opsonin proteins


Summary: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.

Top Publications

  1. Maira Litran T, Kropec A, Goldmann D, Pier G. Comparative opsonic and protective activities of Staphylococcus aureus conjugate vaccines containing native or deacetylated Staphylococcal Poly-N-acetyl-beta-(1-6)-glucosamine. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6752-62 pubmed
    ..aureus infection, including capsular polysaccharide types 5 and 8 and an untypable strain. ..
  2. Ferguson J, Weis J, Martin J, Schlesinger L. Complement protein C3 binding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is initiated by the classical pathway in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2564-73 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis is first inhaled into the lungs of the human host, the bacterium is opsonized by C3 cleavage via classical pathway activation within the alveolus, providing a C3-dependent entry pathway into resident alveolar macrophages. ..
  3. Roos A, Xu W, Castellano G, Nauta A, Garred P, Daha M, et al. Mini-review: A pivotal role for innate immunity in the clearance of apoptotic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:921-9 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that C1q and other opsonins prevent autoimmunity and maintain self-tolerance by supporting the efficient clearance of apoptotic material, as well as by actively modulating phagocyte function. ..
  4. Melin M, Jarva H, Siira L, Meri S, Kayhty H, Vakevainen M. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular serotype 19F is more resistant to C3 deposition and less sensitive to opsonophagocytosis than serotype 6B. Infect Immun. 2009;77:676-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support previous studies suggesting that higher antibody concentrations to the capsular polysaccharide are needed for protection against disease caused by serotype 19F than that caused by 6B. ..
  5. Martinez J, Clutterbuck E, Li H, Romero Steiner S, Carlone G. Evaluation of multiplex flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assays for determination of functional anticapsular antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:459-66 pubmed
  6. Stoiber H, Banki Z, Wilflingseder D, Dierich M. Complement-HIV interactions during all steps of viral pathogenesis. Vaccine. 2008;26:3046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss the role of complement in early and late stages of HIV pathogenesis and review the escape mechanisms, which protect HIV from destruction by the complement system. ..
  7. Romero Steiner S, Frasch C, Carlone G, Fleck R, Goldblatt D, Nahm M. Use of opsonophagocytosis for serological evaluation of pneumococcal vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:165-9 pubmed
  8. Rooijakkers S, van Wamel W, Ruyken M, van Kessel K, van Strijp J. Anti-opsonic properties of staphylokinase. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:476-84 pubmed
    ..The fact that SAK activates human PLG at the bacterial surface and removes IgG as well as C3b makes this protein a unique anti-opsonic molecule. ..
  9. Helmy K, Katschke K, Gorgani N, Kljavin N, Elliott J, Diehl L, et al. CRIg: a macrophage complement receptor required for phagocytosis of circulating pathogens. Cell. 2006;124:915-27 pubmed
    ..CRIg therefore represents a dominant component of the phagocytic system responsible for rapid clearance of C3-opsonized particles from the circulation. ..

More Information


  1. Jaworowski A, Fernandes L, Yosaatmadja F, Feng G, Mwapasa V, Molyneux M, et al. Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coinfection, anemia, and levels and function of antibodies to variant surface antigens in pregnancy-associated malaria. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In multigravid pregnant women with malaria, impaired serum opsonic activity may contribute to anemia and possibly to the decreased immunity to pregnancy-associated malaria associated with HIV-1. ..
  2. Rose C, Romero Steiner S, Burton R, Carlone G, Goldblatt D, Nahm M, et al. Multilaboratory comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae opsonophagocytic killing assays and their level of agreement for the determination of functional antibody activity in human reference sera. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The statistical methodologies employed in this study may serve as a template for evaluating future multilaboratory studies. ..
  3. Premanandan C, Storozuk C, Clay C, Lairmore M, Schlesinger L, Phipps A. Complement protein C3 binding to Bacillus anthracis spores enhances phagocytosis by human macrophages. Microb Pathog. 2009;46:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, surface-bound IgG does initiate the classical pathway of complement activation, which is active in the lung, resulting in deposition of the opsonin C3b on the spore surface. ..
