eosinophil major basic protein


Summary: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.

Top Publications

  1. Gu Q, Wiggers M, Gleich G, Lee L. Sensitization of isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons by eosinophil-derived cationic proteins. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results obtained from perforated whole cell patch-clamp recordings showed that pretreatment with eosinophil major basic protein (MBP; 2 microM, 60 s) significantly increased the capsaicin-evoked inward current in these neurons; ..
  2. Glerup S, Kløverpris S, Oxvig C. The proform of the eosinophil major basic protein binds the cell surface through a site distinct from its C-type lectin ligand-binding region. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31509-16 pubmed
    The highly basic eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), present in the crystalloid core of eosinophil leukocyte granules, has both cytotoxic and cytostimulatory properties and is directly implicated in a number of diseases...
  3. Cosin Sales J, Christiansen M, Kaminski P, Oxvig C, Overgaard M, Cole D, et al. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and its endogenous inhibitor, the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), are related to complex stenosis morphology in patients with stable angina pectoris. Circulation. 2004;109:1724-8 pubmed
    ..Its endogenous inhibitor, the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), may also play a role in this process...
  4. Bankers Fulbright J, Kephart G, Bartemes K, Kita H, O Grady S. Platelet-activating factor stimulates cytoplasmic alkalinization and granule acidification in human eosinophils. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5749-57 pubmed
    ..We propose that granule acidification is an important step in solubilization of major basic protein crystals, which are stored within the granule core, in preparation for degranulation and release of these proteins. ..
  5. Gu Q, Lim M, Gleich G, Lee L. Mechanisms of eosinophil major basic protein-induced hyperexcitability of vagal pulmonary chemosensitive neurons. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that pretreatment with eosinophil major basic protein (MBP; 2 microM, 60 s) significantly enhanced the excitability of isolated rat vagal pulmonary ..
  6. Pihl K, Larsen T, Rasmussen S, Krebs L, Christiansen M. The proform of eosinophil major basic protein: a new maternal serum marker for adverse pregnancy outcome. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    To establish the first trimester serum levels of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP) in pregnancies with adverse outcome...
  7. Macias M, Welch K, Denzler K, Larson K, Lee N, Lee J. Identification of a new murine eosinophil major basic protein (mMBP) gene: cloning and characterization of mMBP-2. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;67:567-76 pubmed
    We have identified a new eosinophil major basic protein gene family member in the mouse and have given it the designation murine major basic protein-2 (mMBP-2)...
  8. Dauer E, Ponikau J, Smyrk T, Murray J, Thompson D. Airway manifestations of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: a clinical and histopathologic report of an emerging association. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:507-17 pubmed
    ..findings found in EE and specifically explore the potential role of the cytotoxic protein called eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) in the pathophysiology of the disease...
  9. Puxeddu I, Berkman N, Nissim Ben Efraim A, Davies D, Ribatti D, Gleich G, et al. The role of eosinophil major basic protein in angiogenesis. Allergy. 2009;64:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that MBP has pro-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel mechanism whereby MBP can participate in tissue inflammation and remodelling in atopic diseases. ..

More Information


  1. Wang W, Molnar Z. Dynamic pattern of mRNA expression of plasticity-related gene-3 (PRG-3) in the mouse cerebral cortex during development. Brain Res Bull. 2005;66:454-60 pubmed
    ..Here, for the first time, we report the mRNA expression pattern of PRG-3 in the developing and adult mouse cerebral cortex. ..
  2. Melo R, Perez S, Spencer L, Dvorak A, Weller P. Intragranular vesiculotubular compartments are involved in piecemeal degranulation by activated human eosinophils. Traffic. 2005;6:866-79 pubmed
  3. Plager D, Adolphson C, Gleich G. A novel human homolog of eosinophil major basic protein. Immunol Rev. 2001;179:192-202 pubmed
    b>Eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) contributes to host defense and disease pathophysiology. Chromosome 11 contains the genes for human MBP1 (hMBP1) and a second novel MBP, hMBP2, in the centromere to 11q12 region...
