serum globulins


Summary: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Dec M, Wernicki A. Conglutinin, CL-43 and CL-46--three bovine collectins. Pol J Vet Sci. 2006;9:265-75 pubmed
    ..Conglutinin and CL-43 show antiviral activities towards influenza A virus and rotaviruses. Conglutinin also displays protective activity against bacterial infections. ..
  2. Alexandrescu D, Wiernik P. Serum globulins as marker of immune restoration after treatment with high-dose rituximab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Med Oncol. 2008;25:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..6%, which increased further to 17.3% at maximum clinical response. Serum globulins increased significantly compared with pre-treatment values at maximum clinical response to rituximab overall (..
  3. Krogh Meibom T, Ingvartsen K, Tornoe I, Palaniyar N, Willis A, Holmskov U. A simple two-step purification procedure for the iC3b binding collectin conglutinin. J Immunol Methods. 2010;362:204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3-3.2 nM). SDS-PAGE and time-resolved immunofluorometric assays showed that the conglutinin was not contaminated with other serum collectins such as collectin-43 or mannan-binding lectin. ..
  4. Purdy C, Loan R, Straus D, Briggs R, Frank G. Conglutinin and immunoconglutinin titers in stressed calves in a feedlot. Am J Vet Res. 2000;61:1403-9 pubmed
  5. Omoigberale A, Abiodun P, Famodu A. Fibrinolytic activity in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. East Afr Med J. 2005;82:103-5 pubmed
  6. Esadeg S, He H, Pijnenborg R, Van Leuven F, Croy B. Alpha-2 macroglobulin controls trophoblast positioning in mouse implantation sites. Placenta. 2003;24:912-21 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M, and thereby proteinases and/or cytokines whose bio-availability is regulated by alpha 2M, exert significant decidual regulation on trophoblast invasion. ..
  7. Olszewski W, Pazdur J, Kubasiewicz E, Zaleska M, Cooke C, Miller N. Lymph draining from foot joints in rheumatoid arthritis provides insight into local cytokine and chemokine production and transport to lymph nodes. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:541-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of cytokines in lymph should provide insight into events in inflamed tissues in RA and in regional lymph nodes. ..
  8. Fleischer L, Gerber G, Liezenga R, Lippert E, Scholl M, Westphal G. Blood cells and plasma proteins of chickens fed a diet supplemented with (1-->3),(1-->6)-beta-D-glucan and enrofloxacin. Arch Tierernahr. 2000;53:59-73 pubmed
    ..The haemoglobin concentration shows in all three dietary groups a highly significant increase from day 17 to day 35 by about 17 to 27 per cent; no changes are seen in packed cell volume and number of erythrocytes per litre blood. ..
  9. Tanaka A, Suzuki Y, Sugihara K, Kanayama N, Urano T. Inactivation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by activated factor XII plays a role in the enhancement of fibrinolysis by contact factors in-vitro. Life Sci. 2009;85:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..PAI-1 inactivation by FXIIa appears to be a mechanism by which contact phase coagulation factors enhance fibrinolysis independently of thrombin generation. ..

More Information


  1. Hartshorn K, Sastry K, Chang D, White M, Crouch E. Enhanced anti-influenza activity of a surfactant protein D and serum conglutinin fusion protein. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L90-8 pubmed
  2. Krautwald Junghanns M, Bartels T, Richter A, Pees M. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;113:368-70, 372-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. ..
  3. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Yong Meng G, Ebrahimi M, Teck Chwen L, Mehrbod P, et al. Effect of dietary combination of methionine and fish oil on cellular immunity and plasma fatty acids in infectious bursal disease challenged chickens. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:531397 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. ..
  4. Paniagua R, Ventura M, Rodriguez E, Sil J, Galindo T, Hurtado M, et al. Impact of fill volume on peritoneal clearances and cytokine appearance in peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2004;24:156-62 pubmed
    ..With the use of higher volumes, fluid absorption rate and the appearance of proinflammatory cytokines in the dialysate are increased. ..
