HEV infections. Cross-species infection with genotype 3 HEV potentially involves a food-borne transmission route in Hungary. ..
- Weber B. Diagnostic impact of the genetic variability of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene. J Med Virol. 2006;78 Suppl 1:S59-65 pubmed..There is also a need for more complete epidemiological data on the prevalence of HBsAg mutants especially for G145R and assays for the (differential) screening of mutants need to be developed and evaluated. ..
- Dong C, Dai X, Shao J, Hu K, Meng J. Identification of genetic diversity of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and determination of the seroprevalence of HEV in eastern China. Arch Virol. 2007;152:739-46 pubmed..48% among older persons (>or=60 years old). Moreover, statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas, with higher prevalence for people living in rural neighborhoods (P<0.001). ..
- Colson P, Coze C, Gallian P, Henry M, de Micco P, Tamalet C. Transfusion-associated hepatitis E, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:648-9 pubmed
- Gotanda Y, Iwata A, Ohnuma H, Yoshikawa A, Mizoguchi H, Endo K, et al. Ongoing subclinical infection of hepatitis E virus among blood donors with an elevated alanine aminotransferase level in Japan. J Med Virol. 2007;79:734-42 pubmed..This study suggests that approximately 3% of Japanese individuals with ALT > or = 201 IU/l have ongoing subclinical infection with various HEV strains. ..
- Shukla P, Chauhan U, Naik S, Anderson D, Aggarwal R. Hepatitis E virus infection among animals in northern India: an unlikely source of human disease. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:310-7 pubmed..However, the swine HEV in India differs genetically from human HEV isolates, indicating that pigs may not play an important role in the spread of human hepatitis E in endemic regions. ..
- Dalton H, Stableforth W, Thurairajah P, Hazeldine S, Remnarace R, Usama W, et al. Autochthonous hepatitis E in Southwest England: natural history, complications and seasonal variation, and hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in blood donors, the elderly and patients with chronic liver disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:784-90 pubmed publisher..It carries a significant morbidity and when seen in the context of chronic liver disease carries an adverse prognosis. ..
- Caron M, Bouscaillou J, Kazanji M. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa. Virol J. 2012;9:254 pubmed publisher..0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml). These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load. ..
- Colson P, Dhiver C, Gerolami R. Hepatitis E virus as a newly identified cause of acute viral hepatitis during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:1176-80 pubmed publisher..The patient did not report recent travel abroad. HEV should be tested in HIV-infected individuals presenting with acute hepatitis. HEV RNA detection is useful in diagnosing HEV infection and in monitoring recovery. ..
- Caron M, Kazanji M. Hepatitis E virus is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, with different patterns between rural and urban areas. Virol J. 2008;5:158 pubmed publisher..05) in seroprevalence was found between rural (6.4%) and urban (13.5%) areas. These data provide evidence of a high prevalence of HEV in Gabon, providing indirect evidence of past contact with this virus. ..
- Zhao C, Li L, Harrison T, Wang Q, Song A, Fan J, et al. Relationships among viral diagnostic markers and markers of liver function in acute hepatitis E. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:139-45 pubmed publisher..HEV antigen was highly correlated with HEV RNA and elevated ALT, AST, ALP, TBA, and GGT levels. Testing for HEV antigen in combination with anti-HEV IgM is useful for the diagnosis of HEV infection. ..
- Legrand Abravanel F, Thevenet I, Mansuy J, Saune K, Vischi F, Peron J, et al. Good performance of immunoglobulin M assays in diagnosing genotype 3 hepatitis E virus infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:772-4 pubmed publisher..0, and the Assure HEV IgM rapid test (MP Diagnostics), for the routine detection of acute genotype 3 HEV. Their sensitivities were fairly good (90%, 88%, and 82%), and their specificities were excellent (100%, 99.5%, and 100%). ..
- Wu K, Chung K, Feng I, Sheu M, Kuo H, Koay L, et al. Acute hepatitis E virus infection in Taiwan 2002-2006 revisited: PCR shows frequent co-infection with multiple hepatitis viruses. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1734-42 pubmed publisher..Detection of hepatitis E viremia together with seropositivity for anti-HEV IgM and followed by seroconversion to anti-HEV IgG should be included in the diagnostic criteria for HEV infection...
- Matsuura Y, Suzuki M, Yoshimatsu K, Arikawa J, Takashima I, Yokoyama M, et al. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among wild sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1375-81 pubmed..HEV RNA was not detected in these samples, also suggesting that deer may not play a role as an HEV reservoir. ..
- Sadler G, Mells G, Shah N, Chesner I, Walt R. UK acquired hepatitis E--An emerging problem?. J Med Virol. 2006;78:473-5 pubmed..This series represents an increase in the local incidence of hepatitis E, particularly that of UK-acquired infection. HEV should be considered in all patients with acute hepatitis, irrespective of travel history. ..
