eosinophil granule proteins


Summary: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.

Top Publications

  1. Taniuchi S, Chihara J, Kojima T, Yamamoto A, Sasai M, Kobayashi Y. Serum eosinophil derived neurotoxin may reflect more strongly disease severity in childhood atopic dermatitis than eosinophil cationic protein. J Dermatol Sci. 2001;26:79-82 pubmed
    ..The skin scores were more significantly correlated with serum EDN levels than ECP levels. We concluded that serum EDN may reflect more strongly disease severity as eosinophilic activation in AD children than serum ECP. ..
  2. Malik A, Batra J. Antimicrobial activity of human eosinophil granule proteins: involvement in host defence against pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2012;38:168-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The four major eosinophil granule proteins, major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and ..
  3. Ohnuki L, Wagner L, Georgelas A, Loegering D, Checkel J, Plager D, et al. Differential extraction of eosinophil granule proteins. J Immunol Methods. 2005;307:54-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that repetitive extraction of eosinophil granules yields an increased amount of all granule proteins, and that MBP2 can now be recovered in good quantities and in a relatively pure form. ..
  4. Samoszuk M, Corwin M, Hazen S. Effects of human mast cell tryptase and eosinophil granule proteins on the kinetics of blood clotting. Am J Hematol. 2003;73:18-25 pubmed
    ..b>Eosinophil granule proteins and purified eosinophil peroxidase markedly reduced the anticoagulant properties of the mast cell ..
  5. Breuer K, Kapp A, Werfel T. Urine eosinophil protein X (EPX) is an in vitro parameter of inflammation in atopic dermatitis of the adult age. Allergy. 2001;56:780-4 pubmed
    ..36, P<0.0001 and 0.34, P<0.0001, respectively). Urine EPX is a useful in vitro parameter of inflammation in atopic dermatitis of the adult age. ..
  6. Sangfelt P, Carlson M, Thorn M, Loof L, Raab Y. Neutrophil and eosinophil granule proteins as markers of response to local prednisolone treatment in distal ulcerative colitis and proctitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:1085-90 pubmed
    ..05) in the response group and often occurred before clinical improvement. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a decrease in the concentrations of ECP and EPO at the end of treatment in responders. ..
  7. Ochkur S, Kim J, Protheroe C, Colbert D, Moqbel R, Lacy P, et al. The development of a sensitive and specific ELISA for mouse eosinophil peroxidase: assessment of eosinophil degranulation ex vivo and in models of human disease. J Immunol Methods. 2012;375:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of extracellular eosinophil granule proteins in affected tissues is a well established and specific marker of eosinophil activation in both patients ..
  8. Rothenberg M, Hogan S. The eosinophil. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006;24:147-74 pubmed
    ..Finally, strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention in eosinophil-mediated mucosal diseases are conceptualized. ..
  9. Kim K, Gleich G, Lee M. Two eosinophil granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein, inhibit mucin release from hamster tracheal surface epithelial cells in primary culture. Inflamm Res. 1999;48:314-7 pubmed
    ..Eosinophil proteins such as MBP and EPO inhibit mucin release from primary HTSE cells without causing any apparent cytotoxicity. ..

More Information


  1. Davis M, Plager D, George T, Weiss E, Gleich G, Leiferman K. Interactions of eosinophil granule proteins with skin: limits of detection, persistence, and vasopermeabilization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:988-94 pubmed
    b>Eosinophil granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and major basic protein (MBP), are prominently deposited in skin in several cutaneous disorders ..
  2. Wolthers O. Eosinophil granule proteins in the assessment of airway inflammation in pediatric bronchial asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:248-54 pubmed
    b>Eosinophil granule proteins such as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) in serum and urine are indirect measures of eosinophil activity...
  3. Jönsson U, Bystrom J, Stalenheim G, Venge P. Polymorphism of the eosinophil cationic protein-gene is related to the expression of allergic symptoms. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:1092-5 pubmed
    ..The 434(G > C) polymorphism in the ECP-gene is related to the development of allergic symptoms, suggesting a central role for the ECP molecule in the process. ..
