immunoglobulin gamma chains


Summary: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.

Top Publications

  1. Vettermann C, Schlissel M. Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes: models and mechanisms. Immunol Rev. 2010;237:22-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the physiological consequences of Ig allelic exclusion and speculate on the importance of monospecificity of B cells for immune recognition. ..
  2. Wu Y, Shu R, Luo L, Ge L, Xie Y. Initial comparison of proteomic profiles of whole unstimulated saliva obtained from generalized aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach applied herein might be helpful to aid understanding of the etiology of GAgP. ..
  3. Yuan F, Chen M, Hornsby P. Fibroblasts from Werner syndrome patients: cancer cells derived by experimental introduction of oncogenes maintain malignant properties despite entering crisis. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:377-86 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we find that tumorigenic human cells retain malignant properties of the cells as they approach and reach crisis. ..
  4. Jones M, Harper M, Aitken E, Williams C, Poole A. RGD-ligand mimetic antagonists of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 paradoxically enhance GPVI-induced human platelet activation. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a mechanism for enhancement of platelet activity by alpha(IIb)beta(3) inhibitors, but also reveal a potentially important signaling pathway operating from the integrin to GPVI signaling. ..
  5. Okamura Y, Eto K, Maruyama H, Handa M, Ikeda Y, Takeoka S. Visualization of liposomes carrying fibrinogen gamma-chain dodecapeptide accumulated to sites of vascular injury using computed tomography. Nanomedicine. 2010;6:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the H12-(iopamidol) liposomes would also be clinically useful as diagnostic agents for thrombus detection and as contrast dyes for hepatosplenography. ..
  6. Berges B, Akkina S, Remling L, Akkina R. Humanized Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) (RAG-hu) mice can sustain long-term chronic HIV-1 infection lasting more than a year. Virology. 2010;397:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a chronic HIV-1 infection humanized mouse model that can be used to dissect viral latency, long-term drug evaluation and immune-based therapies. ..
  7. Davies E, Reid S, Medina M, Lichty B, Ashkar A. IL-15 has innate anti-tumor activity independent of NK and CD8 T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that IL-15 can have innate anti-tumor activity independent of NK cells and CD8(+) T cells and the common gamma(c)R...
  8. Wulhfard S, Baldi L, Hacker D, Wurm F. Valproic acid enhances recombinant mRNA and protein levels in transiently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biotechnol. 2010;148:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that the treatment of transfected CHO DG44 cells with VPA is a cost-effective strategy for enhancing transient gene expression by increasing the transgene mRNA levels. ..
  9. Boado R, Hui E, Lu J, Zhou Q, Pardridge W. Selective targeting of a TNFR decoy receptor pharmaceutical to the primate brain as a receptor-specific IgG fusion protein. J Biotechnol. 2010;146:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..IgG-decoy receptor fusion proteins represent a new class of human neurotherapeutics. ..

More Information


  1. Adekar S, Klyubin I, Macy S, Rowan M, Solomon A, Dessain S, et al. Inherent anti-amyloidogenic activity of human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chains. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, establishing the molecular basis for heavy chain-amyloidogenic conformer interactions should advance understanding on the types of interactions that these pathologic assemblies have with biological molecules. ..
  2. Long M, Luo J, Li Y, Zeng F, Li M. Detection and evaluation of antibodies against neutrophil-activating protein of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2381-8 pubmed
    ..The direct effect of HP-NAP on gastric epithelial cells may be limited, but HP-NAP may contribute to inflammatory response or carcinogenesis by activating neutrophils. ..
  3. Ouellette D, Alessandri L, Piparia R, Aikhoje A, Chin A, Radziejewski C, et al. Elevated cleavage of human immunoglobulin gamma molecules containing a lambda light chain mediated by iron and histidine. Anal Biochem. 2009;389:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we find elevation of a Fab+Fc fragment that began with aspartic acid (cleavage between C/D). Further studies to understand how iron and histidine enhance cleavage of lambda light chain IgG molecules are ongoing. ..
  4. Seo G, Park S, Kim P. Analyses of TGF-beta1-inducible Ig germ-line gamma2b promoter activity: involvement of Smads and NF-kappaB. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that there are multiple SBE relevant to GLgamma2b promoter activity and that NF-kappaB acts in cooperation with p300 to downregulate promoter activity through increasing the gene expression of inhibitory Smad7. ..
  5. Reijmers R, Groen R, Rozemuller H, Kuil A, de Haan Kramer A, Csik├│s T, et al. Targeting EXT1 reveals a crucial role for heparan sulfate in the growth of multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010;115:601-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Hebert D, Gierasch L. The molecular dating game: an antibody heavy chain hangs loose with a chaperone while waiting for its life partner. Mol Cell. 2009;34:635-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Feige et al. (2009) utilize the murine immunoglobulin system to shed light on a long-standing puzzle: how do cells coordinate folding of different polypeptides that ultimately form a complex? ..
  7. Chen Z, Huang X, Ye J, Pan P, Cao Q, Yang B, et al. Immunoglobulin G is present in a wide variety of soft tissue tumors and correlates well with proliferation markers and tumor grades. Cancer. 2010;116:1953-63 pubmed publisher
    ..05). IgG was identified in a wide variety of soft tissue tumors and correlated well with proliferation markers and tumor grades. IgG may be a useful marker for cell proliferation in sarcomas. ..
  8. Holst A, Jensen G, Prescott E. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2010;121:1896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Obesity and smoking were both found to be important risk factors for VTE whereas total/high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, and diabetes mellitus were not. ..
  9. Henseler R, Romer E, Sulentic C. Diverse chemicals including aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands modulate transcriptional activity of the 3'immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region. Toxicology. 2009;261:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results implicate the 3'IgHRR as a sensitive immunological target and are the first to identify altered 3'IgHRR activation by a diverse range of chemicals. ..
  10. Lakey R, Morgan T, Rowan A, Isaacs J, Cawston T, Hilkens C. A novel paradigm for dendritic cells as effectors of cartilage destruction. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that DCs can act as effectors in cartilage destruction, adding a new aspect to the functional role of DCs in RA pathogenesis. ..
  11. Hui E, Boado R, Pardridge W. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-IgG fusion protein for targeted drug delivery across the human blood-brain barrier. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:1536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these studies describe the re-engineering of the TNFR ECD to make this decoy receptor transportable across the human BBB. ..
  12. Richter A, Harding S, Huissoon A, Drayson M, Pratt G. Multiple myeloma with monoclonal free IgG3 heavy chains and free kappa light chains. Acta Haematol. 2010;123:158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first description, investigation and treatment of MM with a plasma cell population producing truncated gamma(3)HC and kappaFLC M-proteins and illustrates a number of unique immunological and clinical features. ..