  4. Ben Nasr A, Klimpel G. Subversion of complement activation at the bacterial surface promotes serum resistance and opsonophagocytosis of Francisella tularensis. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..C3b inactivation also leads to inefficient MAC assembly, which contributes to the ability of this bacterium to resist complement lysis. ..
  5. Hill D, Eriksson E, Carmagnac A, Wilson D, Cowman A, Hansen D, et al. Efficient measurement of opsonising antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51692 pubmed publisher
    ..This highly reproducible assay has potential applications in assessing the role of opsonic phagocytosis in naturally acquired immunity and vaccine trials. ..
  6. Schenkein J, Park S, Nahm M. Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potency. Vaccine. 2008;26:5521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, while all ages of adults make similar concentrations of antibodies in response to pneumococcal vaccine, the effectiveness of those antibodies is significantly reduced in the older adult population. ..
  7. Grosskinsky S, Schott M, Brenner C, Cutler S, Kraiczy P, Zipfel P, et al. Borrelia recurrentis employs a novel multifunctional surface protein with anti-complement, anti-opsonic and invasive potential to escape innate immunity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4858 pubmed publisher
    ..recurrentis to escape innate immunity and to persist in human tissues, including the brain, may help to understand the pathological processes underlying louse-borne relapsing fever. ..
  8. Ludlow L, Zhou J, Tippett E, Cheng W, Hasang W, Rogerson S, et al. HIV-1 inhibits phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32102 pubmed publisher
    ..0078) and IL-1? (16 (7-21) versus 33 (27-65); pg/mL; p?=?0.0078). Thus inadequate phagocytosis and cytokine production may contribute to impaired control of malaria in HIV-1 infected individuals. ..
  9. Braun V, Fraisier V, Raposo G, Hurbain I, Sibarita J, Chavrier P, et al. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is required for optimal phagocytosis of opsonised particles in macrophages. EMBO J. 2004;23:4166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TI-VAMP defines a new pathway of membrane delivery required for optimal FcR-mediated phagocytosis...
  10. Brown M, Kowalski R, Zorman J, Wang X, Towne V, Zhao Q, et al. Selection and characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface determinant B with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1095-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that several nonoverlapping epitopes are recognized by the IsdB-specific MAbs, but not all of these epitopes induce protective antibodies. ..
  11. Daubeuf S, Lindorfer M, Taylor R, Joly E, Hudrisier D. The direction of plasma membrane exchange between lymphocytes and accessory cells by trogocytosis is influenced by the nature of the accessory cell. J Immunol. 2010;184:1897-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations open new perspectives to understand the mechanisms involved in trogocytosis and may contribute to optimization of Ab-based immunotherapeutic approaches. ..
  12. Quattrocchi V, Langellotti C, Pappalardo J, Olivera V, Di Giacomo S, van Rooijen N, et al. Role of macrophages in early protective immune responses induced by two vaccines against foot and mouth disease. Antiviral Res. 2011;92:262-70 pubmed publisher
  13. Tippett E, Fernandes L, Rogerson S, Jaworowski A. A novel flow cytometric phagocytosis assay of malaria-infected erythrocytes. J Immunol Methods. 2007;325:42-50 pubmed
    ..These assays have the advantage over other malaria phagocytosis assays in that they are rapid, simple and specific to malaria-infected cells and avoid potential bias associated with manual counting. ..
  14. Li K, Feito M, Sacks S, Sheerin N. CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) acts as a human epithelial cell receptor for internalization of opsonized uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Immunol. 2006;177:2543-51 pubmed
    ..Complement receptor-ligand interaction could pose a new target for interrupting the cycle of reinfection due to intracellular bacteria. ..
