beta globulins


Summary: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.

Top Publications

  1. Thong M, Soo T. The spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in children with beta-thalassaemia major from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Singapore Med J. 2005;46:340-3 pubmed
    ..Future studies on these indigenous ethnic groups in other areas and other groups in Sabah are required. ..
  2. Kim G, Park J, Kim Y, Jung W, Unni K, Park Y. Absence of amplification of HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) gene in Ewing's sarcoma: a real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Pathol Res Pract. 2004;200:663-7 pubmed
    ..The p value was 0.215 (p<0.05). Our results demonstrated an absence of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification in Ewing's sarcomas, and we suggest that HER-2/neu is not a biologically or therapeutically important pathway in Ewing's sarcoma. ..
  3. de Roda Husman A, Snijders P, Stel H, van den Brule A, Meijer C, Walboomers J. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction. Br J Cancer. 1995;72:412-7 pubmed
    ..provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp. ..
  4. Adekile A, Tuli M, Haider M, Al Zaabi K, Mohannadi S, Owunwanne A. Influence of alpha-thalassemia trait on spleen function in sickle cell anemia patients with high HbF. Am J Hematol. 1996;53:1-5 pubmed
    ..0%; however, the frequencies in Groups I, II, and III were 57.1, 30.0, and 18.8%, respectively. alpha-Thalassemia trait, therefore, appears to be associated with normal splenic function in these patients...
  5. Gray R, Canfield P, Rogers T. Serum proteins in the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica and the coast of NSW, Australia. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;142:67-78 pubmed
    ..This technique could also be used to identify the presence of environmental stressors, subclinical disease and physiological variation within specific seal populations. ..
  6. Uzunoglu S, Acar H, Okudan N, Gokbel H, Mevlitoglu I, Sari F. Evaluation of the association between null genotypes of glutathione-S-transferases and Behcet's disease. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006;297:289-93 pubmed
  7. Robinson P, Lundin L, Sege K, Graf L, Wigzell H, Peterson P. Location of the mouse beta 2-microglobulin gene B2m determined by linkage analysis. Immunogenetics. 1981;14:449-52 pubmed
  8. Takao S, Akiyama S, Nakajo A, Yoh H, Kitazono M, Natsugoe S, et al. Suppression of metastasis by thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. Cancer Res. 2000;60:5345-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that TP plays a key role in the invasiveness and metastasis of TP-expressing solid tumors and suggest that TPI might be a novel antimetastatic agent for blood-borne metastasis. ..
  9. Kubo K, Honda E, Imoto M, Morishima Y. Capillary zone electrophoresis of albumin-depleted human serum using a linear polyacrylamide-coated capillary: separation of serum alpha-and beta-globulins into individual components. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:396-402 pubmed

More Information


  1. Grasman K, Armstrong M, Hammersley D, Scanlon P, Fox G. Geographic variation in blood plasma protein concentrations of young herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) from the Great Lakes and Lake Winnipeg. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;125:365-75 pubmed
    ..Additional research is needed to identify individual proteins and elucidate causal relationships between the particular protein concentrations and factors such as contaminants, growth, and condition. ..
  2. Alavi Shoushtari S, Asri Rezai S, Abshenas J. A study of the uterine protein variations during the estrus cycle in the cow: a comparison with the serum proteins. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;96:10-20 pubmed
  3. White D, Takeda T, DeGroot L, Stefansson K, Arnason B. Beta-trace gene expression is regulated by a core promoter and a distal thyroid hormone response element. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14387-93 pubmed
    ..We have shown that a gene active in the choroid plexus and meninges is responsive to T3. T3 may play a role in the regulated transport of substances into the cerebrospinal fluid and ultimately the brain. ..
  4. Keverne E, Fundele R, Narasimha M, Barton S, Surani M. Genomic imprinting and the differential roles of parental genomes in brain development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;92:91-100 pubmed
    ..In particular, genomic imprinting may have facilitated a rapid non-linear expansion of the brain, especially the cortex, during development over evolutionary time. ..
