protein c

Summary

Summary: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.

Top Publications

  1. Wang Y, Zhao Z, Chow N, Rajput P, Griffin J, Lyden P, et al. Activated protein C analog protects from ischemic stroke and extends the therapeutic window of tissue-type plasminogen activator in aged female mice and hypertensive rats. Stroke. 2013;44:3529-36 pubmed publisher
    3K3A-activated protein C (APC) protects young, healthy male rodents after ischemic stroke. 3K3A-APC is currently under development as a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in humans...
  2. Bae J, Rezaie A. Activated protein C inhibits high mobility group box 1 signaling in endothelial cells. Blood. 2011;118:3952-9 pubmed publisher
    A pathogenic role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been postulated in severe sepsis. Activated protein C (APC) is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for severe sepsis; however, its effect on HMGB1 ..
  3. Disse J, Petersen H, Larsen K, Persson E, ESMON N, Esmon C, et al. The endothelial protein C receptor supports tissue factor ternary coagulation initiation complex signaling through protease-activated receptors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5756-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is crucial for signaling by activated protein C through PAR1, but EPCR may have additional roles ..
  4. Muller J, Friedrich M, Becher T, Braunstein J, Kupper T, Berdel P, et al. Monitoring of plasma levels of activated protein C using a clinically applicable oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:390-8 pubmed publisher
    Human-activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions. This feature renders APC to be a promising vascular-inflammatory biomarker...
  5. Fei D, Meng X, Zhao M, Kang K, Tan G, Pan S, et al. Enhanced induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses thrombus formation and affects the protein C system in sepsis. Transl Res. 2012;159:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of HO-1 on thrombus formation and the protein C system in a septic C57BL/6 mouse model induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP)...
  6. Oudot Mellakh T, Cohen W, Germain M, Saut N, Kallel C, Zelenika D, et al. Genome wide association study for plasma levels of natural anticoagulant inhibitors and protein C anticoagulant pathway: the MARTHA project. Br J Haematol. 2012;157:230-9 pubmed publisher
    Deficiencies of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) or an impaired PC anticoagulant pathway increase the risk of venous thrombosis (VT)...
  7. Lichtnekert J, Rupanagudi K, Kulkarni O, Darisipudi M, Allam R, Anders H. Activated protein C attenuates systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. J Immunol. 2011;187:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated protein C is a natural protein with anticoagulant and immunomodulatory effects, and its recombinant version has been ..
  8. Shaw A, Vail G, Haney D, Xie J, Williams M. Severe protein C deficiency is associated with organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis. J Crit Care. 2011;26:539-45 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between protein C levels and temporal changes in organ dysfunction...
  9. Geiger H, Pawar S, Kerschen E, Nattamai K, Hernandez I, Liang H, et al. Pharmacological targeting of the thrombomodulin-activated protein C pathway mitigates radiation toxicity. Nat Med. 2012;18:1123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify the thrombomodulin (Thbd)-activated protein C (aPC) pathway as a new mechanism for the mitigation of total body irradiation (TBI)-induced mortality...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Roselli M, Ferroni P, Riondino S, Mariotti S, Laudisi A, Vergati M, et al. Impact of chemotherapy on activated protein C-dependent thrombin generation--association with VTE occurrence. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To this purpose, a mono-institutional study was prospectively conducted to monitor serial changes of activated protein C (APC) function in 505 consecutive cancer out-patients with primary or relapsing solid cancer at the start of a ..
  2. Madhusudhan T, Wang H, Straub B, Gröne E, Zhou Q, Shahzad K, et al. Cytoprotective signaling by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-3 in podocytes. Blood. 2012;119:874-83 pubmed publisher
    The cytoprotective effects of activated protein C (aPC) are well established. In contrast, the receptors and signaling mechanism through which aPC conveys cytoprotection in various cell types remain incompletely defined...
  3. Ammollo C, Semeraro F, Xu J, Esmon N, Esmon C. Extracellular histones increase plasma thrombin generation by impairing thrombomodulin-dependent protein C activation. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:1795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein C-thrombomodulin (TM) system is a fundamental regulator of coagulation, particularly in the microvasculature, and ..
