Summary: A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds VEGF-A to prevent its binding to VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 receptors. This activity reduces vessel permeability and angiogenesis in the treatment of neovascular age-related MACULAR DEGENERATION.

Top Publications

  1. Elman M, Aiello L, Beck r, Bressler N, Bressler S, Edwards A, et al. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1064-1077.e35 pubmed publisher
    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial...
  2. Konstantinidis L, Mantel I, Zografos L, Ambresin A. Intravitreal ranibizumab as primary treatment for neovascular membrane associated with idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasia. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1567-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Leung A, Weisbrod D, Schwartz C. Intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2010;45:300-1 pubmed publisher
  4. Le Tien V, Atmani K, Querques G, Massamba N, Souied E. Ranibizumab for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in Bietti crystalline retinopathy. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:1728-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Querques G, Souied E, Soubrane G. Macular hole following intravitreal ranibizumab injection for choroidal neovascular membrane caused by age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:235-7 pubmed publisher
  6. Kokame G. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy--an important diagnosis to make with therapeutic implications. Retina. 2012;32:1446-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Waizel M, Todorova M, Masyk M, Wolf K, Rickmann A, Helaiwa K, et al. Switch to aflibercept or ranibizumab after initial treatment with bevacizumab in eyes with neovascular AMD. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:79 pubmed publisher
    ..degeneration (AMD) treated initially with bevacizumab and subsequently switched to either aflibercept or ranibizumab. Observational clinical study was performed...
  8. Ou W, Brown D, Payne J, Wykoff C. Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness During Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Retinal Diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..relationship between best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in eyes receiving ranibizumab for 3 common retinal diseases. Retrospective analysis of clinical trial data...
  9. Barthelmes D, Walton R, Arnold J, McAllister I, Simpson J, Campain A, et al. Intravitreal therapy in bilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:2073-4 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Sahu A, Narayanan R. Intravitreal ranibizumab, intravitreal ranibizumab with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and intravitreal triamcinolone with PDT for the treatment of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Retina. 2010;30:981; author reply 981 pubmed publisher
  2. Cai S, Bressler N. Aflibercept, bevacizumab or ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema: recent clinically relevant findings from DRCR.net Protocol T. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;28:636-643 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized clinical trial comparing intravitreous aflibercept, repackaged (compounded) bevacizumab and ranibizumab for vision-impairing centre-involved diabetic macular oedema (DME)...
  3. Klimscha S, Waldstein S, Schlegl T, Bogunovic H, Sadeghipour A, Philip A, et al. Spatial Correspondence Between Intraretinal Fluid, Subretinal Fluid, and Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4039-4048 pubmed publisher
    ..These morphological associations may contribute to our understanding of functional deficits in nAMD. ..
  4. Giacomelli G, Finocchio L, Biagini I, Sodi A, Murro V, Introini U, et al. Long-Term Follow-Up of Choroidal Neovascularization due to Angioid Streaks with pro re nata Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Treatment. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, 52 eyes of 39 patients were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab and followed up for a mean of 33.8 months...
  5. Schmid M, Reich O, Blozik E, Faes L, Bodmer N, Locher S, et al. Outcomes and costs of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept treatment in a health-service research context. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:64 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified patients suffering from macular disease and treated either with aflibercept, ranibizumab or both at the largest public eye clinic in Switzerland between January 1st and December 31st 2016 who were ..
  6. Minami Y, Nagaoka T, Ishibazawa A, Yoshida A. Correlation between short- and long-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy on macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion: a prospective observational study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:90 pubmed publisher
    The correlation between the short- and long-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) on macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) remains unclear...
  7. Shahsuvaryan M. Therapeutic Potential of Ranibizumab in Corneal Neovascularization. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017;38:667-668 pubmed publisher
    b>Ranibizumab is a humanized, affinity-matured vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody fragment that neutralizes all isoforms of VEGF and is FDA approved for use in ophthalmology...
  8. Kurt M, Cekic O, Akpolat Ç, Aslankurt M, Elçioğlu M. Comparative Retinal Vessel Size Study of Intravitreal Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:147-153 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this paper was to assess and compare the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab on retinal vessel diameter in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  9. Cao S, Cui J, Matsubara J, Forooghian F. Long-term in vitro functional stability of compounded ranibizumab and aflibercept. Can J Ophthalmol. 2017;52:273-276 pubmed publisher
    To determine the long-term in vitro functional stability of compounded ranibizumab and aflibercept. Laboratory study...