  5. Chamayou S, Alecci C, Ragolia C, Giambona A, Siciliano S, Maggio A, et al. Successful application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1158-65 pubmed
    ..Prenatal diagnosis at the 11th week and miscarriage material analysis confirmed the PGD results. These studies represent the first successful application of PGD for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy. ..
  6. Harada Y, Hayakawa J, Noda E, Tomita T. A gene locus controlling a serum protein migrating electrophoretically in the beta region of mice and detected by using a strain derived from the Japanese wild mouse (Mus musculus molossinus). J Immunogenet. 1987;14:33-41 pubmed
    ..The evidence also suggests that Sas-2 is genetically different from the previously described Sas-1 which controls a serum protein in the mouse. Sas-2 was located by linkage analysis between Idh-1 locus and Akp-1 locus on chromosome 1. ..
  7. Gehring N, Neu Yilik G, Schell T, Hentze M, Kulozik A. Y14 and hUpf3b form an NMD-activating complex. Mol Cell. 2003;11:939-49 pubmed
    ..These results uncover a direct role of Y14 in NMD and suggest an unexpected hierarchy in the assembly of NMD complexes. ..
  8. Corsi M, Fulgenzi A, Tiengo M, Pravettoni G, Gaja G, Ferrero M. Effect of somatostatin on beta-endorphin release in rat experimental chronic inflammation. Life Sci. 1999;64:2247-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a significant reduction of plasmatic beta-globulins at 12 h and the 7th day and of plasmatic alpha2-globulins at the 14th day was observed after the beginning of somatostatin treatment. ..
  9. Giménez M, Saco Y, Pato R, Busquets A, Martorell J, Bassols A. Plasma protein electrophoresis of Trachemys scripta and Iguana iguana. Vet Clin Pathol. 2010;39:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, reptile electrophoretic patterns should be interpreted based on the method used, the species analyzed, and the quality of the plasma sample. ..
  10. Okimoto N, Honda Y, Asaoka N, Fujita K, Ohba H, Nakamura J, et al. [Diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia by serum beta-globulin demarcation]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2002;76:185-7 pubmed
    ..No one had bacterial pneumonia. These results suggested the consolidation with fever whose serum beta-globulin demarcation showed more than 12% was not bacterial pneumonia. ..
  11. Shimizu K, Marubayashi A, Tokimasa K, Harihara S, Omoto K, Imanishi T, et al. Characteristic beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Evenkis and Oroqens in north China. Hum Biol. 2004;76:765-78 pubmed
  12. Harrington M, Aebersold R, Martin B, Merril C, Hood L. Identification of a brain-specific human cerebrospinal fluid glycoprotein, beta-trace protein. Appl Theor Electrophor. 1993;3:229-34 pubmed
    ..Proteins of different mass and charge from beta-trace protein were clearly immunostained in samples of eight tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  13. Chorney M, Shen F, Michaelson J, Boyse E. Monoclonal antibody to an alloantigenic determinant on beta2-microglobulin (beta 2M) of the mouse. Immunogenetics. 1982;16:91-3 pubmed
  14. Suggs S, Wallace R, Hirose T, Kawashima E, Itakura K. Use of synthetic oligonucleotides as hybridization probes: isolation of cloned cDNA sequences for human beta 2-microglobulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:6613-7 pubmed
    ..The clone has been characterized by blotting and nucleotide sequence analysis. The cloned beta 2-microglobulin sequence contains 217 base pairs of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA and 328 base pairs (97%) of the coding region. ..
  15. Larina O. [Blood plasma proteins following long-duration space flight]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2006;40:16-9 pubmed
    ..These results may point to development of an acute reaction in the early period of readaptation to the return from long-duration space flight. ..
