oligoclonal bands

Summary

Summary: Multiple protein bands serving as markers of specific ANTIBODIES and detected by ELECTROPHORESIS of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID or serum. The bands are most often seen during inflammatory or immune processes and are found in most patients with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Tanaka K, Kujuro Y, Suzuki S, Tanahashi N, Hamada J, Nogawa S, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of in-patients with multiple sclerosis in a University Hospital in Tokyo from 1988-2002. Intern Med. 2005;44:560-6 pubmed
  2. Link H, Huang Y. Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid: an update on methodology and clinical usefulness. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;180:17-28 pubmed
    ..systemic B-cell responses in patients with MS or CIS vs. patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases should shed new light on the role of CSF OB, which remains enigmatic. ..
  3. Bergamaschi R, Tonietti S, Franciotta D, Candeloro E, Tavazzi E, Piccolo G, et al. Oligoclonal bands in Devic's neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: differences in repeated cerebrospinal fluid examinations. Mult Scler. 2004;10:2-4 pubmed
    ..Variations of oligoclonal bands (OBs) had opposite trends in the two groups...
  4. Wu J, Qiu W, Castley A, James I, Joseph J, Christiansen F, et al. Presence of CSF oligoclonal bands (OCB) is associated with the HLA-DRB1 genotype in a West Australian multiple sclerosis cohort. J Neurol Sci. 2010;288:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study is the first to show that HLA-DRB1 allele interactions and dose-effects influence the frequency of OCB. ..
  5. Nakashima I, Fujihara K, Miyazawa H, Misu T, Fujimori J, Sato S, et al. Relevance of callosal and periventricular MRI lesions to oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;113:125-31 pubmed
    ..Certain OB-related immune mechanisms may contribute to the development of callosal and periventricular lesions in MS. OB may be an important factor to understand the pathomechanisms of MS lesions. ..
  6. Fernández de Larrea C, Tovar N, Cibeira M, Arostegui J, Rosinol L, Elena M, et al. Emergence of oligoclonal bands in patients with multiple myeloma in complete remission after induction chemotherapy: association with the use of novel agents. Haematologica. 2011;96:171-3 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of oligoclonal bands is associated with a favorable outcome after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma...
  7. Idiman E, Ozakbas S, Dogan Y, Kosehasanogullari G. The significance of oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis: relevance of demographic and clinical features, and immunogenetic backgrounds. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;212:121-4 pubmed publisher
    ..007) and control group (p=0.0002). In conclusion, our results suggested that, MS patients with CSF OCBs have a female predominance, better clinical course with less disability and better prognosis, are associated with HLA-DR15. ..
  8. Magraner M, Bosca I, Simó Castelló M, García Martí G, Alberich Bayarri A, Coret F, et al. Brain atrophy and lesion load are related to CSF lipid-specific IgM oligoclonal bands in clinically isolated syndromes. Neuroradiology. 2012;54:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-four CIS patients were included in this prospective study. IgG oligoclonal bands (OCGB) and LS-OCMB were determined in paired serum and CSF samples within 3 months since clinical onset...
  9. Balnytė R, Rastenyte D, Uloziene I, Mickeviciene D, Skordenienė E, Vitkauskiene A. The significance of HLA DRB1*1501 and oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis: clinical features and disability. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:368-73 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was based on the revised McDonald criteria. Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) were tested using isoelectric focusing and IgG specific immunofixation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ticozzi N, Tiloca C, Mencacci N, Morelli C, Doretti A, Rusconi D, et al. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with disease-associated mutations. J Neurol. 2013;260:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the occurrence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the CSF of a large series of ALS patients, attempting a correlation with genotype data...
  2. Joseph F, Hirst C, Pickersgill T, Ben Shlomo Y, Robertson N, Scolding N. CSF oligoclonal band status informs prognosis in multiple sclerosis: a case control study of 100 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with a secondary but nonetheless contributory role in disease process for intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins. ..
  3. Matsuoka T, Matsushita T, Osoegawa M, Kawano Y, Minohara M, Mihara F, et al. Association of the HLA-DRB1 alleles with characteristic MRI features of Asian multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:1181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Using multiple logistic analysis, the absence of oligoclonal bands was positively associated with an absence of Barkhof brain lesions, whereas a higher EDSS score was ..