  15. Cunnion K, Buescher E, Hair P. Serum complement factor I decreases Staphylococcus aureus phagocytosis. J Lab Clin Med. 2005;146:279-86 pubmed
    ..aureus surface, and thereby enhancing opsonophagocytosis, is a promising potential target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  16. Schulert G, Allen L. Differential infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Francisella tularensis: role of the macrophage mannose receptor. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:563-71 pubmed
    ..Conversely, MDM used MR and CD11b/CD18 to ingest opsonized organisms. Altogether, our data demonstrate differential infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Ft and define distinct roles for MR and CR3 in phagocytosis. ..
  17. Beum P, Lindorfer M, Taylor R. Within peripheral blood mononuclear cells, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of rituximab-opsonized Daudi cells is promoted by NK cells and inhibited by monocytes due to shaving. J Immunol. 2008;181:2916-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that RTX-based immunotherapy of cancer may be enhanced based on paradigms which include infusion of compatible NK cells and inhibition of monocyte shaving activity. ..
  18. Jiravanichpaisal P, Lee B, Soderhall K. Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization and opsonization. Immunobiology. 2006;211:213-36 pubmed
    ..Also the ways in which hemocytes are produced in and released from hematopoietic tissue are discussed. ..
  19. Ebert T, Smith S, Pancari G, Clark D, Hampton R, Secore S, et al. A fully human monoclonal antibody to Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB) with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. Hum Antibodies. 2010;19:113-28 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infection, and the activity of this human IsdB specific antibody supplements the growing body of evidence to support targeting this antigen for vaccine development. ..
  20. Theilacker C, Kaczynski Z, Kropec A, Fabretti F, Sange T, Holst O, et al. Opsonic antibodies to Enterococcus faecalis strain 12030 are directed against lipoteichoic acid. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5703-12 pubmed
    ..In summary, the E. faecalis strain 12030 enzyme-TA is structurally and immunologically identical to dealanylated LTA. Opsonic antibodies to E. faecalis 12030 are directed predominantly to nonalanylated epitopes on the LTA molecule. ..
  21. Henckaerts I, Durant N, de Grave D, Schuerman L, Poolman J. Validation of a routine opsonophagocytosis assay to predict invasive pneumococcal disease efficacy of conjugate vaccine in children. Vaccine. 2007;25:2518-27 pubmed
    ..The seropositivity as estimated by a standardized and highly reproducible OPA was predictive for the serotype-specific IPD efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. ..
  22. Li K, Sacks S, Sheerin N. The classical complement pathway plays a critical role in the opsonisation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:954-62 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, uropathogenic E. coli are readily opsonised by complement in a classical pathway dependent manner. This can occur within the urinary tract during the development of clinical infection. ..
  23. Stuart L, Ezekowitz R. Phagocytosis: elegant complexity. Immunity. 2005;22:539-50 pubmed
    ..We also indicate an important role for genetically tractable model organisms in defining key components of this evolutionarily conserved process. ..
  24. Taylor P, Brown G, Herre J, Williams D, Willment J, Gordon S. The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan receptor (dectin-1) in the nonopsonic recognition of yeast by specific macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;172:1157-62 pubmed
    ..These studies have identified SIGNR1 as a major MR for fungal and other pathogens present on specific subsets of Mphi. ..
  25. Theilacker C, Kaczynski Z, Kropec A, Sava I, Ye L, Bychowska A, et al. Serodiversity of opsonic antibodies against Enterococcus faecalis--glycans of the cell wall revisited. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17839 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis strains. These cell-wall associated polymers are promising candidates for active and passive vaccination and add to our armamentarium to fight this important nosocomial pathogen. ..
  26. Pawluczkowycz A, Beurskens F, Beum P, Lindorfer M, van de Winkel J, Parren P, et al. Binding of submaximal C1q promotes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of B cells opsonized with anti-CD20 mAbs ofatumumab (OFA) or rituximab (RTX): considerably higher levels of CDC are induced by OFA than by RTX. J Immunol. 2009;183:749-58 pubmed publisher
  27. Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer D, et al. Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Immunol. 2006;177:1661-9 pubmed
    ..These results are important inasmuch as beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer. ..