  16. Robinson P, Graf L, Sege K. Two allelic forms of mouse beta 2-microglobulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:1167-70 pubmed
    ..In mice heterozygous for both H-2 and beta 3m, individual H-2 histocompatibility antigens associate with both beta 2m forms. Preliminary structural studies indicate differences in peptide composition between the two forms. ..
  17. Atkinson J, Karp D, Seeskin E, Killion C, Rosa P, Newell S, et al. H-2 S region determined polymorphic variants of the C4, Slp, C2, and B complement proteins: a compilation. Immunogenetics. 1982;16:617-23 pubmed
  18. Gordon C, Fox V, Najdovska S, Perkins A. C/EBPdelta and C/EBPgamma bind the CCAAT-box in the human beta-globin promoter and modulate the activity of the CACC-box binding protein, EKLF. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1729:74-80 pubmed
    ..In reporter assays, we show that C/EBPdelta can co-operate with EKLF, a CACC-box binding protein, to activate the beta-globin promoter, whereas C/EBPgamma inhibits the transcriptional activity of EKLF in this assay. ..
  19. Allen B, Weeks D. Transgenic Xenopus laevis embryos can be generated using phiC31 integrase. Nat Methods. 2005;2:975-9 pubmed
    ..laevis and may increase the practical use of phiC31 integrase in other systems as well. ..
  20. Bossuyt X, Claeys R, Bogaert G, Said H, Wouters C, Groven C, et al. Reference values for the five electrophoretic serum protein fractions in Caucasian children by capillary zone electrophoresis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2001;39:970-2 pubmed
    ..We report age-related reference intervals for capillary zone electrophoresis for children between 1 and 14 years of age. ..
  21. Nordin P, Hansson B, Hansson C, Blohmè I, Larkö O, Andersson K. Human papilloma virus in skin, mouth and uterine cervix in female renal transplant recipients with or without a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87:219-22 pubmed
    ..There was no increased prevalence of human papillomavirus in the cervix or mouth samples from the immunosuppressed patients. ..
  22. Chen H, Kim S, He W, Wang H, Low P, Park K, et al. Fast release of lipophilic agents from circulating PEG-PDLLA micelles revealed by in vivo forster resonance energy transfer imaging. Langmuir. 2008;24:5213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide useful information for developing blood-stable micelles to deliver hydrophobic drugs to the target site via prolonged circulation and extravasation from the vascular system. ..
  23. Mosca M, Giuliano T, Cuomo G, Doveri M, Tani C, Curcio M, et al. Cell-free DNA in the plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:1437-40 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data suggest that cf-DNA could provide a useful biomarker for the assessment of disease activity in SSc patients. ..
  24. Al Qahtani K, Brousseau V, Paczesny D, Domanowski G, Hamid Q, Hier M, et al. Koilocytosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma: what does it mean?. J Otolaryngol. 2007;36:26-31 pubmed
    ..Because HPV is negative, we do not know if koilocytosis is a marker of HPV. We could not determine the relationship between HPV and prognosis. ..
  25. Reiber H, Walther K, Althaus H. Beta-trace protein as sensitive marker for CSF rhinorhea and CSF otorhea. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;108:359-62 pubmed
    ..A clinically confirmed CSF otorhea had a value of 1.75 mg/l. This new beta-trace protein assay offers a fast, sensitive and reliable routine method to detect a CSF rhinorhea or otorhea. ..
  26. Holt J, Harris M, Holt A, Lange E, Henschen A, Niewiarowski S. Characterization of human platelet basic protein, a precursor form of low-affinity platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin. Biochemistry. 1986;25:1988-96 pubmed
    ..In agreement with earlier results, crude preparations of PBP were mitogenic for 3T3 cells, but highly purified preparations of PBP and LA-PF4 were free of this activity. ..
  27. Sekizawa A, Jimbo M, Saito H, Iwasaki M, Matsuoka R, Okai T, et al. Cell-free fetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women with severe fetal growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:480-4 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that there was no increase in fetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women with fetal growth restriction and that most fetal DNA in maternal plasma originates from trophoblasts. ..