  5. Panciera D, Johnston S. Results of thyroid function tests and concentrations of plasma proteins in dogs administered etodolac. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1492-5 pubmed
    ..A decrease in plasma protein concentrations may reflect subclinical injury of the gastrointestinal tract. ..
  6. Hoseini S, Rajabiesterabadi H, Kordrostami S. Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: Effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..04 and 0.06 ppm groups. It is concluded that Cu exposure could adversely affect growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, which might affect its ecological features. ..
  7. Wu Q, Sugimoto K, Moriyama K, Adachi Y, Nakayama A, J Mori K. Cloning of hibernation-related genes of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) by cDNA subtraction. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;133:85-94 pubmed
    ..Annual analyses of the expression of these genes have suggested that the seven winter-specific genes are playing an important role in hibernation processes. ..
  8. Nuntnarumit P, Korones S, Yang W, Bada H. Efficacy and safety of tolazoline for treatment of severe hypoxemia in extremely preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2002;109:852-6 pubmed
    ..Tolazoline is an effective treatment of severe resistant hypoxemia in preterm infants who are already on vigorous ventilatory support. ..
  9. Zalewska Rydzkowska D, Rosc D, Ponikowska I, Michalski A, Graczykowska Koczorowska A, Rydzkowski M. [Plasminogen activators (t-PA and u-PA) and other fibrinolysis parameters in patients with atherosclerosis obliterans and diabetic macroangiopathy]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001;11:414-7 pubmed
    ..It was probably compensation for hypercoagulability. 2) Elevated t-PA:Ag concentration in patients with AO and DM is an evidence of the higher releasing of the endothelium in AO and DM. ..
  10. Azab B, Bhatt V, Vonfrolio S, Bachir R, Rubinshteyn V, Alkaied H, et al. Value of the pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio in predicting long-term mortality in breast cancer patients. Am J Surg. 2013;206:764-70 pubmed publisher
    ..6, the AGR remained a significant predictor of survival (P .0018). Pretreatment AGR is an independent, significant predictor of long-term mortality in breast cancer patients, even in patients with normal albumin levels. ..
  11. Runk D, Madigan J, Rahal C, Allison D, Fredrickson K. Measurement of plasma colloid osmotic pressure in normal thoroughbred neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:475-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the plasma COP interval (95% CI: 15.0 mm Hg, 22.6 mm Hg) obtained for healthy foals in this study was found to be lower than that of healthy adult Thoroughbreds (20.6 +/- 0.7 mm Hg, P = .006). ..
  12. Hamburger R, Douglass J. Chloramphenicol-specific antibody. IV. Neutralization of antibiotic effect on Escherichia coli. Immunology. 1969;17:599-602 pubmed
  13. Zheng C, Voutetakis A, Kok M, Goldsmith C, Smith G, Elmore S, et al. Toxicity and biodistribution of a first-generation recombinant adenoviral vector, in the presence of hydroxychloroquine, following retroductal delivery to a single rat submandibular gland. Oral Dis. 2006;12:137-44 pubmed
    ..On day 3, none of the animals tested positive for the presence of replication competent adenovirus in either their blood or saliva. Salivary gland delivery of AdCMVhGH +/-HCQ appears associated with limited toxicity in rats. ..
  14. Radakovic S, Surbatovic M, Stankovic N, Filipovic N. [Changes in concentrations of sera proteins in war wound]. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2005;52:59-64 pubmed
    ..These changes are the most promminent during the first 5 days, with tendency for normalization after that. Intensity of these changes depends of the severity of trauma. ..
  15. Asmathulla S, Koner B, Papa D. Does oxidative stress play a role in altered plasma protein homeostasis in pregnancy-induced hypertension?. Acta Physiol Hung. 2011;98:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that oxidative damages to proteins contribute to decreased serum protein levels in PIH and hypersialylation of plasma proteins is probably body’s protective mechanism to combat oxidative protein damage in PIH. ..