  4. Bae J, Yang L, Rezaie A. Factor X/Xa elicits protective signaling responses in endothelial cells directly via PAR-2 and indirectly via endothelial protein C receptor-dependent recruitment of PAR-1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34803-12 pubmed publisher
    We recently demonstrated that the Gla domain-dependent interaction of protein C with endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) leads to dissociation of the receptor from caveolin-1 and recruitment of PAR-1 to a protective signaling pathway...
  5. Dempfle C, Elmas E, Link A, Suvajac N, Liebe V, Janes J, et al. Endogenous plasma activated protein C levels and the effect of enoxaparin and drotrecogin alfa (activated) on markers of coagulation activation and fibrinolysis in pulmonary embolism. Crit Care. 2011;15:R23 pubmed publisher
    There are no published data on the status of endogenous activated protein C (APC) in pulmonary embolism (PE), and no data on the effect of drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DAA) given in addition to therapeutic dose enoxaparin...
  6. Farah R, Jalkh K, Farhat H, Sayad P, Kadri A. Acquired protein C deficiency in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia, splenic, renal, and intestinal infarction. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22:140-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypercoagulation studies showed severe deficiency of protein C. Tests showed protein C 16% (reference range 70-140%), protein S 87% (reference range 70-140%), antithrombin III ..
  7. Wu C, Dwivedi D, Pepler L, Lysov Z, Waye J, Julian J, et al. Targeted gene sequencing identifies variants in the protein C and endothelial protein C receptor genes in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2674-81 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of protein C (PC) with the endothelial PC receptor (EPCR) enhances activated PC generation...
  8. Whitmont K, Fulcher G, Reid I, Xue M, McKelvey K, Xie Y, et al. Low circulating protein C levels are associated with lower leg ulcers in patients with diabetes. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:719570 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) promotes angiogenesis and reepithelialisation and accelerates healing of diabetic ulcers...
  9. Barhoover M, Kalafatis M. Cleavage at both Arg306 and Arg506 is required and sufficient for timely and efficient inactivation of factor Va by activated protein C. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22:317-24 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) inactivates membrane-bound factor Va following cleavages of the heavy chain at Arg, Arg, and Arg. The objective of this study is to examine which cleavage is most important for inactivation...
  10. Zeerleder S, Stephan F, Emonts M, de Kleijn E, Esmon C, Varadi K, et al. Circulating nucleosomes and severity of illness in children suffering from meningococcal sepsis treated with protein C. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:3224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated protein C was demonstrated to attenuate the harmful effects of histones...
  11. Wang Y, Sinha R, Mosnier L, Griffin J, Zlokovic B. Neurotoxicity of the anticoagulant-selective E149A-activated protein C variant after focal ischemic stroke in mice. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2013;51:104-8 pubmed publisher
    Wild type (WT) activated protein C (APC) and cytoprotective-selective APC variants such as 3K3A-APC (<10% anticoagulant but normal cytoprotective activity) are neuroprotective in murine focal ischemic stroke models...
  12. Ni Ainle F, O Donnell J, Johnson J, Brown L, Gleeson E, Smith O, et al. Activated protein C N-linked glycans modulate cytoprotective signaling function on endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) has potent anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties that limit clot formation, inhibit apoptosis, and protect vascular endothelial cell barrier integrity...
  13. Sadaka F, O Brien J, Migneron M, Stortz J, Vanston A, Taylor R. Activated protein C in septic shock: a propensity-matched analysis. Crit Care. 2011;15:R89 pubmed publisher
    The use of human recombinant activated protein C (rhAPC) for the treatment of severe sepsis remains controversial despite multiple reported trials. The efficacy of rhAPC remains a matter of dispute...
  14. Shorr A, Janes J, Artigas A, Tenhunen J, Wyncoll D, Mercier E, et al. Randomized trial evaluating serial protein C levels in severe sepsis patients treated with variable doses of drotrecogin alfa (activated). Crit Care. 2010;14:R229 pubmed publisher
    Serial alterations in protein C levels appear to correlate with disease severity in patients with severe sepsis, and it may be possible to tailor severe sepsis therapy with the use of this biomarker...
  15. Gil Bernabe P, D Alessandro Gabazza C, Toda M, Boveda Ruiz D, Miyake Y, Suzuki T, et al. Exogenous activated protein C inhibits the progression of diabetic nephropathy. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10:337-46 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) can regulate immune and inflammatory responses and apoptosis...