  28. Papadopoulos N, Costello R, Charnas L, Adamson M, Gahl W. Electrophoretic examination of proteinuria in Lowe's syndrome and other causes of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome. Clin Chem. 1989;35:2231-3 pubmed
    ..Electrophoresis of urinary proteins may be useful in distinguishing among the different metabolic disorders causing renal tubular Fanconi syndrome. ..
  29. Michaelson J. Genetic polymorphism of beta 2-microglobulin (B2m) maps to the H-3 region of chromosome 2. Immunogenetics. 1981;13:167-71 pubmed
  30. Narayan S, Lujan M, Baskin L, Devaraj S, Rutherford C, Jialal I. Measurement of beta1- and beta2-globulins improves detection of M-spikes on high-resolution electrophoresis. Clin Chem. 2003;49:676-8 pubmed
  31. Cox D, Sawicki J, Yee D, Appella E, Epstein C. Assignment of the gene for beta 2-microglobulin (B2m) to mouse chromosome 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:1930-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that, in the mouse, as in man, B2m is not linked to the major histocompatibility or immunoglobulin loci. ..
  32. Kuruvilla A, Hochwald G, Ghiso J, Castano E, Pizzolato M, Frangione B. Isolation and amino terminal sequence of beta-trace, a novel protein from human cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Res. 1991;565:337-40 pubmed
    ..Amino terminal sequence analysis yields the sequence A P E A Q V S V Q P N F Q Q D K F L G with no homology to known proteins, indicating that beta-trace is a novel CSF protein. ..
  33. Michaelson J. Genetics of beta-2 microglobulin in the mouse. Immunogenetics. 1983;17:219-60 pubmed
  34. Senior R, Griffin G, Huang J, Walz D, Deuel T. Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1983;96:382-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in vivo several alpha granule proteins released from platelets may affect wound healing by causing directed fibroblast migration. ..
  35. Giacomelli S, Leone M, Grima J, Silvestrini B, Cheng C. Astrocytes synthesize and secrete prostaglandin D synthetase in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1310:269-76 pubmed
    ..The identification of the astrocyte as the cellular origin of this unique enzyme will allow the use of an in vitro system to study its regulation. ..
  36. Ayli M, Ayli D, Azak A, Yuksel C, Atilgan G, Dede F, et al. The effect of high-flux hemodialysis on dialysis-associated amyloidosis. Ren Fail. 2005;27:31-4 pubmed
    ..These beneficial effects of high-flux dialyzers are probably mediated by the improved clearance of middle and high molecular weight toxins. ..
  37. Zhang L, Li Y, Cheng J, Peng Z, Li S, Zeng Y. [Comparison of hepatic protein synthesis function between Banna Minipig Inbred Line and human]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004;35:781-3 pubmed
    ..The above findings suggested the similarity between BMI liver and human liver in respect to albumin and alpha, beta-globulin synthesis. ..
  38. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I, Eguchi N, Oda H, Urade Y. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoretic analysis of molecular mass microheterogeneity of beta-trace protein in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system diseases. J Chromatogr A. 1998;802:143-8 pubmed
    ..The quantitative changes in the subfraction level in CSF beta TP are considered to reflect the pathological alterations in the CNS. ..
  39. Parker Siburt C, Lin E, Brandt S, Tinoco A, Valentine A, Crumbliss A. Redox potentials of Ti(IV) and Fe(III) complexes provide insights into titanium biodistribution mechanisms. J Inorg Biochem. 2010;104:1006-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation is discussed in the context of current hypotheses concerning the role of reduction in transferrin mediated iron transport. ..