  10. Vogl W, Waldstein S, Gerendas B, Schlegl T, Langs G, Schmidt Erfurth U. Analyzing and Predicting Visual Acuity Outcomes of Anti-VEGF Therapy by a Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model of Imaging and Clinical Data. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4173-4181 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual BCVA outcomes after 1 year could be predicted from initial BCVA and fluid measurements combined with the population-wide model. Accounting for fluid in the predictive model increased prediction accuracy. ..
  11. Jørstad Ø, Faber R, Moe M. Two-year functional and anatomical results after converting treatment resistant eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration to aflibercept in accordance with a treat and extend protocol. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:460-463 pubmed publisher
    ..prospective study of eyes with exudative AMD and persistent macular fluid despite monthly treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Eyes were converted to 2.0 mg aflibercept in accordance with a T&E protocol...
  12. Li S, Hu A, Wang W, Ding X, Lu L. Combinatorial treatment with topical NSAIDs and anti-VEGF for age-related macular degeneration, a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184998 pubmed publisher
    ..20, P = 0.90). Topical NSAIDs slightly increased the incidence of foreign body sensation (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95%Cl: 1.06 to 6.52, P = 0.76). Combining topical NSAIDs and anti-VEGF agents may provide a new strategy for AMD treatment...
  13. Kim J, Kim J, Chang Y, Kim J, Kim C, Lee D. Treatment of Bilateral Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation with Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: 12-Month Outcome. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:240-248 pubmed publisher
    ..However, equivalent baseline visual acuity in both eyes might not guarantee similar treatment outcomes. In addition, the absence of PED is predictive of better visual outcome. ..
  14. Vardarinos A, Gupta N, Janjua R, Iron A, Empeslidis T, Tsaousis K. 24-month clinical outcomes of a treat-and-extend regimen with ranibizumab for wet age-related macular degeneration in a real life setting. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:58 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical effectiveness and analyze the outcomes of a treat-and-extend (T&E) treatment regimen with ranibizumab for wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in real life clinical settings over the first 2 years (24 ..
  15. Chen Y, Chang P, Wang J. Intravitreal Aflibercept for Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Refractory to Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab: Analysis of Response to Aflibercept. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2017;6:250-255 pubmed publisher
    ..safety of intravitreal aflibercept in a case series of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to ranibizumab or bevacizumab. A retrospective chart review...
  16. Kuehlewein L, Dustin L, Sagong M, Hariri A, Mendes T, Rofagha S, et al. Predictors of Macular Atrophy Detected by Fundus Autofluorescence in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration After Long-Term Ranibizumab Treatment. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..development of macular atrophy in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA)...
  17. Hoerster R, Muether P, Dahlke C, Mehler K, Oberthür A, Kirchhof B, et al. Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in an infant treated with ranibizumab for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:e74-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Branchini L, Regatieri C, Adhi M, Flores Moreno I, Manjunath V, Fujimoto J, et al. Effect of intravitreous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on choroidal thickness in neovascular age-related macular degeneration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:693-4 pubmed publisher
  19. Tuuminen R, Uusitalo Jarvinen H, Aaltonen V, Hautala N, Kaipiainen S, Laitamäki N, et al. The Finnish national guideline for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In context of these current aspects, we aimed to set evidence-based medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wAMD. ..
  20. Li S, Deng G, Liu J, Ma Y, Lu H. The effects of a treatment combination of anti-VEGF injections, laser coagulation and cryotherapy on patients with type 3 Coat's disease. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:76 pubmed publisher
    To examined the curative effect of vitreous injection with ranibizumab,laser coagulation and cryotherapy in treating stage 3 Coats' disease with exudative retinal detachment...
  21. Ozkaya A, Alkin Z, Togac M, Ahmet S, Perente I, Taskapili M. Five-year Outcomes of Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration: Real Life Clinical Experience. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:424-430 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the outcomes of 5-year ranibizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in a single center and real life clinical setting...
  22. Brogan K, Precup M, Rodger A, Young D, Gilmour D. Pre-treatment clinical features in central retinal vein occlusion that predict visual outcome following intravitreal ranibizumab. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:37 pubmed publisher
    ..was to identify pre-treatment clinical features in CRVO that predict visual acuity (VA) following intravitreal ranibizumab. Medical records, fundus images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of treatment naïve patients ..
