immunoglobulin isotypes


Summary: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.

Top Publications

  1. Dodoo D, Aikins A, Kusi K, Lamptey H, Remarque E, Milligan P, et al. Cohort study of the association of antibody levels to AMA1, MSP119, MSP3 and GLURP with protection from clinical malaria in Ghanaian children. Malar J. 2008;7:142 pubmed publisher
    ..Using standardized procedures, the study has confirmed the importance of antibodies to MSP119 in reducing the risk of clinical malaria in Ghanaian children, thus substantiating its potential as a malaria vaccine candidate. ..
  2. Jefferis R. Antibody therapeutics: isotype and glycoform selection. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2007;7:1401-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, when maximal antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity is indicated a non-fucosylated IgG1 format may be optimal; when minimal activity is indicated an aglycosylated IgG2 may be the form of choice. ..
  3. Boumendjel A, Tawk L, Malefijt R, Boulay V, Yssel H, Pene J. IL-27 induces the production of IgG1 by human B cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17:281-9 pubmed
    ..These results point to a partial redundancy of switch factors regulating the production of IgG1 in humans, and furthermore indicate the existence of a common regulation of the human IgG1and murine IgG2a isotypes by IL-27. ..
  4. Heriazon A, Hamilton K, Huffman J, Wilkie B, Sears W, Quinton M, et al. Immunoglobulin isotypes of lactating Holstein cows classified as high, average, and low type-1 or -2 immune responders. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on Ig isotype bias, IFN-? and DTH responses, it was concluded that immunization with C. albicans can be used to classify CMIR responder cows based on DTH read-out. ..
  5. Rodríguez A, Solano Gallego L, Ojeda A, Quintana J, Riera C, Gallego M, et al. Dynamics of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis before and after treatment. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:495-8 pubmed
    ..These 3 isotypes decreased significantly 1 year after initiation of medical treatment. ..
  6. Dhandha M, Seiffert Sinha K, Sinha A. Specific immunoglobulin isotypes correlate with disease activity, morphology, duration and HLA association in Pemphigus vulgaris. Autoimmunity. 2012;45:516-26 pubmed publisher
  7. Wei Z, Wu Q, Ren L, Hu X, Guo Y, Warr G, et al. Expression of IgM, IgD, and IgY in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis. J Immunol. 2009;183:3858-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of an IgA-encoding gene in the lizard IGH locus suggests a complex evolutionary history for IgA in the saurian lineage leading to modern birds, lizards, and their relatives...
  8. Zhao Y, Cui H, Whittington C, Wei Z, Zhang X, Zhang Z, et al. Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus) links the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in eutherian mammals and nonmammalian tetrapods. J Immunol. 2009;183:3285-93 pubmed publisher
  9. Iweala O, Smith D, Matharu K, Sada Ovalle I, Nguyen D, DeKruyff R, et al. Vaccine-induced antibody isotypes are skewed by impaired CD4 T cell and invariant NKT cell effector responses in MyD88-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:2252-60 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Kaushik A, Kehrli M, Kurtz A, Ng S, Koti M, Shojaei F, et al. Somatic hypermutations and isotype restricted exceptionally long CDR3H contribute to antibody diversification in cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;127:106-13 pubmed publisher
  2. Sitcharungsi R, Ananworanich J, Vilaiyuk S, Apornpong T, Bunupuradah T, Pornvoranunt A, et al. Nephelometry determined serum immunoglobulin isotypes in healthy Thai children aged 2-15 years. Microbiol Immunol. 2012;56:117-22 pubmed publisher
  3. Babbe H, McMenamin J, Hobeika E, Wang J, Rodig S, Reth M, et al. Genomic instability resulting from Blm deficiency compromises development, maintenance, and function of the B cell lineage. J Immunol. 2009;182:347-60 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data highlight the importance of BLM-dependent genome surveillance for B cell immunity by ensuring proper development and function of the various B cell subsets while counteracting lymphomagenesis. ..