  4. Kiehl P, Falkenberg K, Vogelbruch M, Kapp A. Tissue eosinophilia in acute and chronic atopic dermatitis: a morphometric approach using quantitative image analysis of immunostaining. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:720-9 pubmed
    ..Pronounced tissue eosinophilia, especially EGP deposition as the result of complete activation of eosinophils, is found in chronic AD and may be involved in the development or maintenance of chronicity. ..
  5. Swaminathan G, Weaver A, Loegering D, Checkel J, Leonidas D, Gleich G, et al. Crystal structure of the eosinophil major basic protein at 1.8 A. An atypical lectin with a paradigm shift in specificity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26197-203 pubmed
    ..Our analysis suggests that EMBP specifically binds heparin. Based on our results, we propose a possible new function for this protein, which is likely to have implications for EMBP function. ..
  6. Hamann K, Gleich G, Checkel J, Loegering D, McCall J, Barker R. In vitro killing of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi by eosinophil granule proteins. J Immunol. 1990;144:3166-73 pubmed
    ..Here, we performed in vitro assays of the toxicity of four purified eosinophil granule proteins, namely, MBP, EPO, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), for the ..
  7. Abu Ghazaleh R, Dunnette S, Loegering D, Checkel J, Kita H, Thomas L, et al. Eosinophil granule proteins in peripheral blood granulocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1992;52:611-8 pubmed
    ..5; EDN, 72 +/- 9; and ECP, 50 +/- 12. Therefore we conclude that these proteins are mainly expressed in eosinophils, but that certain ones are present in basophils and neutrophils. ..
  8. Pizzichini E, Pizzichini M, Efthimiadis A, Evans S, Morris M, Squillace D, et al. Indices of airway inflammation in induced sputum: reproducibility and validity of cell and fluid-phase measurements. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154:308-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, the methods of measuring cell and fluid phase markers in induced sputum used in this study are reproducible and valid. They can therefore be used to reliably measure these indices of airway inflammation. ..
  9. Hidvegi E, Cserhati E, Kereki E, Arato A. Higher serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in children with cow's milk allergy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32:475-9 pubmed
    ..The significant decrease of the sECP level 2 hours after the beginning of milk challenge test may be explained by the fact that this protein is excreted into the intestinal lumen. ..
  10. Svensson L, Rudin A, Wenneras C. Allergen extracts directly mobilize and activate human eosinophils. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1744-51 pubmed
    ..We propose that eosinophil activation in vivo is not exclusively mediated by cytokines and chemokines of the allergic inflammatory reaction, but could partly be the result of direct interaction between allergens and eosinophils. ..
  11. Horiguchi T, Tachikawa S, Kondo R, Miyazaki J, Sasaki Y, Banno K, et al. Evaluation of the combined effect of pranlukast during high-dose steroid inhalation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52:813-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the concomitant use of pranlukast significantly inhibited worsening of asthmatic symptoms, respiratory functions and parameters, which are frequently observed when the dose of inhalation steroids is decreased. ..
  12. Bacci E, Di Franco A, Bartoli M, Carnevali S, Cianchetti S, Dente F, et al. Comparison of anti-inflammatory and clinical effects of beclomethasone dipropionate and salmeterol in moderate asthma. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:66-72 pubmed
    ..Beclomethasone also had an overall greater clinical effect, although the improvement in symptoms and peak expiratory flow variability was similar after both treatments. ..
  13. Ojetti V, Armuzzi A, De Luca A, Nucera E, Franceschi F, Candelli M, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection affects eosinophilic cationic protein in the gastric juice of patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;125:66-72 pubmed
    ..We assessed serum/gastric juice ECP levels and gastric mucosal eosinophil infiltration in ICU patients infected or not with H. pylori and evaluated the modification after bacterium eradication...
  14. Vancheri C, Mastruzzo C, Armato F, Tomaselli V, Magri S, Pistorio M, et al. Intranasal heparin reduces eosinophil recruitment after nasal allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108:703-8 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which heparin produces its protective activity seems to be related to the neutralization of eosinophil cationic protein as well as to the reduction of eosinophil recruitment. ..