  40. Frazar T, Weisbein J, Anderson S, Cline A, Garrett L, Felsenfeld G, et al. Variegated expression from the murine band 3 (AE1) promoter in transgenic mice is associated with mRNA transcript initiation at upstream start sites and can be suppressed by the addition of the chicken beta-globin 5' HS4 insulator element. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4753-63 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the chicken beta-globin 5'HS4 element is necessary for full function of the AE1 promoter and that position effect variegation is associated with RNA transcription from the upstream start sites. ..
  41. Bell M, Gough G, Gilham P. The analogue of thymidine triphosphate containing a methylene group in place of the 5' oxygen can serve as a substrate for reverse transcriptase. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:405-17 pubmed
    ..Preliminary experiments have also been carried out with a DNA polymerase. No products are detected reactions using Taq polymerase with PCR protocols containing the analogue triphosphate as the only source of thymidine. ..
  42. Naka I, Ohashi J, Patarapotikul J, Hananantachai H, Looareesuwan S, Tokunaga K. Genetic variants of beta-globin gene in Thai malaria patients. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34 Suppl 2:29-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, the biological significance of IVS+1G>T and its association with malarial infection should be clarified in future studies. ..
  43. Dufva M, Poulsen L. Genotyping of mutation in the beta-globin gene using DNA microarrays. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;509:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Given this low error frequency, an array diagnosing 100 different mutations would misclassify about 1 patient in 100,000. ..
  44. Shihabi Z. Analysis of immune complexes by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:2565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reveals the composition (monoclonality) of the precipitate. Three types of IC have been detected in this method: monoclonal, polyclonal and mixed (mono-polyclonal) IC. Furthermore, the method is rapid and simple. ..
  45. Goding J. Evidence for linkage of murine beta 2-microglobulin to H-3 and Ly-4. J Immunol. 1981;126:1644-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results are consistent with the beta 2-microglobulin gene lying on chromosome 2, and being linked to H-3 and Ly-4. ..
  46. Jamsai D, Nefedov M, Narayanan K, Orford M, Fucharoen S, Williamson R, et al. Insertion of common mutations into the human beta-globin locus using GET Recombination and an EcoRI endonuclease counterselection cassette. J Biotechnol. 2003;101:1-9 pubmed
  47. Kimura S, Tada N, Liu Y, Hammerling U. The presence of Ly-m11 alloantigen in mouse body fluids. Immunogenetics. 1981;14:445-7 pubmed
  48. Morello D, Daniel F, Baldacci P, Cayre Y, Gachelin G, Kourilsky P. Absence of significant H-2 and beta 2-microglobulin mRNA expression by mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Nature. 1982;296:260-2 pubmed
  49. Xu Z, Meng X, Cai Y, Liang H, Nagarajan L, Brandt S. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins regulate the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins. Genes Dev. 2007;21:942-55 pubmed
    ..These results define a novel biochemical function for SSBPs in regulating the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins. ..
  50. Gates F, Coligan J, Kindt T. Complete amino acid sequence of murine beta 2-microglobulin: structural evidence for strain-related polymorphism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:554-8 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the sequence of murine beta 2-microglobulin to the sequences reported for the homologues from man, rabbit, and guinea pig indicate identities of 68%, 66%, and 61%, respectively. ..
  51. Groves M, Greenberg R. Complete amino acid sequence of bovine beta 2-microglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:2619-26 pubmed
  52. Wall J, Frisse L, Hudson R, Di Rienzo A. Comparative linkage-disequilibrium analysis of the beta-globin hotspot in primates. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73:1330-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a time scale for the evolution of hotspots in primates. Furthermore, they allow us to propose diverged sequence elements that may contribute to the differences in the recombinational landscape in the two species. ..
  53. Zlotogora J, Hujerat Y, Zalman L, Barges S, Filon D, Koren A, et al. Origin and expansion of four different beta globin mutations in a single Arab village. Am J Hum Biol. 2005;17:659-61 pubmed
    ..The sickle-cell mutation became particularly prevalent in the village as the result of a founder effect due to a preference for consanguineous marriages. ..