  4. Kaushik P, Singh D, Kumar S, Tiwari A, Shukla G, Dayal S, et al. Protection of mice against Brucella abortus 544 challenge by vaccination with recombinant OMP28 adjuvanted with CpG oligonucleotides. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:119-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate that rOMP28 could be an immunogen capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune response. The humoral response was biased towards Th1 type when it was co-administered with CpG. ..
  5. Marcelino França K, Verícimo M, Retamal C, Kipnis T, Arnholdt A. B1 cells contribution to susceptibility in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis: immunoglobulin isotypes and repertoire determination. Med Mycol. 2006;44:755-66 pubmed
  6. Criscitiello M, Flajnik M. Four primordial immunoglobulin light chain isotypes, including lambda and kappa, identified in the most primitive living jawed vertebrates. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2683-94 pubmed
  7. Nebie I, Diarra A, Ouedraogo A, Soulama I, Bougouma E, Tiono A, et al. Humoral responses to Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens and association with incidence of clinical malaria in children living in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Infect Immun. 2008;76:759-66 pubmed
    ..Currently included in malaria vaccine formulations for clinical trials in humans, these blood-stage antigens, AMA1 and GLURP, offer good prospects for malaria vaccine development. ..
  8. Stavnezer J, Guikema J, Schrader C. Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:261-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins are important for faithful joining of S regions, and in their absence aberrant recombination and chromosomal translocations involving S regions occur. ..
  9. Osman W, Okada Y, Kamatani Y, Kubo M, Matsuda K, Nakamura Y. Association of common variants in TNFRSF13B, TNFSF13, and ANXA3 with serum levels of non-albumin protein and immunoglobulin isotypes in Japanese. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32683 pubmed publisher
    ..013). Rs10007186 in 4q21.2 was associated with serum levels of IgA (P = 0.036), IgM (P = 0.019), and IgE (P = 4.9 × 10(-4)). Our results should add interesting knowledge about the regulation of major serum components. ..
  10. Presta L. Molecular engineering and design of therapeutic antibodies. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008;20:460-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although clinical evaluation of these engineered modifications has yet to be reported, results in primates are encouraging. ..
  11. Pene J, Gauchat J, Lécart S, Drouet E, Guglielmi P, Boulay V, et al. Cutting edge: IL-21 is a switch factor for the production of IgG1 and IgG3 by human B cells. J Immunol. 2004;172:5154-7 pubmed
    ..These results show that IL-21, in addition to promoting growth and differentiation of committed B cells, is a specific switch factor for the production of IgG(1) and IgG(3). ..
  12. Smith E, Taylor Robinson A. Parasite-specific immunoglobulin isotypes during lethal and non-lethal murine malaria infections. Parasitol Res. 2003;89:26-33 pubmed
    ..Here, levels of parasite-specific immunoglobulin isotypes were measured during primary infections of Plasmodium chabaudi and of Plasmodium yoelii in inbred NIH ..
  13. Fleurant M, Changchien L, Chen C, Flajnik M, Hsu E. Shark Ig light chain junctions are as diverse as in heavy chains. J Immunol. 2004;173:5574-82 pubmed
  14. Morais C, Soares I, Carvalho L, Fontes C, Krettli A, Braga E. IgG isotype to C-terminal 19 kDa of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 among subjects with different levels of exposure to malaria in Brazil. Parasitol Res. 2005;95:420-6 pubmed
    ..Specific IgG1 were the predominant isotype. Our study emphasizes the highly immunogenicity of the PvMSP-1(19) and points toward its possible use as a potential malaria vaccine. ..
  15. Danilova N, Bussmann J, Jekosch K, Steiner L. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in zebrafish: identification and expression of a previously unknown isotype, immunoglobulin Z. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:295-302 pubmed
    ..This additional class adds complexity to the immunoglobulin repertoire and raises questions concerning the evolution of immunoglobulins and the regulation of the differential expression of ighz and ighm. ..
  16. Min K, Kim P. Macrophage-derived TGF-beta1 induces IgA isotype expression. Mol Cells. 2003;16:245-50 pubmed
    ..The supernatant from such an activated P388D1 culture, in combination of IL-2, stimulated IgA secretion and this effect was abolished by anti-TGFbeta1 antibody. ..