  15. Stelmach I, Jerzynska J, Brzozowska A, Kuna P. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of effect of nedocromil sodium on clinical and inflammatory parameters of asthma in children allergic to dust mite. Allergy. 2001;56:518-24 pubmed
    ..No correlation was found between any of the measured parameters. Nedocromil sodium provided effective anti-inflammatory treatment for children with moderate atopic asthma. ..
  16. Belda J, Giner J, Casan P, Sanchis J. Mild exacerbations and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with stable, well-controlled asthma after 1 year of follow-up. Chest. 2001;119:1011-7 pubmed
    ..Eosinophilic inflammation expressed as eosinophil count and ECP is associated with higher risk of mild exacerbation. ..
  17. Profita M, Sala A, Bonanno A, Riccobono L, Siena L, Melis M, et al. Increased prostaglandin E2 concentrations and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in asthmatic subjects with sputum eosinophilia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:709-16 pubmed
    ..The results obtained suggest that COX-2 expression in alveolar macrophages from asthmatic subjects may contribute to enhanced eosinophil survival through an increased PGE2 production. ..
  18. Chanfreau G. Conservation of RNase III processing pathways and specificity in hemiascomycetes. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:901-9 pubmed
    ..This analysis shows that RNase III processing signals and RNase III cleavage specificity are conserved in most Hemiascomycetes species but probably not in the evolutionarily more distant species Y. lipolytica. ..
  19. Yamada Y, Nakamura H, Adachi T, Sannohe S, Oyamada H, Kayaba H, et al. Elevated serum levels of thioredoxin in patients with acute exacerbation of asthma. Immunol Lett. 2003;86:199-205 pubmed
    ..There was a significant correlation between the serum TRX and the serum eosinophil cationic protein (rs=0.32, P=0.016). These findings suggest that serum TRX is related to the state of asthma exacerbation and allergic inflammation. ..
  20. Overgaard M, Sorensen E, Stachowiak D, Boldt H, Kristensen L, Sottrup Jensen L, et al. Complex of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the proform of eosinophil major basic protein. Disulfide structure and carbohydrate attachment. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2106-17 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it will allow rational experimental design of functional studies aimed at understanding the formation of the PAPP-A.pro-MBP complex, as well as the inhibitory mechanism of pro-MBP. ..
  21. Saarinen K, Sarnesto A, Savilahti E. Markers of inflammation in the feces of infants with cow's milk allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002;13:188-94 pubmed
    ..Individual serial follow-up of fecal IgA and ECP can be used to estimate the degree of inflammation in the gut and an appropriate time for a challenge test, but are not diagnostic tools for cow's milk allergy. ..
  22. Peterson C, Eklund E, Taha Y, Raab Y, Carlson M. A new method for the quantification of neutrophil and eosinophil cationic proteins in feces: establishment of normal levels and clinical application in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1755-62 pubmed
    ..We suggest that EPX and myeloperoxidase, when applied in IBD, are the best eosinophil and neutrophil markers for studying GI inflammation. ..
  23. Bystrom J, Garcia R, Hakansson L, Karawajczyk M, Moberg L, Soukka J, et al. Eosinophil cationic protein is stored in, but not produced by, peripheral blood neutrophils. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:1082-91 pubmed
    ..ECP is not produced but can be internalized by circulating neutrophils, which take it from the environment and partially store it in their primary granules. ..
  24. Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Abulimity A, Rudinski K, Fedoulov A, Karabanov A, et al. Elevated concentrations of exhaled hydrogen peroxide in asthmatic patients. Chest. 2001;120:1136-9 pubmed
    ..This is correlated with disease severity and indirect markers of airway inflammation. Measurement of exhaled H(2)O(2) may be useful to assess airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthmatic patients. ..
  25. Hoffmann H, Bjerke T, Karawajczyk M, Dahl R, Knepper M, Nielsen S. SNARE proteins are critical for regulated exocytosis of ECP from human eosinophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;282:194-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results strongly suggest a critical role of SNAREs in regulated exocytosis in eosinophils. ..
  26. Obase Y, Shimoda T, Tomari S, Mitsuta K, Kawano T, Matsuse H, et al. Effects of pranlukast on chemical mediators in induced sputum on provocation tests in atopic and aspirin-intolerant asthmatic patients. Chest. 2002;121:143-50 pubmed
    ..LTRA may be useful against both types of asthma through inhibition of LT activity and eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. ..