- Hu W, Lu Y, Precioso N, Chen H, Howard T, Anderson D, et al. Double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of hepatitis E virus-specific antibodies in human or swine sera. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1151-7 pubmed publisher..The potential utility of detecting specific antibodies in pigs will be an added advantage for managing the disease, with suggested zoonotic implications. ..
- Ma H, Song X, Harrison T, Zhang H, Huang W, Wang Y. Hepatitis E virus ORF3 antigens derived from genotype 1 and 4 viruses are detected with varying efficiencies by an anti-HEV enzyme immunoassay. J Med Virol. 2011;83:827-32 pubmed publisher..The HEV ORF3 polypeptide contains genotype-specific antigens and the antigen-antibody reactions between the same genotypes were stronger than those between different genotypes. ..
- Yu C, Zimmerman C, Stone R, Engle R, Elkins W, Nardone G, et al. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods. 2007;142:143-50 pubmed..However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens. ..
- Chandra N, Sharma A, Malhotra B, Rai R. Dynamics of HEV viremia, fecal shedding and its relationship with transaminases and antibody response in patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E. Virol J. 2010;7:213 pubmed publisher..Fecal shedding was not seen beyond normalization of transaminases. However, viremia lasted beyond normalization of transaminases suggesting that liver injury is independent of viral replication. ..
- Aggarwal R, Naik S. Epidemiology of hepatitis E: current status. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1484-93 pubmed publisher..Our understanding of hepatitis E epidemiology has undergone major changes in recent years, and the future may hold even more surprises. ..
- Myint K, Endy T, Shrestha M, Shrestha S, Vaughn D, Innis B, et al. Hepatitis E antibody kinetics in Nepalese patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:938-41 pubmed..Study data contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology of human hepatitis E and set an antibody response pattern to be targeted as a part of HEV vaccine development. ..
- Dalton H, Thurairajah P, Fellows H, Hussaini H, Mitchell J, Bendall R, et al. Autochthonous hepatitis E in southwest England. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:304-9 pubmed..Although the mode of transmission remains to be determined, it may be a zoonosis with pigs as a reservoir. Hepatitis E should be considered a public health issue in the United Kingdom. ..
- Bouwknegt M, Engel B, Herremans M, Widdowson M, Worm H, Koopmans M, et al. Bayesian estimation of hepatitis E virus seroprevalence for populations with different exposure levels to swine in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:567-76 pubmed..By combining the results of five serological assays in a Bayesian stochastical model we confirmed that exposure to swine or their environment was associated with elevated HEV seroprevalence. ..
- Christensen P, Engle R, Hjort C, Homburg K, Vach W, Georgsen J, et al. Time trend of the prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among farmers and blood donors: a potential zoonosis in Denmark. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1026-31 pubmed publisher..Anti-HEV was highly prevalent among Danes but has decreased in prevalence over the past 50 years. Our study supports the hypothesis that HEV infection in Denmark may be an asymptomatic zoonotic infection. ..
- Zhao Z, Ruan B, Shao H, Chen Z, Liu S. Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA in sera of patients with hepatitis E by polymerase chain reaction. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:38-42 pubmed..4% vs. 70.4%, P>0.05), respectively. There is a relatively long period of HEV viremia in patients with hepatitis E. The proportion of HEV viremia and its duration are not directly related to serum ALT values or HEV antibody levels. ..
- Zhang S, Tian D, Zhang Z, Xiong J, Yuan Q, Ge S, et al. Clinical significance of anti-HEV IgA in diagnosis of acute genotype 4 hepatitis E virus infection negative for anti-HEV IgM. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:2512-8 pubmed publisher..Detection of anti-HEV IgA can be a useful supplement for diagnosis of acute HEV infection especially in patients negative for anti-HEV IgM. ..
- Myint K, Endy T, Gibbons R, Laras K, Mammen M, Sedyaningsih E, et al. Evaluation of diagnostic assays for hepatitis E virus in outbreak settings. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1581-3 pubmed..The Abbott immunoglobulin G (IgG), Genelabs IgG, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) IgM assays were about 90% sensitive; the Abbott IgG and WRAIR total Ig and IgM assays were more than 90% specific. ..
- Khan A, Tanaka Y, Kurbanov F, Elkady A, Abbas Z, Azam Z, et al. Investigating an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus variants in Karachi, South Pakistan. J Med Virol. 2011;83:622-9 pubmed publisher..This study cautions that the dissemination of the variant strains to other areas of Pakistan may lead to explosive HEV outbreaks. ..