  16. Puig F, Fuster G, Adda M, Blanch L, Farre R, Navajas D, et al. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56965 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC) on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed to thrombin...
  17. Johansson P, Stensballe J, Rasmussen L, Ostrowski S. A high admission syndecan-1 level, a marker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, is associated with inflammation, protein C depletion, fibrinolysis, and increased mortality in trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2011;254:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..group box 1 (HMGB1), thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, protein C, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), antithrombin, D-dimer, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), ..
  18. Campbell J, Brummel Ziedins K, Butenas S, Mann K. Cellular regulation of blood coagulation: a model for venous stasis. Blood. 2010;116:6082-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EA.hy926 provides thrombin-dependent protein C activation and APC fVa inactivation...
  19. Safdar H, Cheung K, Salvatori D, Versteeg H, Laghmani E, Wagenaar G, et al. Acute and severe coagulopathy in adult mice following silencing of hepatic antithrombin and protein C production. Blood. 2013;121:4413-6 pubmed publisher
    Mice deficient in the anticoagulants antithrombin (Serpinc1) or protein C (Proc) display premature death due to thrombosis-related coagulopathy, thereby precluding their use in gene function studies and thrombosis models...
  20. Kager L, Wiersinga W, Roelofs J, Meijers J, Zeerleder S, Esmon C, et al. Endogenous protein C has a protective role during Gram-negative pneumosepsis (melioidosis). J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:282-92 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) exerts anticoagulant effects via inactivation of factors Va and VIIIa and cytoprotective effects via protease activated receptor (PAR)1...
  21. Yen Y, Yang H, Lo H, Hsieh Y, Tsai S, Hong C, et al. Enhancing autophagy with activated protein C and rapamycin protects against sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Surgery. 2013;153:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..At 1 hour after CLP, mice were treated with vehicle, activated protein C (APC), rapamycin, or bafilomycin A1...
  22. Tientadakul P, Chinthammitr Y, Sanpakit K, Wongwanit C, Nilanont Y. Inappropriate use of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin testing for hereditary thrombophilia screening: an experience from a large university hospital. Int J Lab Hematol. 2011;33:593-600 pubmed publisher
    Deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin are the main inherited risk factors in Thai patients with venous thromboembolism, although the prevalence is not high...
  23. Schuepbach R, Velez K, Riewald M. Activated protein C up-regulates procoagulant tissue factor activity on endothelial cells by shedding the TFPI Kunitz 1 domain. Blood. 2011;117:6338-46 pubmed publisher
    Thrombin and activated protein C (APC) signaling can mediate opposite biologic responses in endothelial cells. Given that thrombin induces procoagulant tissue factor (TF), we examined how TF activity is affected by APC...
  24. Della Valle P, Pavani G, D Angelo A. The protein C pathway and sepsis. Thromb Res. 2012;129:296-300 pubmed publisher
    After the discovery of the key components of the protein C (PC) pathway a beneficial effect on survival of the infusion of activated protein C (APC) in animal models of sepsis was demonstrated, leading to the development of recombinant ..
  25. Xue M, Chow S, Dervish S, Chan Y, Julovi S, Jackson C. Activated protein C enhances human keratinocyte barrier integrity via sequential activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Tie2. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:6742-50 pubmed publisher
    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier ..
  26. van Sluis G, Brüggemann L, Esmon C, Kamphuisen P, Richel D, Buller H, et al. Endogenous activated protein C is essential for immune-mediated cancer cell elimination from the circulation. Cancer Lett. 2011;306:106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, endogenous activated protein C (APC) limits cancer cell extravasation due to sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S(1)P(1)) and VE-cadherin-..
  27. Bir N, Lafargue M, Howard M, Goolaerts A, Roux J, Carles M, et al. Cytoprotective-selective activated protein C attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated protein C (aPC) blocks the development of an unfavorably low ratio of small GTPase Rac1/RhoA activity in lung endothelium ..
  28. Soh U, Trejo J. Activated protein C promotes protease-activated receptor-1 cytoprotective signaling through ?-arrestin and dishevelled-2 scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, activation of PAR1 with the anticoagulant protease activated protein C (APC) results in activation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and endothelial barrier ..