  4. Furuta G, Nieuwenhuis E, Karhausen J, Gleich G, Blumberg R, Lee J, et al. Eosinophils alter colonic epithelial barrier function: role for major basic protein. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G890-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, MBP decreases epithelial barrier function and in this manner contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  5. Ponikau J, Sherris D, Kephart G, Kern E, Congdon D, Adolphson C, et al. Striking deposition of toxic eosinophil major basic protein in mucus: implications for chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:362-9 pubmed
    ..Estimated MBP levels far exceed those needed to damage epithelium from the luminal side and could predispose patients with CRS to secondary bacterial infections. ..
  6. Homma T, Bates J, Irvin C. Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by cationic proteins in vivo: site of action. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L413-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that cationic proteins alter airway responsiveness in vivo by an effect that is apparently limited to the bronchial epithelium. ..
  7. Specht S, Saeftel M, Arndt M, Endl E, Dubben B, Lee N, et al. Lack of eosinophil peroxidase or major basic protein impairs defense against murine filarial infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5236-43 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a hitherto unknown interaction between eosinophil granule proteins, defense against filarial nematodes, and cytokine responses of macrophages and CD4 T cells...
  8. Mueller S, Aigner T, Neureiter D, Stolte M. Eosinophil infiltration and degranulation in oesophageal mucosa from adult patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis: a retrospective and comparative study on pathological biopsy. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:1175-80 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry may serve as a useful diagnostic tool to support the morphological differential diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. ..
  9. Isogai S, Athiviraham A, Fraser R, Taha R, Hamid Q, Martin J. Interferon-gamma-dependent inhibition of late allergic airway responses and eosinophilia by CD8+ gammadelta T cells. Immunology. 2007;122:230-8 pubmed
    ..Defective or altered gammadelta T-cell function may account for some forms of allergic asthma. ..
  10. Hou J, Zhou B, Zhang L, Li Y, Liu M, Wei Y, et al. [Expression and its significance of eosinophil major basic protein in chronic rhinosinusitis]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:454-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the expression of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and discuss the role of MBP in the pathogenesis in CRS...
  11. Ho C, Kito H, Squillace D, Lasho T, Tefferi A. Clinical correlates of serum pro-major basic protein in a spectrum of eosinophilic disorders and myelofibrosis. Acta Haematol. 2008;120:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The significantly elevated levels of proMBP in myelofibrosis patients implies that proMBP could be an important stromal cytokine in bone marrow fibrosis. ..
  12. Zhang C, Jiang Y, Chen J, Zheng L, Wang J, Shen H. [Expression of eosinophil major basic protein and neutrophil elastase in nasal polyp tissue and secretion]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:166-8 pubmed
    To explore the role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyp (NP) by comparison of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), and neutrophil elastase (NE) in nasal polyps (NP) epithelium, stroma and the secretion of expression...
  13. Lin H, Yeh P, Shiao C, Hu F. Surgical management and immunohistochemical study of corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2013;112:569-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Lamellar keratectomy with AMT offers an effective management by removing the cytotoxic plaques and protecting the denuded stroma from deposition of inflammatory debris. ..
  14. Martinez R, Acera A, Soria J, Gonzalez N, Suarez T. [Allergic mediators in tear from children with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2011;86:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analyses showed a diagnostic accuracy of 94.4% using the eight molecules panel. ..
  15. Cantarini L, Volpi N, Carbotti P, Greco G, Agliano M, Bellisai F, et al. Eosinophilia-associated muscle disorders: an immunohistological study with tissue localisation of major basic protein in distinct clinicopathological forms. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..myopathies, underwent routine staining, inflammatory infiltrate immunophenotyping, immunostaining for eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) and transmission electron microscopy examination...
  16. Consuegra Sanchez L, Petrovic I, Cosin Sales J, Holt D, Christiansen M, Kaski J. Prognostic value of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and proform of eosinophil major basic protein (pro-MBP) levels in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;391:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to assess whether PAPP-A, the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (pro-MBP) and PAPP-A/pro-MBP levels predict long-term all-cause mortality in patients with CSA...