  17. Voltersvik P, Albrektsen G, Ulvestad E, Dyrhol Riise A, Sørensen B, Asjo B. Changes in immunoglobulin isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses during highly active antiretroviral therapy: anti-p24 IgG1 closely parallels the biphasic decline in plasma viremia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;34:358-67 pubmed
    The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on immunoglobulin isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses were studied in 12 patients in early stages of HIV-1 infection...
  18. Ghiasi H, Osorio Y, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2. Virology. 2002;302:286-93 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
  19. Rada C, Williams G, Nilsen H, Barnes D, Lindahl T, Neuberger M. Immunoglobulin isotype switching is inhibited and somatic hypermutation perturbed in UNG-deficient mice. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1748-55 pubmed
  20. McKune A, Smith L, Semple S, Wadee A. Influence of ultra-endurance exercise on immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:665-70 pubmed
    ..These alterations may have a role in the maintenance of subject health after an ultra-marathon. ..
  21. Fear D, McCloskey N, O CONNOR B, Felsenfeld G, Gould H. Transcription of Ig germline genes in single human B cells and the role of cytokines in isotype determination. J Immunol. 2004;173:4529-38 pubmed
    ..We have also found that the levels of germline gene transcription cannot fully account for the levels of secretion of the different Ig isotypes, and that secretion of IgE, in particular, is suppressed relative to that of IgG. ..
  22. Min I, Schrader C, Vardo J, Luby T, D Avirro N, Stavnezer J, et al. The Smu tandem repeat region is critical for Ig isotype switching in the absence of Msh2. Immunity. 2003;19:515-24 pubmed
    ..These findings help to explain the conservation of tandemly repeated switch regions associated with heavy chain constant genes in species capable of switching. ..
  23. Gao J, Killedar S, Cornelius J, Nguyen C, Cha S, Peck A. Sjögren's syndrome in the NOD mouse model is an interleukin-4 time-dependent, antibody isotype-specific autoimmune disease. J Autoimmun. 2006;26:90-103 pubmed
    ..B10-H2b.IL4-/- mice to synthesize anti-M3R autoantibodies of the IgG1 isotype apparently explains why these mice fail to develop exocrine gland dysfunction, despite exhibiting pre-clinical manifestations of SjS-like disease. ..
  24. Flajnik M. Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:688-98 pubmed
  25. Wuhrer M, Stam J, van de Geijn F, Koeleman C, Verrips C, Dolhain R, et al. Glycosylation profiling of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses from human serum. Proteomics. 2007;7:4070-81 pubmed
    ..The changes in galactosylation associated with rheumatoid arthritis could readily be monitored. This method is suitable for the subclass-specific analysis of IgG glycosylation from clinical samples. ..
  26. Alejandre M, Madalena L, Pavlovsky M, Facio M, Corrado C, Milone G, et al. Oligoclonal bands and immunoglobulin isotype switch during monitoring of patients with multiple myeloma and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 16-year experience. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Close follow-up of anomalous protein bands, either in serum or urine, is essential due to the additional difficulty in interpretation when the therapeutic response and evolution are evaluated. ..
  27. Olson B, McNeel D. Antibody and T-cell responses specific for the androgen receptor in patients with prostate cancer. Prostate. 2007;67:1729-39 pubmed
  28. Schütt P, Brandhorst D, Stellberg W, Poser M, Ebeling P, Müller S, et al. Immune parameters in multiple myeloma patients: influence of treatment and correlation with opportunistic infections. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:1570-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, myeloma patients display cellular and humoral immunodeficiencies, which increase following conventional as well as HD-CTX, and constitute an important predisposing factor for opportunistic infections. ..
  29. Kumar S, Wuerffel R, Achour I, Lajoie B, Sen R, Dekker J, et al. Flexible ordering of antibody class switch and V(D)J joining during B-cell ontogeny. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that in the BM, V(D)J joining and switching are interchangeably inducible, providing an explanation for the hyper-IgE phenotype of Omenn syndrome. ..