  4. Romero Pinel L, Martinez Yelamos S, Bau L, Matas E, Gubieras L, María Pujal J, et al. Association of HLA-DRB1*15 allele and CSF oligoclonal bands in a Spanish multiple sclerosis cohort. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:1258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the 55 genotypes found showed any association with the presence or absence of OCB. HLA-DRB1*15 allele is associated with OCB-positive patients with MS when studying a Spanish MS population. ..
  5. Holmøy T. The discovery of oligoclonal bands: a 50-year anniversary. Eur Neurol. 2009;62:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of OCB led to the still prevailing concept that MS is mediated by clonally expanded lymphocytes, and provided the basis for modern diagnostic procedures in MS. ..
  6. Stich O, Rauer S. Antigen-specific oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with anti-amphiphysin- and anti-CV2/CRMP5 associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:650-3 pubmed
    ..blot preloaded with paraneoplastic antigen, we detected in three of four patients more or stronger specific oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the CSF than in the corresponding serum, providing qualitative evidence of antigen specific ..
  7. Saiz A, Carreras E, Berenguer J, Yague J, Martinez C, Marin P, et al. MRI and CSF oligoclonal bands after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in MS. Neurology. 2001;56:1084-9 pubmed
    To analyze the MRI and CSF oligoclonal bands (OB) changes in patients with MS who underwent an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). AHSCT is evaluated as an alternative therapy in severe MS...
  8. Reiber H, Teut M, Pohl D, Rostasy K, Hanefeld F. Paediatric and adult multiple sclerosis: age-related differences and time course of the neuroimmunological response in cerebrospinal fluid. Mult Scler. 2009;15:1466-80 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF analysis may help to discriminate between acute and mono-symptomatic chronic inflammatory disease already at earliest clinical manifestation. ..
  9. von Büdingen H, Gulati M, Kuenzle S, Fischer K, Rupprecht T, Goebels N. Clonally expanded plasma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system autoimmune demyelination produce "oligoclonal bands". J Neuroimmunol. 2010;218:134-9 pubmed publisher
    Clonally expanded plasma cells (cePC) and oligoclonal IgG (oligoclonal bands, OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggest an involvement of B cell mechanisms in autoimmune CNS demyelination...
  10. Franciotta D, Columba Cabezas S, Andreoni L, Ravaglia S, Jarius S, Romagnolo S, et al. Oligoclonal IgG band patterns in inflammatory demyelinating human and mouse diseases. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;200:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CSF analysis can help differentiate between MS and ADEM and that, similarly to EAE, the 'mirror pattern' observed in ADEM accounts for a predominantly systemic immune activation. ..
  11. Huttner H, Schellinger P, Struffert T, Richter G, Engelhorn T, Bassemir T, et al. MRI criteria in MS patients with negative and positive oligoclonal bands: equal fulfillment of Barkhof's criteria but different lesion patterns. J Neurol. 2009;256:1121-5 pubmed publisher
    In multiple sclerosis (MS) more than 95% of the patients have positive oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  12. Franciotta D, Zardini E, Bergamaschi R, Grimaldi L, Andreoni L, Cosi V. Analysis of Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis and other neurologic diseases. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;112:238-41 pubmed
    Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were investigated for Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific oligoclonal bands (OCBs) to determine band specificity in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  13. de Larrea C, Cibeira M, Elena M, Arostegui J, Rosinol L, Rovira M, et al. Abnormal serum free light chain ratio in patients with multiple myeloma in complete remission has strong association with the presence of oligoclonal bands: implications for stringent complete remission definition. Blood. 2009;114:4954-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) showed an abnormal FLC ratio. The frequency of abnormal FLC ratio in patients with or without oligoclonal bands was 72.7% versus 26%, respectively (P = .023). The median value of FLC ratio was 2...
  14. Alejandre M, Madalena L, Pavlovsky M, Facio M, Corrado C, Milone G, et al. Oligoclonal bands and immunoglobulin isotype switch during monitoring of patients with multiple myeloma and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 16-year experience. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This was observed to be a transient phenomenon (22.2 months). Thirty-seven patients (15.5%) developed oligoclonal bands (OB) between the first and the twentieth month after ASCT (mean 4.4 months), which persisted for 7...