  16. Bandak S, Czejka M, Schuller J. In vitro and in vivo binding of epirubicin to red blood cells and human plasma proteins. Z Naturforsch C. 1994;49:483-8 pubmed
    ..96%, 11.6 +/- 3.1% and 10.05 +/- 3.5% respectively, their availability in serum was 42.6 +/- 11.8%, 2.4 +/- 0.4% and 1.2 +/- 0.67% respectively. ..
  17. Overbergh L, Torrekens S, Van Leuven F, Van den Berghe H. Molecular characterization of the murinoglobulins. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:16903-10 pubmed
    ..The presence of suitable intron/exon splice sites show that a relatively small part of the intron is being introduced as an exon in the mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  18. Al Joudi F. Prognostic value of an index for serum globulin compensation in colon and breast cancers. Singapore Med J. 2005;46:710-3 pubmed
    ..We examined the prognostic value of the level of serum globulins in colorectal and breast cancers. Data of 80 patients with advanced colon and breast cancers were analysed...
  19. Mirick G, Bradt B, Denardo S, Denardo G. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;48:251-7 pubmed
    ..This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades. ..
  20. Gray R, Canfield P, Rogers T. Serum proteins in the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica and the coast of NSW, Australia. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;142:67-78 pubmed
    ..This technique could also be used to identify the presence of environmental stressors, subclinical disease and physiological variation within specific seal populations. ..
  21. Forconi S, Cappelli R, Guerrini M, Frigerio C, Messa G, Furesi L. Fibrinolytic activity of oral cyclandelate in patients with generalized atherosclerotic vasculopathy: a double-blind study. J Int Med Res. 1990;18:257-65 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the fibrinolytic activity of cyclandelate has implications for the treatment of cardiovascular complications of atherosclerosis. ..
  22. Ranuncolo S, Armanasco E, Cresta C, Bal de Kier Joffe E, Puricelli L. Plasma MMP-9 (92 kDa-MMP) activity is useful in the follow-up and in the assessment of prognosis in breast cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2003;106:745-51 pubmed
    ..Our results, which show a good correlation between plasma MMP-9 activity and the clinical status of each patient, suggest its usefulness as a marker both in the follow-up and in the prognosis of breast cancer patients. ..
  23. Nava M, Aller M, Vega M, Prieto I, Valdes F, Arias J. Altered proteinogram in short term portal vein stenosed rats. Chin J Physiol. 2002;45:89-93 pubmed
  24. Lachmann P. A sedimentation pattern technique for measuring conglutination: its application to demonstrating immunoconglutinins to C'4. Immunology. 1966;11:263-71 pubmed
  25. Libório A, Rocha N, Oliveira M, Franco L, Aguiar G, Pimentel R, et al. Acute kidney injury in children with visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:451-4 pubmed publisher
    ..03), potassium (P = 0.009), serum albumin (P = 0.001), and elevated serum globulins (P = 0.04), and a more prolonged prothrombin time (P = 0.001) at admission...
  26. Kawai T, Kase T, Suzuki Y, Eda S, Sakamoto T, Ohtani K, et al. Anti-influenza A virus activities of mannan-binding lectins and bovine conglutinin. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:221-4 pubmed
    ..Like human MBL, bovine MBL and BKg showed antiviral activities at their physiological concentrations. These results suggest that mammalian MBLs and BKg may inhibit the spread of influenza A virus through the bloodstream. ..
  27. Wang X, Xu L, Meng H, Lu D, Chen Z, Lu R. [Long-term clinical and hematologic effects of non-surgical treatment on aggressive periodontitis]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;48:467-71 pubmed
    ..05). Non-surgical treatment may have long-term beneficial effect on the periodontal clinical status and hematologic parameters of generalized aggressive periodontitis. ..