  29. Zhu T, Ding Q, Bai X, Wang X, Kaguelidou F, Alberti C, et al. Normal ranges and genetic variants of antithrombin, protein C and protein S in the general Chinese population. Results of the Chinese Hemostasis Investigation on Natural Anticoagulants Study I Group. Haematologica. 2011;96:1033-40 pubmed publisher
    Inherited deficiency of antithrombin, protein C and protein S, three important, naturally occurring coagulation inhibitors, might play a major role in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism in Chinese...
  30. Antón I, Molina E, Luis Ravelo D, Zandueta C, Valencia K, Ormazábal C, et al. Receptor of activated protein C promotes metastasis and correlates with clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the contribution of activated protein C (APC) and its receptor (endothelial protein C receptor [EPCR]) in animal models of lung cancer metastasis and in ..
  31. Bergrem A, Dahm A, Jacobsen A, Mowinckel M, Sandvik L, Sandset P. Resistance to activated protein C is a risk factor for pregnancy-related venous thrombosis in the absence of the F5 rs6025 (factor V Leiden) polymorphism. Br J Haematol. 2011;154:241-7 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to activated protein C (aPC) is most commonly due to the F5 rs6025 (factor V Leiden) polymorphism, which increases the risk of venous thrombosis...
  32. Spek C, Arruda V. The protein C pathway in cancer metastasis. Thromb Res. 2012;129 Suppl 1:S80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..to benefit cancer patients, recent experiments aimed to elucidate the importance of the natural anticoagulant protein C pathways in cancer progression...
  33. Schouten M, de Boer J, Van Der Sluijs K, Roelofs J, Van T Veer C, Levi M, et al. Impact of endogenous protein C on pulmonary coagulation and injury during lethal H1N1 influenza in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..injury are associated with procoagulant and inflammatory derangements in the lungs and down-regulation of the protein C (PC) pathway has been correlated with disease severity and mortality in severe bacterial pneumonia and sepsis...
  34. Esmon C. Protein C anticoagulant system--anti-inflammatory effects. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:127-32 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) plays active roles in preventing progression of a number of disease processes...
  35. Brückner M, Lasarzik I, Jahn Eimermacher A, Peetz D, Werner C, Engelhard K, et al. High dose infusion of activated protein C (rhAPC) fails to improve neuronal damage and cognitive deficit after global cerebral ischemia in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2013;551:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated anticoagulatory, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective properties of activated protein C (APC) in rodent models of acute neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting APC as promising broad acting therapeutic ..
  36. Hisatomi K, Yamada T, Odate T, Yamashita K. Intermittent coronary artery occlusion caused by a floating thrombus in the left coronary sinus of valsalva of a patient with a normal aorta and protein C deficiency. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92:1508-10 pubmed publisher
    ..On histologic examination the mass was found to be a thrombus. This patient had a low level of protein C; therefore, it was presumed that the thrombus was due to protein C deficiency.
  37. Bock F, Shahzad K, Wang H, Stoyanov S, Wolter J, Dong W, et al. Activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by epigenetically inhibiting the redox enzyme p66Shc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:648-53 pubmed publisher
    The coagulation protease activated protein C (aPC) confers cytoprotective effects in various in vitro and in vivo disease models, including diabetic nephropathy. The nephroprotective effect may be related to antioxidant effects of aPC...
  38. Ding J, Tong X, Yang J, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Yang J, et al. Activated protein C protects myocardium via activation of anti-apoptotic pathways of survival in ischemia-reperfused rat heart. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1609-15 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) is known to be beneficial on ischemia reperfusion injury in myocardium. However, the protection mechanism of APC is not fully understood...
  39. Bouwens E, Stavenuiter F, Mosnier L. Mechanisms of anticoagulant and cytoprotective actions of the protein C pathway. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11 Suppl 1:242-53 pubmed publisher
    The protein C pathway provides multiple important functions to maintain a regulated balance between hemostasis and host defense systems in response to vascular and inflammatory injury...
  40. Pintao M, Roshani S, De Visser M, Tieken C, Tanck M, Wichers I, et al. High levels of protein C are determined by PROCR haplotype 3. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:969-76 pubmed publisher
    Genetic determinants of plasma levels of protein C (PC) are poorly understood. Recently, we identified a locus on chromosome 20 determining high PC levels in a large Dutch pedigree with unexplained thrombophilia...