  15. Franciotta D, Di Stefano A, Jarius S, Zardini E, Tavazzi E, Ballerini C, et al. Cerebrospinal BAFF and Epstein-Barr virus-specific oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory demyelinating neurological diseases. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;230:160-3 pubmed publisher
  16. Jarius S, Paul F, Franciotta D, Ruprecht K, Ringelstein M, Bergamaschi R, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid findings in aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica: results from 211 lumbar punctures. J Neurol Sci. 2011;306:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are important for the differential diagnosis of MS and NMOSD and add to our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this devastating condition. ..
  17. Pranzatelli M, Slev P, Tate E, Travelstead A, Colliver J, Joseph S. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus. Pediatr Neurol. 2011;45:27-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid reflect local B-cell responses associated with various neuroinflammatory disorders...
  18. Rand K, Houck H, Denslow N, Heilman K. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) associated oligoclonal bands in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2000;173:32-9 pubmed
    b>Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are frequently observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the target antigens of these antibodies remain unknown...
  19. Dobson R, Ramagopalan S, Davis A, Giovannoni G. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndromes: a meta-analysis of prevalence, prognosis and effect of latitude. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:909-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) unique to the cerebrospinal fluid are used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The precise prevalence of OCBs in MS and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is unknown...
  20. Skov A, Skov T, Frederiksen J. Oligoclonal bands predict multiple sclerosis after optic neuritis: a literature survey. Mult Scler. 2011;17:404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebrospinal fluid from a patient with MS analysed by electrophoresis often shows a split to form so called oligoclonal bands (OCBs). OCBs consist of proteins from activated lymphocytes and plasma cell clones...
  21. Imrell K, Greiner E, Hillert J, Masterman T. HLA-DRB115 and cerebrospinal-fluid-specific oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands lower age at attainment of important disease milestones in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;210:128-30 pubmed publisher
    ..0. Both carriage of HLA-DRB1*15 and the presence of OCB hastened attainment of EDSS 6.0. ..
  22. Fukazawa T, Kikuchi S, Sasaki H, Hamada K, Hamada T, Miyasaka K, et al. The significance of oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis in Japan: relevance of immunogenetic backgrounds. J Neurol Sci. 1998;158:209-14 pubmed
    ..Further investigations involving more patients are warranted. ..
  23. Tintore M, Rovira A, Brieva L, Grive E, Jardi R, Borras C, et al. Isolated demyelinating syndromes: comparison of CSF oligoclonal bands and different MR imaging criteria to predict conversion to CDMS. Mult Scler. 2001;7:359-63 pubmed
    To evaluate and compare the capacity of oligoclonal bands (OB) and three sets of MR imaging criteria to predict the conversion of clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS)...
  24. Correale J, de los Milagros Bassani Molinas M. Oligoclonal bands and antibody responses in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2002;249:375-89 pubmed
    ..The introduction of more sensitive procedures for protein detection has allowed demonstrating oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in up to 95 % of patients with clinically definite MS...
  25. Tintore M, Rovira A, Rio J, Tur C, Pelayo R, Nos C, et al. Do oligoclonal bands add information to MRI in first attacks of multiple sclerosis?. Neurology. 2008;70:1079-83 pubmed
    To evaluate whether oligoclonal bands (OB) add information to MRI in predicting both a second attack and development of disability in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS)...
  26. Annunziata P, Giorgio A, De Santi L, Zipoli V, Portaccio E, Amato M, et al. Absence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands is associated with delayed disability progression in relapsing-remitting MS patients treated with interferon-beta. J Neurol Sci. 2006;244:97-102 pubmed
    To assess the role of CSF oligoclonal bands (OB) in determining the clinical outcome in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with IFN-beta, we carried out a retrospective, multicentre, observational study ..
  27. Obermeier B, Mentele R, Malotka J, Kellermann J, Kümpfel T, Wekerle H, et al. Matching of oligoclonal immunoglobulin transcriptomes and proteomes of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Nat Med. 2008;14:688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach can be applied to other organ-specific diagnostic fluid or tissue samples to compare the Ig transcripts of local B cells with the corresponding antibody proteomes of individual subjects. ..
  28. Yao S, Stratton C, Mitchell W, Sriram S. CSF oligoclonal bands in MS include antibodies against Chlamydophila antigens. Neurology. 2001;56:1168-76 pubmed
    ..Affinity-driven immunoblot studies and solid-phase adsorption of CSF oligoclonal bands by elementary body antigens of C pneumoniae, viral antigens (measles and herpes simplex virus-1), bacterial ..