  23. Hutton D, Stein J, Bressler N, Jampol L, Browning D, Glassman A. Cost-effectiveness of Intravitreous Ranibizumab Compared With Panretinal Photocoagulation for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Secondary Analysis From a Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:576-584 pubmed publisher
    The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol S randomized clinical trial results suggest that ranibizumab is a reasonable treatment alternative to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) when managing proliferative diabetic ..
  24. Hanhart J, Rozenman Y. Comparison of Intravitreal Ranibizumab, Aflibercept, and Dexamethasone Implant after Bevacizumab Failure in Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vascular Occlusions. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:110-118 pubmed publisher
    ..and anatomic outcomes of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion after switching from bevacizumab to ranibizumab, aflibercept, or dexamethasone implant...
  25. Reich O, Schmid M, Rapold R, Bachmann L, Blozik E. Injections frequency and health care costs in patients treated with aflibercept compared to ranibizumab: new real-life evidence from Switzerland. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:234 pubmed publisher
    ..that injection frequency and health care costs did not differ for anti-VEGF treatment with aflibercept and ranibizumab. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this finding persisted when analysing a longer time ..
  26. Schachat A. Switching anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:1-2.e1 pubmed publisher
  27. Roy R, Saurabh K, Bansal A, Kumar A, Majumdar A, Paul S. Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in Indian eyes: Etiology, clinical features, and outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN) basis in Indian eyes...
  28. Son B, Kwak H, Kim E, Yu S. Comparison of Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:209-216 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab compared with bevacizumab for the treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO)...
  29. Guber J, Praveen A, Saeed M. Higher incidence of retinal pigment epithelium tears after ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration with increasing pigment epithelium detachment height. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1486-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Huang Q, Zhang Q, Fei P, Xu Y, Lyu J, Ji X, et al. Ranibizumab Injection as Primary Treatment in Patients with Retinopathy of Prematurity: Anatomic Outcomes and Influencing Factors. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1156-1164 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the anatomic outcomes and influencing factors of ranibizumab in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Retrospective case series...
  31. Hwang H, Kim J, Chang Y, Kim J, Kim C. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy with Feeder Vessels: Characteristics, Fellow Eye Findings, and Long-term Treatment Outcomes. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:230-239 pubmed publisher
    ..A relatively high incidence of pathological findings in the fellow eye and bilateral involvement suggest the need for bilateral examinations. ..
  32. Joachim S, Renner M, Reinhard J, Theiss C, May C, Lohmann S, et al. Protective effects on the retina after ranibizumab treatment in an ischemia model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182407 pubmed publisher
    ..potential protective effects of an intravitreally injected vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor (ranibizumab) on retinal cells in an ischemia animal model via immunohistochemistry (IF) and quantitative real-time PCR (PCR)..
  33. Lotery A, MacEwen C. What is stopping the NHS from using bevacizumab for macular degeneration and other retinal disorders?. BMJ. 2014;349:g6887 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhao X, Wang Z, Yang X. Management of neovascular glaucoma with intravitreal ranibizumab, panretinal photocoagulation, and subsequent 5-fluorouracil augmented trabeculectomy: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7221 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal injections of ranibizumab have been reported to have anatomical and functional success in treating NVG...
  35. Sheu S, Lee Y. Early Response to Ranibizumab Is Associated with 12-Month Outcome in Diabetic Macular Edema after Prior Macular Laser Therapy. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:139-146 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of ranibizumab in persistent or recurrent diabetic macular edema (DME) after previous laser therapy...
  36. Bogunovic H, Waldstein S, Schlegl T, Langs G, Sadeghipour A, Liu X, et al. Prediction of Anti-VEGF Treatment Requirements in Neovascular AMD Using a Machine Learning Approach. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3240-3248 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-year clinical trial data of subjects receiving PRN ranibizumab according to protocol specified criteria in the HARBOR study after three initial monthly injections were ..
  37. Bressler S, Liu D, Glassman A, Blodi B, Castellarin A, Jampol L, et al. Change in Diabetic Retinopathy Through 2 Years: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:558-568 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare changes in DR severity during aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab treatment for DME...
  38. Virgili G, Parravano M, Evans J, Gordon I, Lucenteforte E. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular oedema: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;6:CD007419 pubmed publisher
    ..safety of the three most commonly used drugs as interventions of direct interest for practice: aflibercept and ranibizumab, used on-label; and off-label bevacizumab...