  17. Hwang P. One of the ongoing challenges in the management of CRS is determining the optimal diagnostic method. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5:1-2 pubmed publisher
  18. Wu C, Lee T, Chang P, Tsai C, Lee Y, Fu C, et al. Similar cellular proliferation activities in nasal polyps and adjacent inferior turbinate. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrated anti-inflammatory treatment may be more important than surgical intervention. ..
  19. Plager D, Weiss E, Kephart G, Mocharla R, Matsumoto R, Checkel J, et al. Identification of basophils by a mAb directed against pro-major basic protein 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:626-34 pubmed
    ..The J175-7D4 mAb recognizes proMBP1 as a novel marker for human basophils. J175-7D4 should prove useful for characterizing basophil involvement in human health and disease. ..
  20. Couissinier Paris P. [Activated eosinophils: techniques to characterize them]. Presse Med. 2006;35:125-34 pubmed
    ..Improvements in existing methods as well as the development of new technical approaches have facilitated the ex vivo and in vitro study of activated eosinophils and their contribution to various disease states. ..
  21. Ohnuki L, Wagner L, Georgelas A, Loegering D, Checkel J, Plager D, et al. Differential extraction of eosinophil granule proteins. J Immunol Methods. 2005;307:54-61 pubmed
    ..of three discrete peaks, and these proteins are usually recovered in good quantities, except for the eosinophil major basic protein homolog (MBP2)...
  22. Solomon A, Zamir E, Levartovsky S, Frucht Pery J. Surgical management of corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a clinicopathologic study. Cornea. 2004;23:608-12 pubmed
    ..We suggest that MBP plaques precipitate on the denuded stromal bed, thereby playing a pathogenic role in nonhealing shield ulcers. ..
  23. Wittfooth S, Qin Q, Lund J, Tierala I, Pulkki K, Takalo H, et al. Immunofluorometric point-of-care assays for the detection of acute coronary syndrome-related noncomplexed pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1794-801 pubmed
    ..form specifically related to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is not complexed with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP)...
  24. Mulder D, Pacheco I, Hurlbut D, Mak N, Furuta G, MacLeod R, et al. FGF9-induced proliferative response to eosinophilic inflammation in oesophagitis. Gut. 2009;58:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Eosinophil-released MBP acts on the CaSR to increase FGF9 in oesophageal epithelial cells, leading to proliferation. Increased FGF9 is found in biopsies of EoE patients and may play a role in the pathogenesis of oesophagitis. ..
  25. Parwez Q, Stemmler S, Epplen J, Hoffjan S. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany. J Negat Results Biomed. 2008;7:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort. ..
  26. Puccetti A, Bason C, Simeoni S, Millo E, Tinazzi E, Beri R, et al. In chronic idiopathic urticaria autoantibodies against Fc epsilonRII/CD23 induce histamine release via eosinophil activation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1599-607 pubmed
  27. Bernstein J. Update on the molecular biology of nasal polyposis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38:1243-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, the use of topical diuretics such as amiloride and furosemide has been studied and the initial responses seem to be encouraging. ..
  28. Choopong P, Khan N, Sangwan V, Zafirakis P, Rallatos C, Rojas B, et al. Eosinophil activation in Wegener's granulomatosis: a harbinger of disease progression?. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:439-45 pubmed
    ..Activated eosinophils in sclera or conjunctiva of patients with ocular limited WG may predict progression to complete WG. ..
  29. DiScipio R, Khaldoyanidi S, Schraufstatter I. Expression of soluble proteins in Escherichia coli by linkage with the acidic propiece of eosinophil major basic protein. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;79:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..through a thrombin or factor Xa susceptible bond to the amino-terminal domain of the precursor of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP)...
  30. O Connell A, Hess J, Santiago G, Nolan T, Lok J, Lee J, et al. Major basic protein from eosinophils and myeloperoxidase from neutrophils are required for protective immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2770-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Eosinophils are not required for the development or function of secondary immunity, but MPO from neutrophils is required for protective secondary immunity...