- Legrand Abravanel F, Kamar N, Sandres Saune K, Garrouste C, Dubois M, Mansuy J, et al. Characteristics of autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients in France. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:835-44 pubmed publisher..32; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.15). Immunocompromised patients should avoid eating insufficiently cooked game meat or pork products so as to reduce the risk of HEV infection and chronic liver disease. ..
- Colson P, Borentain P, Queyriaux B, Kaba M, Moal V, Gallian P, et al. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:825-34 pubmed publisher..Our findings strongly support the hypothesis of HEV infection through ingestion of raw figatellu. ..
- Martin M, Segales J, Huang F, Guenette D, Mateu E, de Deus N, et al. Association of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) with lesions of hepatitis in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:16-24 pubmed..These results indicate that swine HEV infection can be a significant contributor to the development of moderate hepatitis in pigs regardless of the PMWS status. ..
- Fogeda M, de Ory F, Avellon A, Echevarria J. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis E virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with suspected hepatitis E. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:259-61 pubmed publisher..Since infection by these herpesviruses may produce acute hepatitis, such event can cause diagnostic mistakes and should be investigated in patients positive for anti-HEV IgM and negative for HEV RNA. ..
- Choi I, Kwon H, Shin N, Yoo H. Identification of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) and prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine and human populations in Korea. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3602-8 pubmed..8%. On the other hand, 18% of blood donors in Korea were found to be positive for anti-HEV antibodies. Overall, this study indicates that subclinical HEV infections may prevail in swine and human populations in Korea. ..
- Bryan J, Iqbal M, Tsarev S, Malik I, Duncan J, Ahmed A, et al. Epidemic of hepatitis E in a military unit in Abbotrabad, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:662-8 pubmed..Evidence that pre-existing antibody as measured by this ELISA protects against disease is important for assessment of vaccine development. ..
- Mansuy J, Peron J, Abravanel F, Poirson H, Dubois M, Miedouge M, et al. Hepatitis E in the south west of France in individuals who have never visited an endemic area. J Med Virol. 2004;74:419-24 pubmed
- Kasorndorkbua C, Guenette D, Huang F, Thomas P, Meng X, Halbur P. Routes of transmission of swine hepatitis E virus in pigs. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5047-52 pubmed..Pigs exposed to the contaminated needles or the tonsil and nasal secretion swabs remained negative. This is the first report of experimental fecal-oral transmission of HEV in swine. ..
- Zhou Y, Purcell R, Emerson S. A truncated ORF2 protein contains the most immunogenic site on ORF2: antibody responses to non-vaccine sequences following challenge of vaccinated and non-vaccinated macaques with hepatitis E virus. Vaccine. 2005;23:3157-65 pubmed..Thus, only minor epitopes were excluded from the vaccine; they had limited utility for distinguishing between vaccination and infection. ..
- Ahn J, Kang S, Lee D, Shin S, Yoo H. Identification of novel human hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates and determination of the seroprevalence of HEV in Korea. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3042-8 pubmed..Overall, this study demonstrates that subclinical HEV infections may prevail in human populations in Korea and that there is a strong possibility that HEV is a zoonotic agent. ..
- Tei S, Kitajima N, Ohara S, Inoue Y, Miki M, Yamatani T, et al. Consumption of uncooked deer meat as a risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection: an age- and sex-matched case-control study. J Med Virol. 2004;74:67-70 pubmed..In countries such as Japan where deer meat is sometimes eaten raw, attention must be paid to this route of HEV infection. ..
- Wong K, Liu Y, Ng P, Young B, Lee S. Epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E infection and their determinants in adult Chinese community in Hong Kong. J Med Virol. 2004;72:538-44 pubmed..001). The increasing proportion of susceptible population to enterically transmitted viral hepatitis has implications to future prevention and control programmes, including vaccination strategies...
- Shrestha S, Shrestha S, Tsuda F, Nishizawa T, Gotanda Y, Takeda N, et al. Molecular investigation of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with acute hepatitis in Kathmandu, Nepal. J Med Virol. 2003;69:207-14 pubmed..These results suggest that a particular HEV 1c strain spread widely during the rainy season and was implicated in a small epidemic in the Kathmandu valley in August 1997. ..
- Wang Y, Zhang H, Li Z, Gu W, Lan H, Hao W, et al. Detection of sporadic cases of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China using immunoassays based on recombinant open reading frame 2 and 3 polypeptides from HEV genotype 4. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4370-9 pubmed
- Mitsui T, Tsukamoto Y, Yamazaki C, Masuko K, Tsuda F, Takahashi M, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among hemodialysis patients in Japan: evidence for infection with a genotype 3 HEV by blood transfusion. J Med Virol. 2004;74:563-72 pubmed..Our study provides evidence of transfusion-transmitted HEV infection in Japan in 1979, and that the prevalence of de novo HEV infection during hemodialysis was low (1.1% or 4/374). ..