  28. Thurlow L, Thomas V, Fleming S, Hancock L. Enterococcus faecalis capsular polysaccharide serotypes C and D and their contributions to host innate immune evasion. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis infections. ..
  29. Burton R, Nahm M. Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1004-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, MOPA4 should allow evaluation of multivalent pneumococcal vaccines with the limited volume of serum typically available from young children. ..
  30. Colmenares M, Corbi A, Turco S, Rivas L. The dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN discriminates among species and life cycle forms of Leishmania. J Immunol. 2004;172:1186-90 pubmed
    ..DC-SIGN in Leishmania-dendritic cell interactions, an essential link between innate and Leishmania-specific adaptive immune responses, and suggest that DC-SIGN might be a therapeutic target for both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis ..
  31. Cerca N, Jefferson K, Maira Litran T, Pier D, Kelly Quintos C, Goldmann D, et al. Molecular basis for preferential protective efficacy of antibodies directed to the poorly acetylated form of staphylococcal poly-N-acetyl-beta-(1-6)-glucosamine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3406-13 pubmed
    ..Retention of dPNAG on the surface of S. aureus is key to increased survival during bacteremia and also provides a molecular mechanism explaining the superior opsonic and protective activity of antibody to dPNAG. ..
  32. Atkinson J, Frank M. Bypassing complement: evolutionary lessons and future implications. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1215-8 pubmed
    ..These types of functional assays will eventually replace the more laborious, less physiologic, and less informative approaches currently in use to monitor complement activation. ..
  33. Cougoule C, Hoshino S, Dart A, Lim J, Caron E. Dissociation of recruitment and activation of the small G-protein Rac during Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8756-64 pubmed
    ..We believe they will contribute to a better understanding of more complex cellular processes, such as cell adhesion and migration. ..
  34. Marchès O, Covarelli V, Dahan S, Cougoule C, Bhatta P, Frankel G, et al. EspJ of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli inhibits opsono-phagocytosis. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that EspJ targets a basic mechanism common to these two unrelated phagocytic receptors. Moreover, EspF and EspJ target independent aspects of the phagocytic function of mammalian macrophages in vitro. ..
  35. Pierini L. Uptake of serum-opsonized Francisella tularensis by macrophages can be mediated by class A scavenger receptors. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:1361-70 pubmed
    ..tularensis infection, namely, blocking SRA as a means of hindering F. tularensis access to its intracellular niche. ..
  36. Lindorfer M, Jinivizian H, Foley P, Kennedy A, Solga M, Taylor R. B cell complement receptor 2 transfer reaction. J Immunol. 2003;170:3671-8 pubmed
    ..These findings may have important implications with respect to defining the role of C in IC handling during the normal immune response. ..
  37. Dominguez M, Torano A. Immune adherence-mediated opsonophagocytosis: the mechanism of Leishmania infection. J Exp Med. 1999;189:25-35 pubmed
    ..This facilitates host colonization and may represent the parasite's earliest survival strategy. In light of this mechanism, it is unlikely that infection-blocking vaccines can be developed. ..
  38. Le Cabec V, Carreno S, Moisand A, Bordier C, Maridonneau Parini I. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18) mediates type I and type II phagocytosis during nonopsonic and opsonic phagocytosis, respectively. J Immunol. 2002;169:2003-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CR3 mediates type I phagocytosis under nonopsonic conditions and type II under opsonic conditions. This is the first evidence that a single receptor can mediate both types of phagocytosis depending on the ligand used. ..
  39. Mevorach D. Opsonization of apoptotic cells. Implications for uptake and autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;926:226-35 pubmed
    ..The consequence of altered opsonization is demonstrated by the development of autoimmunity in C1q deficient mice, and the pro-inflammatory response by macrophages ingesting apoptotic cell opsonized by an autoantibody. ..