  41. Mukherjee S, Swystun L, Mackman N, Wang J, Pond G, Levine M, et al. Impact of chemotherapy on thrombin generation and on the protein C pathway in breast cancer patients. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2010;37:88-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on thrombin generation, the protein C anticoagulant pathway, and microparticle tissue factor (MP TF) activity in 26 breast cancer patients (stages I ..
  42. Ohga S, Kang D, Kinjo T, Ochiai M, Doi T, Ishimura M, et al. Paediatric presentation and outcome of congenital protein C deficiency in Japan. Haemophilia. 2013;19:378-84 pubmed publisher
    Severe heritable protein C (PC) deficiency is quite rare, although heterozygous PROC mutation is the second leading cause of genetic predisposition to thrombosis in Japanese adults...
  43. Kager L, Roelofs J, de Vos A, Wieland C, Schouten M, Meijers J, et al. The endothelial protein C receptor and activated protein C play a limited role in host defense during experimental tuberculosis. Thromb Haemost. 2013;109:726-37 pubmed publisher
    The protein C (PC) system is an important regulator of both coagulation and inflammation. Activated PC (APC), together with its receptor the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties...
  44. Fink K, Busch H, Bourgeois N, Schwarz M, Wolf D, Zirlik A, et al. Mac-1 directly binds to the endothelial protein C-receptor: a link between the protein C anticoagulant pathway and inflammation?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53103 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial protein C-receptor (EPCR) is an endothelial transmembrane protein that binds protein C and activated protein C (APC) with equal affinity, thereby facilitating APC formation...
  45. Jordan S, Chaikof E. Simulated surface-induced thrombin generation in a flow field. Biophys J. 2011;101:276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..of blood flow, spatial distribution of tissue factor (TF), and the importance of the thrombomodulin-activated protein C inhibitory pathway. We define an effective prothrombotic zone that extends well beyond the dimensions of injury...
  46. Saito A. Diversity of human plasma protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2012;130:661-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor was purified from human plasma by use of a dermatan sulfate or heparin column, followed by hydroxyapatite, gel filtration and ion exchange columns...
  47. Qi X, Chen H, Han G. Effect of antithrombin, protein C and protein S on portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. Am J Med Sci. 2013;346:38-44 pubmed publisher
    The effects of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) on the pathogenesis of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver cirrhosis remain controversial in different studies...
  48. Sopel M, Rosin N, Falkenham A, Bezuhly M, Esmon C, Lee T, et al. Treatment with activated protein C (aPC) is protective during the development of myocardial fibrosis: an angiotensin II infusion model in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45663 pubmed publisher
    Myocardial fibrosis contributes to the development of heart failure. Activated Protein C (aPC) is a circulating anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties...
  49. BRAVO M, Orfeo T, Mann K, Everse S. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C. BMC Syst Biol. 2012;6:45 pubmed publisher
    ..loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC), an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex...
  50. Guitton C, Cottereau A, Gerard N, Quillard T, Chauveau A, Devalliere J, et al. Protective cross talk between activated protein C and TNF signaling in vascular endothelial cells: implication of EPCR, noncanonical NF-?B, and ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;300:C833-42 pubmed publisher
    Activated protein C (APC) is a natural anticoagulant protease that displays cytoprotective and antiinflammatory activities and has been demonstrated to reduce mortality of patients with severe sepsis...
  51. Dendana M, Messaoudi S, Hizem S, Jazia K, Almawi W, Gris J, et al. Endothelial protein C receptor 1651C/G polymorphism and soluble endothelial protein C receptor levels in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:30-4 pubmed publisher
    High levels of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) induce coagulation dysfunction by inhibiting protein C activation, and activated protein C (APC) activity...
  52. Meijers J, Herwald H. Protein C inhibitor. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:349-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serine protease inhibitor and was originally identified as an inhibitor of activated protein C (APC)...
  53. Lee B, Mann P, Grover V, Treuner Lange A, Kahnt J, Higgs P. The Myxococcus xanthus spore cuticula protein C is a fragment of FibA, an extracellular metalloprotease produced exclusively in aggregated cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28968 pubmed publisher
    ..are surrounded by an apparently self-assembling cuticula containing at least Proteins S and C; the gene encoding Protein C is unknown. During analyses of cell heterogeneity in M...