  31. Liu Q, Dong F. Gfi-1 inhibits the expression of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) during G-CSF-induced neutrophilic differentiation. Int J Hematol. 2012;95:640-7 pubmed publisher
    ..forced expression of a dominant negative Gfi-1 mutant, N382S, resulted in augmented mRNA levels of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) in myeloid cells induced with G-CSF to undergo terminal neutrophilic differentiation...
  32. Goven D, Boutten A, Leçon Malas V, Marchal Sommé J, Soler P, Boczkowski J, et al. Induction of heme oxygenase-1, biliverdin reductase and H-ferritin in lung macrophage in smokers with primary spontaneous pneumothorax: role of HIF-1alpha. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10886 pubmed publisher
    ..PSP in smokers is associated with lung macrophage oxidative stress. The response to this condition involves HIF-1alpha-mediated induction of HO-1, BVR and H-ferritin. ..
  33. Plager D, Davis M, Andrews A, Coenen M, George T, Gleich G, et al. Eosinophil ribonucleases and their cutaneous lesion-forming activity. J Immunol. 2009;183:4013-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ECP and EDN disrupt skin integrity and cause inflammation. Their presence in ulcerative skin lesions may explain certain findings in human eosinophil-associated diseases. ..
  34. Doyle A, Jacobsen E, Ochkur S, McGarry M, Shim K, Nguyen D, et al. Expression of the secondary granule proteins major basic protein 1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) is required for eosinophilopoiesis in mice. Blood. 2013;122:781-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations implicate a role for granule protein gene expression as a regulator of eosinophilopoiesis and provide another strain of mice congenitally deficient of eosinophils. ..
  35. Shin S, Ponikau J, Sherris D, Congdon D, Frigas E, Homburger H, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis: an enhanced immune response to ubiquitous airborne fungi. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:1369-75 pubmed
    ..The anomalous immune and inflammatory responses to ubiquitous fungi may explain the chronicity of airway inflammation in CRS. ..
  36. Greenwood K, Proper S, Saini Y, Bramble L, Jackson Humbles D, Wagner J, et al. Neonatal epithelial hypoxia inducible factor-1? expression regulates the response of the lung to experimental asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This early hyperoxic exposure, from normal ambient and supplemental oxygen, would presumably inhibit normal hypoxia inducible factor-1? signaling, mimicking the functional deletion described. ..
  37. Kim K, Suzuki N, Ohneda K, Minegishi N, Yamamoto M. Fractionation of mature eosinophils in GATA-reporter transgenic mice. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;220:127-38 pubmed
    ..This study, therefore, proposes a useful means to study the experimental allergic and inflammatory systems. ..
  38. Lee H, Park H, Kwon A, Baek K, Woo K, Ryoo H, et al. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 2014;323:276-87 pubmed publisher
  39. Parra M, Liu X, Derrick S, Yang A, Tian J, Kolibab K, et al. Molecular analysis of non-specific protection against murine malaria induced by BCG vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66115 pubmed publisher
    ..of at least 18 genes including the anti-microbial molecules lactoferrin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein and the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP); ii) an active PyNL infection suppresses ..
  40. Arjomandi H, Gilde J, Zhu S, Delaney S, Hochstim C, Mazhar K, et al. Relationship of eosinophils and plasma cells to biofilm in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013;27:e85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for biofilm, microbes, eosinophil major basic protein (EMBP), and cluster designation 27 (CD27)...
  41. Wang D, Jia X, She R, Liu Y. Acute hypersensitive-like injury in specific-pathogen-free chickens after infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Poult Sci. 2012;91:334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations implicate activated mast cells and eosinophils as important participants in vvIBDV-induced acute inflammatory lesions through mediators released in a short timeframe. ..
  42. Plager D, Loegering D, Checkel J, Tang J, Kephart G, Caffes P, et al. Major basic protein homolog (MBP2): a specific human eosinophil marker. J Immunol. 2006;177:7340-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MBP2 is present only in eosinophils and that it may be a useful biomarker for eosinophil-associated diseases. ..