  29. Virtanen J, Pietiläinen Nicklén J, Uotila L, Farkkila M, Vaheri A, Koskiniemi M. Intrathecal human herpesvirus 6 antibodies in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases presenting as oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;237:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the central nervous system (CNS) often include elevated IgG production in intrathecal space presenting as oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In most demyelinating diseases, e.g...
  30. Cordonnier C, de Seze J, Breteau G, Ferriby D, Michelin E, Stojkovic T, et al. Prospective study of patients presenting with acute partial transverse myelopathy. J Neurol. 2003;250:1447-52 pubmed
    ..conversion to MS were: initial sensory symptoms, latero-posterior spinal cord lesion, abnormal brain MRI and oligoclonal bands in CSF...
  31. Janssen J, Godbolt A, Ioannidis P, Thompson E, Rossor M. The prevalence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF of patients with primary neurodegenerative dementia. J Neurol. 2004;251:184-8 pubmed
    ..that younger patients with dementia should undergo CSF examination, which frequently includes analysis for oligoclonal bands (OCB)...
  32. Mandrioli J, Sola P, Bedin R, Gambini M, Merelli E. A multifactorial prognostic index in multiple sclerosis. Cerebrospinal fluid IgM oligoclonal bands and clinical features to predict the evolution of the disease. J Neurol. 2008;255:1023-31 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF and serum samples collected at diagnosis were examined for CSF IgM and IgG oligoclonal bands (OB) and quantitative IgM and IgG determination...
  33. Harrer A, Tumani H, Niendorf S, Lauda F, Geis C, Weishaupt A, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid parameters of B cell-related activity in patients with active disease during natalizumab therapy. Mult Scler. 2013;19:1209-12 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the disappearance of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a few natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported...
  34. Siritho S, Freedman M. The prognostic significance of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2009;279:21-5 pubmed publisher
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients lacking CSF oligoclonal bands are purported to have a milder course of disease. We reviewed the natural history of oligoclonal band (OCB) - negative (OCB-) compared to OCB positive (OCB+) patients...
  35. Imrell K, Landtblom A, Hillert J, Masterman T. Multiple sclerosis with and without CSF bands: clinically indistinguishable but immunogenetically distinct. Neurology. 2006;67:1062-4 pubmed
    We sought to determine whether Swedish patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with and without oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the CSF constitute distinct subpopulations, clinically and immunogenetically...
  36. Meinl E, Krumbholz M, Hohlfeld R. B lineage cells in the inflammatory central nervous system environment: migration, maintenance, local antibody production, and therapeutic modulation. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:880-92 pubmed
    ..findings offer a plausible explanation for the notorious persistence and stability of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands. Furthermore, we highlight similarities and differences of intrathecal immunoglobulin production in multiple ..
  37. Ignacio R, Liliana P, Edgardo C. Oligoclonal bands and MRI in clinically isolated syndromes: predicting conversion time to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2010;257:1188-91 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB) adds information in predicting CIS conversion to clinical definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and conversion time to CDMS...
  38. Lundkvist M, Greiner E, Hillert J, Fogdell Hahn A. Multiple sclerosis patients lacking oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid are less likely to develop neutralizing antibodies against interferon beta. Mult Scler. 2010;16:796-800 pubmed publisher
    ..46%). We propose that oligoclonal IgG band-negative patients differ immunologically from oligoclonal IgG band-positive patients, potentially influenced by distinct HLA-DRB1 alleles. ..
  39. Gajofatto A, Monaco S, Fiorini M, Zanusso G, Vedovello M, Rossi F, et al. Assessment of outcome predictors in first-episode acute myelitis: a retrospective study of 53 cases. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify predictors of short- and long-term outcomes in acute myelitis (AM)...
  40. Lourenco P, Shirani A, Saeedi J, Oger J, Schreiber W, Tremlett H. Oligoclonal bands and cerebrospinal fluid markers in multiple sclerosis: associations with disease course and progression. Mult Scler. 2013;19:577-84 pubmed publisher
    The use of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters are established in the diagnosis of MS, but poorly as markers of disease. To investigate the role of OCBs in disease course and progression...
  41. Zipoli V, Hakiki B, Portaccio E, Lolli F, Siracusa G, Giannini M, et al. The contribution of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands to the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009;15:472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the contribution of oligoclonal bands (OB) to MS diagnosis in current clinical practice...