  30. Sahin M, Duzgun N, Tunc S, Tutkak H. Clinical manifestations and antiphosphatidylserine antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: is there an association?. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:154-60 pubmed
    ..The assessment of both IgM and IgA isotypes of aPS and aCL antibodies may be helpful in predicting these manifestations. ..
  31. Silver K, Bouriez Jones T, Crockford T, Ferry H, Tang H, Cyster J, et al. Spontaneous class switching and B cell hyperactivity increase autoimmunity against intracellular self antigen in Lyn-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:2920-7 pubmed
    ..Under these circumstances, spontaneous activation of hyperactive B cells leads to isotype switching and the development of high titres of IgG autoantibodies against intracellular proteins. ..
  32. Kanmert D, Kastbom A, Almroth G, Skogh T, Enander K, Wetterö J. IgG rheumatoid factors against the four human Fc-gamma subclasses in early rheumatoid arthritis (the Swedish TIRA project). Scand J Immunol. 2012;75:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant correlations were seen between IgG-RF against hIgG2-Fc and IgM-RF (r = 0.666) levels. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate any correlation to disease course and outcome. ..
  33. Johnston D, Schroeder H. B-cell numbers in the blood of patients with non-HLA*B8 or non-HLA*B44 common variable immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98:163-7 pubmed
    ..Patients with CVID who inherited HLA*B44 or HLA*B8 tended to have higher numbers of B cells in the blood than those who did not, suggesting that the mechanism of immunodeficiency may differ. ..
  34. Jiang N, He J, Weinstein J, Penland L, Sasaki S, He X, et al. Lineage structure of the human antibody repertoire in response to influenza vaccination. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:171ra19 pubmed publisher
    ..We have thus shown that global analysis of the immune system's clonal structure provides direct insight into the effects of vaccination and provides a detailed molecular portrait of age-related effects. ..
  35. Lembo A, Neri B, Tolley J, Barken D, Carroll S, Pan H. Use of serum biomarkers in a diagnostic test for irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:834-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessing serum biomarkers in an overall diagnostic strategy may allow earlier diagnosis and treatment for patients with IBS. ..
  36. Edwan J, Agrawal D. Flt3-ligand plasmid prevents the development of pathophysiological features of chronic asthma in a mouse model. Immunol Res. 2007;37:147-59 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that pUMVC3-hFLex treatment can prevent the development of airway remodeling and maintain airway protection in chronic experimental asthma model, and might provide a novel approach for treating chronic asthma. ..
  37. Vågnes K, Vagnes O, Bakken V. Sera from mice immunized with DNA encoding Porphyromonas gingivalis catalytic or adhesin part of HRgpA inhibit degradation of human fibronectin by HRgpA. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2007;22:46-51 pubmed
    ..A DNA vaccine encoding the adhesin or catalytic part of HRgpA induces responses that inhibit the degradation of molecules important for the structure and function of gingival and bone tissues. ..
  38. Fu M, Ying S, Wu M, Li H, Wu K, Yang Y, et al. Regulating effects of novel CpG chitosan-nanoparticles on immune responses of mice to porcine paratyphoid vaccines. Biomed Environ Sci. 2006;19:315-22 pubmed
    ..CpG ODN entrapped with CNP is a promising effective immunoadjuvant for vaccination, which promotes humoral and cellular immune responses, enhances immunity and resistance against salmonella by co-administration with paratyphoid vaccine. ..
  39. Kumar B, Deepika A, Makesh M, Purushothaman C, Rajendran K. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the hemocytes of mud crab, Scylla serrata. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;111:86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAbs also showed strong cross-reactivity with the hemocytes of different crab species but not with other crustaceans. The MAbs produced can be used as a marker for granular hemocytes of crabs. ..
  40. Colino J, Snapper C. Exosomes from bone marrow dendritic cells pulsed with diphtheria toxoid preferentially induce type 1 antigen-specific IgG responses in naive recipients in the absence of free antigen. J Immunol. 2006;177:3757-62 pubmed
    ..These results are the first to demonstrate the ability of exosomes derived from Ag-pulsed DC to induce and modulate Ag-specific humoral immunity in vivo. ..