  27. Midzi N, Ndhlovu P, Nyanga L, Kjetland E, Reimert C, Vennervald B, et al. Assessment of eosinophil cationic protein as a possible diagnostic marker for female genital schistosomiasis in women living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:581-8 pubmed
    ..However, other factors such as allergy and microbial infection could also be responsible for increased ECP levels in genital mucosa. These conditions will affect the validity of the test in diagnosis of FGS...
  28. Suzuki J, Kawasaki Y, Nozawa R, Isome M, Suzuki S, Takahashi A, et al. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2003;21:193-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy. ..
  29. Mori N, Morimoto S, Hiramitsu S, Uemura A, Ohtsuki M, Kato S, et al. [Eosinophilic myocarditis in which the appearance of cardiac symptoms preceded an increased eosinophil count]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;93:367-9 pubmed
  30. Lee J, Lee N. Eosinophil degranulation: an evolutionary vestige or a universally destructive effector function?. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:986-94 pubmed
  31. Hurst D, Amin K, Seveus L, Venge P. Mast cells and tryptase in the middle ear of children with otitis media with effusion. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;49 Suppl 1:S315-9 pubmed
  32. Durcan N, Costello R, McLean W, Blusztajn J, Madziar B, Fenech A, et al. Eosinophil-mediated cholinergic nerve remodeling. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:775-86 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that eosinophil localization to cholinergic nerves induces neural remodeling, promoting a cholinergic phenotype. ..
  33. Pronk Admiraal C, Haitjema T, Horikx P, Bartels P. Surplus value of eosinophil count and ECP to diagnose and monitor asthmatic patients. Neth J Med. 2001;58:9-17 pubmed
    ..The additional value of serum ECP concentrations and eosinophil counts to detect an asthmatic constitution for individual cases is doubtful. ..
  34. Schwab D, Müller S, Aigner T, Neureiter D, Kirchner T, Hahn E, et al. Functional and morphologic characterization of eosinophils in the lower intestinal mucosa of patients with food allergy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:1525-34 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) detects important characteristic features that are missed with conventional hematoxylin-eosin staining. ..
  35. Wolthers O, Heuck C. Circadian variations in serum eosinophil cationic protein, and serum and urine eosinophil protein X. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14:130-3 pubmed
    ..To avoid confounding influence from circadian variations in ECP and EPX in clinical studies blood or urine should be sampled at consistent times. ..
  36. Machnicka Rowińska B, Dziemian E. [Eosynophils in parasitic infections--clinical and functional significance]. Wiad Parazytol. 2003;49:245-54 pubmed
    ..Eosinophilia in human patients has only a limited predictive value for the presence of helminth infections. However, the likelihood of the presence of helminth infections increases considerably with the extent of eosinophilia. ..
  37. Kariyawasam H, Robinson D. The role of eosinophils in airway tissue remodelling in asthma. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19:681-6 pubmed
    ..The current studies that support a role for eosinophils in airway remodelling are reviewed in article. ..
  38. Verhaeghe B, Gevaert P, Holtappels G, Lukat K, Lange B, Van Cauwenberge P, et al. Up-regulation of IL-18 in allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2002;57:825-30 pubmed
    ..The persistence of elevated IL-18 concentrations until after the season and the high concentrations in PAR compared to SAR suggests its role in persistent allergic inflammation. ..
  39. Scalfaro P, Sly P, Sims C, Habre W. Salbutamol prevents the increase of respiratory resistance caused by tracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia in asthmatic children. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:898-902 pubmed
    ..This study shows that in children with mild to moderate asthma, a preanesthetic treatment with inhaled salbutamol can prevent the increase of respiratory system resistance. ..
  40. Lindqvist U, Kristjansson G, Pihl Lundin I, Hagforsen E, Michaëlsson G. Patients with psoriatic arthritis have an increased number of lymphocytes in the duodenal mucosa in comparison with patients with psoriasis vulgaris. J Rheumatol. 2006;33:924-7 pubmed
    ..The increased lymphocyte infiltration in the duodenal mucosa in PsA, but not in PsV, might indicate different pathogenetic mechanisms in these psoriasis variants. ..