  28. Asmuth D, Ma Z, Albanese A, Sandler N, Devaraj S, Knight T, et al. Oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin improves duodenal immune reconstitution and absorption function in patients with HIV enteropathy. AIDS. 2013;27:2207-17 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhu L, Zhuo L, Kimata K, Yamaguchi E, Watanabe H, Aronica M, et al. Deficiency in the serum-derived hyaluronan-associated protein-hyaluronan complex enhances airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:223-33 pubmed publisher
  30. Tabibi R, Corsini E, Brambilla G, Bonizzi L, Melzi d Eril G, Rabozzi G, et al. Immune changes in animal breeders: a pilot study conducted in northern Italy. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:221-5 pubmed
    ..The prognostic significance of these findings, however, remains unclear, but the observed changes might be indicative of a risk of developing respiratory toxic and allergic diseases, which need to be further investigated. ..
  31. Beyraghdar Kashkooli O, Ebrahimi Dorcheh E, Mahboobi Soofiani N, Samie A. Long-term effects of propolis on serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:315-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our findings, propolis is a non-toxic substance for rainbow trout and its long-term administration might not have any side effects. ..
  32. Adediran I, Ikem R, Borisade M. Fibrinolytic activity in Nigerian diabetics. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80:610-2 pubmed
    ..The prolonged ELT in the diabetic population is an additional risk factor for thromboembolic disorders. Fibrinolytic agents may therefore be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus. ..
  33. Jasielczuk J, Dabrowka M, Gacko M, Jankiewicz M. Amidolytic activity of plasma euglobulins. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 2004;49 Suppl 1:250-1 pubmed
    ..Amidolytic activity of plasmin, produced in euglobulin fraction, does not correlate with the time of euglobulin fibrinolysis. It does not depend on fibrinogen concentration. ..
  34. Saito A, Sinohara H. Murinoglobulin, a novel protease inhibitor from murine plasma. Isolation, characterization, and comparison with murine alpha-macroglobulin and human alpha-2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:775-81 pubmed
    ..5, whereas murinoglobulin was inactivated at this pH. Murinoglobulin was more sensitive to methylamine than the two macroglobulins. No protein corresponding to murinoglobulin was detected in human plasma. ..
  35. Urano T, Ihara H, Takada Y, Fujie M, Takada A. The cleavage and inactivation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and alpha2-antiplasmin by reptilase, a thrombin-like venom enzyme. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2000;11:145-53 pubmed
    ..Since all these three enzymes enhance fibrinolysis similarly during defibrination therapy, the neutralization or inactivation of the inhibitors of fibrinolysis appeared not to represent the main mechanism for the enhancement. ..
  36. Overbergh L, Lorent K, Torrekens S, Van Leuven F, Van den Berghe H. Expression of mouse alpha-macroglobulins, lipoprotein receptor-related protein, LDL receptor, apolipoprotein E, and lipoprotein lipase in pregnancy. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:1774-86 pubmed
  37. Schmilovitz Weiss H, Tovar A, Halpern M, Sulkes J, Braun M, Rotman Y, et al. Predictive value of serum globulin levels for the extent of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:671-7 pubmed
    ..They can serve as noninvasive markers of hepatic fibrosis and, if confirmed, have important implications for the management of patients with chronic HBV infection. ..
  38. Smith A, Jacobson L, Miller B, Hathaway W, Manco Johnson M. A new euglobulin clot lysis assay for global fibrinolysis. Thromb Res. 2003;112:329-37 pubmed
    ..These observations are interesting, but at this time, it cannot be said that any of the test parameters are better than lysis time in distinguishing between these normal physiologic states. ..
  39. Shaker N, Hassan G, el Nouty F, Abo Elezz Z, Abd Allah G. In vivo chronic effect of dimethoate and deltamethrin on rabbits. J Environ Sci Health B. 1988;23:387-99 pubmed
    ..Both doses of deltamethrin increased ATPase activity after the first month of treatment, then the ATPase activity was normal. Dimethoate inhibited ATPase particularly at the end of treatment in a dose dependent manner. ..
  40. Roszman T, Folds J, Stavitsky A. A kinetic and quantitative analysis of antibody and protein synthesis during the primary response to keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Immunology. 1971;20:1041-53 pubmed
  41. Prokopenko P, Borisenko S, Sokolov A, Terentyev A. Identification and characterization of serum protein in patients with ovarian cancer. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002;133:156-9 pubmed
    ..The protein is liable to oligomerization. Comparative characteristics of serum oncoovarian alpha-1-globulin and CA-125 antigen are presented. ..