  43. Ben Zimra M, Bachelet I, Seaf M, Gleich G, Levi Schaffer F. Eosinophil major basic protein activates human cord blood mast cells primed with fibroblast membranes by integrin-?1. Allergy. 2013;68:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Among soluble mediators, eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), a hallmark of allergy, is particularly important because it was shown to activate specific MC ..
  44. Qin Q, Christiansen M, Oxvig C, Pettersson K, Sottrup Jensen L, Koch C, et al. Double-monoclonal immunofluorometric assays for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A/proeosinophil major basic protein (PAPP-A/proMBP) complex in first-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome. Clin Chem. 1997;43:2323-32 pubmed
    ..This report is the first to describe assays that specifically measure PAPP-A/proMBP complex without possible interference from other proMBP-containing complexes. ..
  45. Weyer K, Glerup S. Placental regulation of peptide hormone and growth factor activity by proMBP. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1077-86 pubmed publisher
    The gene PRG2, encoding the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), is one of the most highly expressed genes during human pregnancy, and low proMBP levels predict Down syndrome and poor pregnancy outcome...
  46. Cheng G, Swaidani S, Sharma M, Lauer M, Hascall V, Aronica M. Hyaluronan deposition and correlation with inflammation in a murine ovalbumin model of asthma. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..HA deposition appears largely due to up regulation of HAS1 and HAS2. In addition, HA appears to provide the scaffolding for inflammatory cell accumulation as well as for new collagen synthesis and deposition. ..
  47. Kephart G, Alexander J, Arora A, Romero Y, Smyrk T, Talley N, et al. Marked deposition of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin in adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of EDN staining in esophageal biopsy specimens may be useful to diagnose and manage patients with EoE. ..
  48. Lotfi R, Herzog G, DeMarco R, Beer Stolz D, LEE J, Rubartelli A, et al. Eosinophils oxidize damage-associated molecular pattern molecules derived from stressed cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:5023-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel therapeutic strategies may be considered by advancing oxidative denaturation of released necrotic material using Eos or other aerobic strategies. ..
  49. Consuegra Sanchez L, Fredericks S, Kaski J. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article reviews currently available evidence supporting a role for PAPP-A as a marker of cardiovascular risk and discusses some of the pitfalls that may limit its use in clinical practice. ..
  50. Hajek P, Macek M, Hladikova M, Houbova B, Alan D, Durdil V, et al. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and proform eosinophilic major basic protein in the detection of different types of coronary artery disease. Physiol Res. 2008;57:23-32 pubmed
    ..75 mIU/l. Combination of PAPP-A/proMBP with cTnI increases their diagnostic efficacy within the early phase of ACS. Our results suggest that PAPP-A/proMBP complex is involved in processes preceding vulnerable plaque development in ACS. ..
  51. Swaminathan G, Myszka D, Katsamba P, Ohnuki L, Gleich G, Acharya K. Eosinophil-granule major basic protein, a C-type lectin, binds heparin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14152-8 pubmed
    The eosinophil major basic protein (EMBP), a constituent of the eosinophil secondary granule, is implicated in cytotoxicity and mediation of allergic disorders such as asthma...
  52. Lund J, Wittfooth S, Qin Q, Ilva T, Porela P, Pulkki K, et al. Free vs total pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) as a predictor of 1-year outcome in patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Clin Chem. 2010;56:1158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..FPAPP-A seems to be superior as a prognostic marker compared to TPAPP-A, giving independent and additive prognostic information when measured at the time of admission in patients hospitalized for non-ST-elevation ACS. ..
  53. Melo R, Spencer L, Perez S, Neves J, Bafford S, Morgan E, et al. Vesicle-mediated secretion of human eosinophil granule-derived major basic protein. Lab Invest. 2009;89:769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The recognition of PMD as a secretory process to release MBP is important to understand the pathological basis of allergic and other eosinophil-associated inflammatory diseases. ..