  39. Chin Yee D, Eck T, Fowler S, Hardi A, Apte R. A systematic review of as needed versus treat and extend ranibizumab or bevacizumab treatment regimens for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100:914-917 pubmed publisher
    ..of outcome data, treatment protocol for as needed groups or pro re nata (PRN) receiving bevacizumab or ranibizumab, and all studies with treat extend protocols following the 'inject and extend' regimen...
  40. Zarbin M, Dunger Baldauf C, Haskova Z, Koovejee P, Mousseau M, Margaron P, et al. Vascular Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pooled Analysis of Patient-Level Data From Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:424-431 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of ranibizumab, 0.5 mg and 0.3 mg, compared with sham with and without laser in DME...
  41. Han E, Baisiwala S, Jain A, Bundorf M, Pershing S. An Analysis of Medicare Reimbursement to Ophthalmologists: Years 2012 to 2013. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;182:133-140 pubmed publisher
    ..During 2013, drug reimbursement represented 32.8% of the total Medicare payments to ophthalmologists. Ranibizumab and aflibercept alone accounted for 95% of the entire $1...
  42. Papadopoulos N, Martin J, Ruan Q, Rafique A, Rosconi M, Shi E, et al. Binding and neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and related ligands by VEGF Trap, ranibizumab and bevacizumab. Angiogenesis. 2012;15:171-85 pubmed publisher
  43. Binder S. Loss of reactivity in intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy: tachyphylaxis or tolerance?. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1-2 pubmed publisher
  44. Lim L, Cheung C, Mitchell P, Wong T. Emerging evidence concerning systemic safety of anti-VEGF agents--should ophthalmologists be concerned?. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:329-331 pubmed publisher
  45. Lee K, Kim S, Lee J, Kang E, Koh H. Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness Change of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy after Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:431-438 pubmed publisher
    ..PCV exhibits a thick choroid in the peripapillary region. PCT decreases after anti-VEGF in PCV but not in exudative AMD. In exudative AMD, subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased, but that in the peripapillary region did not. ..
  46. Elwes F, Borooah S, Aspinall P, Sim P, Loo C, Armbrecht A, et al. Clinical outcomes of switching to aflibercept using a pro re nata treatment regimen in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who incompletely responded to ranibizumab. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:20 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect of switching patients previously incompletely treated with ranibizumab (RBZ) to aflibercept (AFL) using a pro re nata (PRN) treatment strategy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD)...
  47. Fan W, Wang K, Ghasemi Falavarjani K, Sagong M, Uji A, Ip M, et al. Distribution of Nonperfusion Area on Ultra-widefield Fluorescein Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Macular Edema: DAVE Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:110-116 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In eyes with DME, the ISI increases with increasing distance from the fovea. The severity of DME does not appear to correlate with global NPA and ISI. ..
  48. . The neovascular age-related macular degeneration database: multicenter study of 92?976 ranibizumab injections: report 1: visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:1092-101 pubmed publisher
    To study real-world ranibizumab therapy for treatment-naïve eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to benchmark standards of care. Multicenter, national nAMD database study...
  49. Türksever C, Prünte C, Hatz K. Baseline Optical Coherence Tomography Findings as Outcome Predictors after Switching from Ranibizumab to Aflibercept in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration following a Treat-and-Extend Regimen. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:172-178 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate outcome predictors of aflibercept in neovascular age-related macular degeneration pretreated with ranibizumab based on a treat-and-extend regimen (TER)...
  50. de Cogan F, Hill L, Lynch A, Morgan Warren P, Lechner J, Berwick M, et al. Topical Delivery of Anti-VEGF Drugs to the Ocular Posterior Segment Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2578-2590 pubmed publisher
    ..CPP toxicity was investigated in cell cultures. Ivit concentrations of ranibizumab and bevacizumab after topical administration were measured using ELISA...
  51. Sun X, Xu X, Zhang X. Counterfeit bevacizumab and endophthalmitis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:378-9; author reply 379 pubmed publisher
  52. Minami Y, Nagaoka T, Ishibazawa A, Yoshida A. Short-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy on diabetic macular edema. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:28 pubmed publisher
    The short-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) on diabetic macular edema (DME) remains unclear. We assessed the short-term effects of IVR on DME...
  53. Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor and age-related macular degeneration: from basic science to therapy. Nat Med. 2010;16:1107-11 pubmed publisher