  41. Cabral Marques O, Schimke L, Pereira P, Falcai A, de Oliveira J, Hackett M, et al. Expanding the clinical and genetic spectrum of human CD40L deficiency: the occurrence of paracoccidioidomycosis and other unusual infections in Brazilian patients. J Clin Immunol. 2012;32:212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations demonstrated that the susceptibility to fungal infections in X-HIGM extends beyond those typically associated with X-HIGM (P. jiroveci and C. albicans) and that these patients need to be monitored for those pathogens. ..
  42. Ichinohe T, Lee H, Ogura Y, Flavell R, Iwasaki A. Inflammasome recognition of influenza virus is essential for adaptive immune responses. J Exp Med. 2009;206:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that in addition to the TLR pathways, ASC inflammasomes play a central role in adaptive immunity to influenza virus. ..
  43. Kitaguchi K, Osada K, Horio F, Murai A. Exclusion of polymeric immunoglobulins and selective immunoglobulin Y transport that recognizes its Fc region in avian ovarian follicles. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;121:290-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the presence of a selective IgY transport system that recognizes its Fc region in avian ovarian follicles. ..
  44. Gul U, Soylu S, Demiriz M. Colocalization of lichen planus and vitiligo associated with selective IgA deficiency. Skinmed. 2007;6:202-3 pubmed
    ..Melanocytes were decreased in number, and in some areas they were absent at the basal layer of epidermis. Clinical and histopathologic diagnosis were consistent with lichen planus and vitiligo (Figure 2). ..
  45. Dement Brown J, Newton C, Ise T, Damdinsuren B, Nagata S, Tolnay M. Fc receptor-like 5 promotes B cell proliferation and drives the development of cells displaying switched isotypes. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, FCRL5 may promote growth of malignant cells in hairy cell leukemia and other FCRL5-expressing tumors. ..
  46. Pistoia V, Cocco C. IL-21: a new player in the control of isotype switch in Peyer's patches. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:739-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this JLB issue, IL-21 is reported to dampen TGF-beta1-induced IgG2b but not IgA production by mouse B cells, possibly explaining why IgA(+) B cells predominate in PP. ..
  47. Seo G, Youn J, Kim P. IL-21 ensures TGF-beta 1-induced IgA isotype expression in mouse Peyer's patches. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:744-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that IL-21 was expressed in greater magnitude in Peyer's patches (PP) than in spleen. These results suggest that IL-21 has an important effect on selective IgA(+) B cell commitment in PP. ..
  48. Stewart J, Vahadji C, Seiden P. The emergent dynamics of isotype switch. Autoimmunity. 2011;44:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that chronic immunization leads, in our model, to a severe depletion of the IgM response even while the IgG response remains normal. ..
  49. Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch J. Antibodies, Fc receptors and cancer. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19:239-45 pubmed
    ..These novel insights into antibody FcR interactions might be useful to produce the next generation of improved immunotherapeutic molecules. ..
  50. Rodriguez Cortes A, Fernández Bellon H, Ramis A, Ferrer L, Alberola J, Solano Gallego L. Leishmania-specific isotype levels and their relationship with specific cell-mediated immunity parameters in canine leishmaniasis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;116:190-8 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between specific IgA and parasite load, especially at mucosal site. ..
  51. Nijnik A, Dawson S, Crockford T, Woodbine L, Visetnoi S, Bennett S, et al. Impaired lymphocyte development and antibody class switching and increased malignancy in a murine model of DNA ligase IV syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1696-705 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide explanations for the complex lymphoid phenotype of human LigIV syndrome. ..
  52. Morin S, Bernard H, Przybylski Nicaise L, Corthier G, Rabot S, Wal J, et al. Allergenic and immunogenic potential of cow's milk ?-lactoglobulin and caseins evidenced without adjuvant in germ-free mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Gut colonization by commensal bacteria appeared then to significantly reduce the susceptibility of mice toward the intrinsic allergenic and immunogenic potential of milk proteins. ..
  53. Cyge B, Fischer V, Takemaru K, Li F. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human Chibby protein. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2011;30:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These Cby MAbs therefore hold promise as useful tools for the investigation of Wnt signaling and ciliogenesis. ..