  40. Kumaratilake L, Ferrante A. Opsonization and phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites measured by flow cytometry. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000;7:9-13 pubmed
    ..Optimum merozoite phagocytosis occurred when both cytokines and anti-malarial antibody were present. ..
  41. Huebner J, Quaas A, Krueger W, Goldmann D, Pier G. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of antibodies to a capsular polysaccharide shared among vancomycin-sensitive and -resistant enterococci. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4631-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that CP antigens from enterococci are potential targets of protective antibodies and that these antibodies may be useful for prophylaxis and treatment of enterococcal infections. ..
  42. Tebo A, Kremsner P, Luty A. Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;130:300-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a genetically determined influence of effector cell phenotype on IgG antibody-pathogen interaction in P. falciparum malaria. ..
  43. Gershov D, Kim S, Brot N, Elkon K. C-Reactive protein binds to apoptotic cells, protects the cells from assembly of the terminal complement components, and sustains an antiinflammatory innate immune response: implications for systemic autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1353-64 pubmed
  44. Laufs H, Muller K, Fleischer J, Reiling N, Jahnke N, Jensenius J, et al. Intracellular survival of Leishmania major in neutrophil granulocytes after uptake in the absence of heat-labile serum factors. Infect Immun. 2002;70:826-35 pubmed
  45. Beningo K, Wang Y. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:849-56 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases. ..
  46. Bouhlal H, Chomont N, Haeffner Cavaillon N, Kazatchkine M, Belec L, Hocini H. Opsonization of HIV-1 by semen complement enhances infection of human epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:3301-6 pubmed
  47. Kim K, Yu J, Nahm M. Efficiency of a pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assay improved by multiplexing and by coloring colonies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:616-21 pubmed
    ..92 to 0.98) for all nine serotypes. A simple modification of the conventional OPKA produces a multiplexed assay that greatly reduces effort, reagents, and the necessary amount of serum. ..
  48. Xia Y, Vetvicka V, Yan J, Hanikýrová M, Mayadas T, Ross G. The beta-glucan-binding lectin site of mouse CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and its function in generating a primed state of the receptor that mediates cytotoxic activation in response to iC3b-opsonized target cells. J Immunol. 1999;162:2281-90 pubmed
    ..The similarity of mouse and human CR3 in response to beta-glucans highlights the utility of mouse tumor models for development of therapeutic beta-glucans. ..
  49. Cunnion K, Zhang H, Frank M. Availability of complement bound to Staphylococcus aureus to interact with membrane complement receptors influences efficiency of phagocytosis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:656-62 pubmed
    ..aureus was not increased. ..
  50. Verbovetski I, Bychkov H, Trahtemberg U, Shapira I, Hareuveni M, Ben Tal O, et al. Opsonization of apoptotic cells by autologous iC3b facilitates clearance by immature dendritic cells, down-regulates DR and CD86, and up-regulates CC chemokine receptor 7. J Exp Med. 2002;196:1553-61 pubmed
    ..001). In addition, iDC maturation responses to CD40L and lipopolysaccharide were significantly inhibited. We conclude that opsonization of apoptotic cells by iC3b induces tolerant iDCs that are able to migrate to lymph nodes. ..
  51. Taylor P, Brown G, Reid D, Willment J, Martinez Pomares L, Gordon S, et al. The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages. J Immunol. 2002;169:3876-82 pubmed
    ..These observations imply the existence of an additional mannan-dependent receptor involved in the recognition of zymosan by resident peritoneal Mphi. ..
  52. Maira Litran T, Kropec A, Abeygunawardana C, Joyce J, Mark G, Goldmann D, et al. Immunochemical properties of the staphylococcal poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4433-40 pubmed
    ..These results further clarify the chemical structure of PS/A and help to differentiate it from PIA on the basis of immunogenicity, molecular size, and solubility. ..
  53. Lacy P. A new way of trapping bugs: neutrophil microvesicles. Blood. 2013;121:420-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophils deploy extracellular microvesicles that can arrest the growth of bacteria. ..