  42. de Seze J, Lanctin C, Lebrun C, Malikova I, Papeix C, Wiertlewski S, et al. Idiopathic acute transverse myelitis: application of the recent diagnostic criteria. Neurology. 2005;65:1950-3 pubmed
    ..In a retrospective study of 288 patients with ATM, 45 cases (15.6%) met the criteria for idiopathic ATM. The patients formed a relatively homogeneous group in terms of clinical and MRI data, but the prognosis was highly variable...
  43. Perumal J, Zabad R, Caon C, MacKenzie M, Tselis A, Bao F, et al. Acute transverse myelitis with normal brain MRI : long-term risk of MS. J Neurol. 2008;255:89-93 pubmed
    ..To investigate the long-term risk of developing MS in patients presenting with acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and normal brain MRI scans at onset...
  44. Koch M, Heersema D, Mostert J, Teelken A, De Keyser J. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:797-800 pubmed
    ..The majority of patients with MS have oligoclonal bands (OCB), corresponding to antibodies against a variety of antigens, in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  45. Bosca I, Magraner M, Coret F, Alvarez Cermeno J, Simó Castelló M, Villar L, et al. The risk of relapse after a clinically isolated syndrome is related to the pattern of oligoclonal bands. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;226:143-6 pubmed publisher
    ..4-fold compared to having only OC-IgG. Median time to second relapse was 0.7 years for patients with OC-IgG+LS-OC-IgM and 3.3 years for those with only OC-IgG. Therefore, CSF analysis identifies CIS patients at risk of second relapse. ..
  46. Kikuchi S, Fukazawa T, Niino M, Yabe I, Miyagishi R, Hamada T, et al. HLA-related subpopulations of MS in Japanese with and without oligoclonal IgG bands. Human leukocyte antigen. Neurology. 2003;60:647-51 pubmed
    ..MS is heterogeneous in its association with HLA alleles, and based on the immunogenetic differences, the MS patients in this population include at least two HLA-related subpopulations with and without OCB. ..
  47. Andlovic A, Babič M, Accetto S, Rot U. Comparison of two methods for the detection of oligoclonal bands in a large number of clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:659-62 pubmed publisher
    ..0001. The alkaline phosphatase method is more sensitive than the peroxidase method and at the same time cheaper, easy to perform and less time consuming. ..
  48. Kleine T, Damm T. Distinct heterogeneity of IgG immune response in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF) with extended immunofixation. Brain Res Bull. 2003;61:309-20 pubmed
    ..the IgG molecule and against the whole IgG isotypes IgG(1), IgG(2), IgG(3), IgG(4), respectively, detected oligoclonal bands (OBs) within acid, neutral, and alkaline ranges of the gels...
  49. Leone M, Bonissoni S, Collimedaglia L, Tesser F, Calzoni S, Stecco A, et al. Factors predicting incomplete recovery from relapses in multiple sclerosis: a prospective study. Mult Scler. 2008;14:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..first attack, season of birth and first attack, characteristics of first brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, Link Index, IgG). We counted 209 attacks: 44 (21%) left mild sequelae, and 27 (13%) severe...
  50. von Glehn F, Farias A, de Oliveira A, Damasceno A, Longhini A, Oliveira E, et al. Disappearance of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands after natalizumab treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2012;18:1038-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Its impact on CSF oligoclonal bands (OCBs) has not been demonstrated...
  51. Takekoshi M, Maeda F, Nagatsuka Y, Aotsuka S, Ono Y, Ihara S. Cloning and expression of human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibodies from Epstein-Barr virus transformed oligoclonal libraries. J Biochem. 2001;130:299-303 pubmed
    ..These data support the conclusion that the cell clone is oligoclonal at the molecular level. ..
  52. Kurzepa J, Nastaj M, Mitosek Szewczyk K, Bartosik Psujek H, Stelmasiak Z. Oligoclonal bands measured in unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid and other biochemical parameters in multiple sclerosis. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2004;59:392-6 pubmed
    ..Total protein level, white blood cells (WBC) count and presence of oligoclonal bands (OB) in CSF were examined...
  53. Lim B, Hwang H, Kim K, Hwang Y, Cheon J, Kim I, et al. Relapsing demyelinating CNS disease in a Korean pediatric population: multiple sclerosis versus neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler. 2011;17:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oligoclonal bands detected with a silver staining method were positive in only one patient of 16 patients tested...