  42. Petersen L, Elm T, Ezban M, Krogh T, Karpf D, Steinø A, et al. Plasma elimination kinetics for factor VII are independent of its activation to factor VIIa and complex formation with plasma inhibitors. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:818-26 pubmed
    ..All FVII derivatives studied including FVII, FVIIa and FVIIa-AT were cleared with similar rates suggesting an elimination kinetics which is unaffected by FVII activation and subsequent inactivation by plasma inhibitors. ..
  43. Knox K, Reid S, Irwin T, Murray M, Gettinby G. Objective interpretation of bovine clinical biochemistry data: application of Bayes law to a database model. Prev Vet Med. 1998;33:147-58 pubmed
    ..The results from the study were used to form the basis of a software system which may ultimately be used by the clinical to aid in the recognition, treatment and prevention of disease in the veterinary domain. ..
  44. Guardia J, Ortiz Butcher C, Bourgoignie J. Oncotic pressure and edema formation in hypoalbuminemic HIV-infected patients with proteinuria. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;30:822-8 pubmed
    ..HIVN patients with increased serum immune globulin may benefit from higher globulin oncotic pressure, delaying the onset of clinical edema in the setting of proteinuria...
  45. Harrus S, Waner T, Avidar Y, Bogin E, Peh H, Bark H. Serum protein alterations in canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Parasitol. 1996;66:241-9 pubmed
    ..canis infected dogs is more compromised, and therefore secondary infections should be expected more frequently in these dogs. ..
  46. Lu J, Laursen S, Thiel S, Jensenius J, Reid K. The cDNA cloning of conglutinin and identification of liver as a primary site of synthesis of conglutinin in members of the Bovidae. Biochem J. 1993;292 ( Pt 1):157-62 pubmed
  47. Cheng S. Partial amino acid sequence of human thyroxine-binding globulin. Further evidence for a single polypeptide chain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;79:1212-8 pubmed
  48. Hannisdal E, Tveit K, Theodorsen L, Høst H. Host markers and prognosis in recurrent rectal carcinomas treated with radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:415-21 pubmed
    ..A prognostic index was derived from the prospective group including ESR, LD and relapse-free interval. This clearly separated the patients in the retrospective group into one low- and one high-risk group. ..
  49. Abu el Asrar A, Abdel Gader A, Al Amro S, Al Momem A. Fibrinolytic activity in retinal vein occlusion. Int Ophthalmol. 1997;21:343-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that impaired fibrinolysis due to increased PAI activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion. ..
  50. Al Aly Z, Valdez H, Moiz A, Bastani B. Evaluation of serum anion gap in patients with HIV. J Nephrol. 2007;20:727-30 pubmed
  51. McKenzie E, Jose Cunilleras E, Hinchcliff K, Holbrook T, Royer C, Payton M, et al. Serum chemistry alterations in Alaskan sled dogs during five successive days of prolonged endurance exercise. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230:1486-92 pubmed
    ..Hypoglobulinemia in resting, conditioned sled dogs may reflect the immunosuppressive or catabolic effects of intense endurance training. ..
  52. Krogh Meibom T, Holmskov U, Løvendahl P, Nielsen N, Ingvartsen K. A time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for quantification of the bovine collectin conglutinin. J Immunol Methods. 2004;286:87-96 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the developed TRIFMA for bovine conglutinin is specific and reliable over a measurement range covering most situations. ..
  53. Gjerstorff M, Madsen J, Bendixen C, Holmskov U, Hansen S. Genomic and molecular characterization of bovine surfactant protein D (SP-D). Mol Immunol. 2004;41:369-76 pubmed
    ..By genotyping we assigned two potential polymorphisms leading to variations in the amino acid composition of the carbohydrate recognition domain (242 Glu/Val and 268 Ala/Gly). ..