  41. Yamaguchi Y, Nishio H, Kishi K, Ackerman S, Suda T. C/EBPbeta and GATA-1 synergistically regulate activity of the eosinophil granule major basic protein promoter: implication for C/EBPbeta activity in eosinophil gene expression. Blood. 1999;94:1429-39 pubmed
  42. Marguet C, Dean T, Basuyau J, Warner J. Eosinophil cationic protein and interleukin-8 levels in bronchial lavage fluid from children with asthma and infantile wheeze. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001;12:27-33 pubmed
    ..Although its meaning remains to be elucidated, ECP was suggested to be a helpful indicator of persistent infantile wheeze. However, its utility as a marker predicting ongoing asthma remains to be established. ..
  43. Rossi R, Monasterolo G. Prevalence of serum IgE antibodies to the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SAE, SEB, SEC, SED, TSST-1) in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;133:261-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the evaluation of SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1-specific IgE antibodies may have additional significance for the prognosis of persistent allergic diseases of the upper airway. ..
  44. Sugihara R, Kumamoto T, Ito T, Ueyama H, Toyoshima I, Tsuda T. Human muscle protein degradation in vitro by eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). Muscle Nerve. 2001;24:1627-34 pubmed
  45. Nakano Y, Morita S, Kawamoto A, Suda T, Chida K, Nakamura H. Elevated complement C3a in plasma from patients with severe acute asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:525-30 pubmed
    ..7 microg/L; 14.6 to 160; P =.99). Concentrations of C3a, which can induce airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction, were associated with differences in response to emergency treatment of severe asthma exacerbation. ..
  46. Ventura M, Piccinni T, Matino M, Giuliano G, Di Corato R, Di Napoli P, et al. Retrospective study on fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray efficacy in patients with allergic rhinitis: evaluation of clinical and laboratory parameters. Allergy. 2001;56:29-34 pubmed
  47. Caproni M, Cardinali C, D Agata A, Selvaggi W, Fabbri P. Serum eosinophil cationic protein, myeloperoxidase, tryptase, eotaxin and Th2-L-like cytokines in Dermatitis herpetiformis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2002;128:67-72 pubmed
  48. Thomet O, Wiesmann U, Blaser K, Simon H. Differential inhibition of inflammatory effector functions by petasin, isopetasin and neopetasin in human eosinophils. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1310-20 pubmed
  49. Lai D, Lue K, Hsieh J, Lin K, Lee H. The comparison of the efficacy and safety of cetirizine, oxatomide, ketotifen, and a placebo for the treatment of childhood perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;89:589-98 pubmed
    ..05). Cetirizine was more effective than oxatomide and ketotifen for the relief of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea, and was responsible for significantly decreasing the eosinophil representation of a posttreatment nasal smear. ..
  50. Cormier S, Yuan S, Crosby J, Protheroe C, Dimina D, Hines E, et al. T(H)2-mediated pulmonary inflammation leads to the differential expression of ribonuclease genes by alveolar macrophages. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:678-87 pubmed
  51. Cao Y, Shi J, Han W. [Using flow cytometry to detect peripheral blood eosinophils and their related molecules]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004;20:478-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, only a tiny amount of blood sample is needed and few artificial factors are involved in the detection. Therefore, this method may be an ideal both in basic immunological research and clinical laboratory examination. ..
  52. Hellman C, Lundahl J, Hylander B, Hallden G. Phenotypic alterations of recruited eosinophils in peritoneal fluid eosinophilia. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:295-300 pubmed
    ..The finding of activated eosinophils in combination with IL-5 and eotaxin in PFE indicates existing similarities between PFE and conditions found during recruitment of eosinophils in allergic inflammatory responses. ..
  53. Marcucci F, Sensi L, Frati F, Senna G, Canonica G, Parmiani S, et al. Sublingual tryptase and ECP in children treated with grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT): safety and immunologic implications. Allergy. 2001;56:1091-5 pubmed
    ..It is noteworthy that allergic subjects display higher levels of nasal ECP and tryptase than healthy subjects, even when symptom-free, and these observations may indicate the presence of subclinical inflammation. ..