Genomes and Genes
Summary: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.
- Li S, Qu Y, Liu B, Wang G, Zhang Y, Ma Z, et al. Synergistic effects of alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase, DAF, and CD59 in suppression of xenogenic immunological responses. Xenotransplantation. 2009;16:27-33 pubmed publisher..It is feasible to use HT and C-reactive proteins co-transgenic tissues to resist hyperacute rejection and xenograft rejection. ..
- Karasalihović Z, Iljazovic E, Ferluga D, Cickusic E, Mustedanagić Mujanović J, Stahov J, et al. Direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry in diagnostics of glomerulonephritis. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2008;8:12-9 pubmed
- Liddington R, Bankston L. Structural biology: origins of chemical biodefence. Nature. 2005;437:484-5 pubmed
- Gerasimidis T, Sfyroeras G, Trellopoulos G, Skoura L, Papazoglou K, Konstantinidis K, et al. Impact of endograft material on the inflammatory response after elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Angiology. 2005;56:743-53 pubmed..01). No significant difference was apparent in the biological response between patients receiving a polyester or an ePTFE stent graft, except for fever and serum concentrations of IL-8. ..
- Plazak W, Pasowicz M, Kostkiewicz M, Podolec J, Tomkiewicz Pajak L, Musial J, et al. Influence of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity on coronary calcifications and myocardial perfusion defects in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:973-80 pubmed publisher..Laboratory evaluation included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3c and C4 components and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)...
- Wimmers K, Mekchay S, Schellander K, Ponsuksili S. Molecular characterization of the pig C3 gene and its association with complement activity. Immunogenetics. 2003;54:714-24 pubmed..The association of C3 with complement activity indicates the importance of C3 as a candidate gene for natural resistance to micro-organisms, although the causative polymorphism modulating the expression of C3 remains to be delineated. ..
- Ekvall H, Arese P, Turrini F, Ayi K, Mannu F, Premji Z, et al. Acute haemolysis in childhood falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:611-7 pubmed..Erythrocyte-bound opsonins known to induce erythrophagocytosis, i.e., complement C3c fragments and autologous IgG, were increased in all patients...
- Stumer J, Biermann M, Knopf J, Magorivska I, Kastbom A, Svärd A, et al. Altered glycan accessibility on native immunoglobulin G complexes in early rheumatoid arthritis and its changes during therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;189:372-382 pubmed publisher..In summary, this study shows the exposure of glycans in native complexed IgG of patients with early RA, revealing particular glycosylation patterns and its changes following pharmaceutical treatment...
- Ulèová Gallová Z, Krauz V, Mohamed A, Rokyta Z. Immunity to spermatozoa and male fertility. Andrologia. 1999;31:318-9 pubmed..High levels of seminal anti-phospholipid antibodies in seminal plasma could influence epitopes on the endometrium, oocyte or early embryo in patients with repeated unexplained spontaneous miscarriages. ..
- Fu H, Liu B, Frost J, Hong S, Jin M, Ostaszewski B, et al. Complement component C3 and complement receptor type 3 contribute to the phagocytosis and clearance of fibrillar A? by microglia. Glia. 2012;60:993-1003 pubmed publisher..2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
- Singh R, Thirupuram S, Sharma V, Natarajan R. Complement components in neonatal sepsis. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1990;10:35-7 pubmed..e. C3c and C3d, were detected in 58.3% of these babies. The breakdown products of C3 were not present in any of the healthy controls. The degree of depression of complement components was of no prognostic significance in neonatal sepsis. ..
- Aydogan K, Karadogan S, Adim S, Tunali S. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: a rare presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:1057-61 pubmed..HUVS is probably a subset of SLE. As both diseases can fatally, it should be kept in mind that the overlap of SLE and HUVS may exhibit a relatively rapid progression and poor prognosis. ..
- Joh T, Sasaki M, Kataoka H, Tanida S, Itoh K, Kondo Y, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication decreases the expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored complement regulators, decay-accelerating factor and homologous restriction factor 20, in human gastric epithelium. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;20:1344-51 pubmed..pylori infection. Conclusively, DAF and HRF20 may play an important protective role against complement-mediated damage induced by chronic microbial stimuli in such a pathological condition. ..
- Shimizu T, Tanabe K, Tokumoto T, Kanemitsu I, Tsunoyama K, Ishida H, et al. A case of acute humoral rejection with various depositions of C4d, IgG, IgM, and C3c in peritubular capillaries and/or glomerular capillaries. Clin Transplant. 2005;19 Suppl 14:65-70 pubmed..7 mg/dL, decreased gradually to 1.4 mg/dL. He has a stable graft function. This is the only case of various depositions of immunoglobulins and complements in PTC and/or glomerular capillaries during AHR. ..
- Padilla Docal B, Iglesias González I, Bu Coifiu Fanego R, Socarrás Hernández C, Dorta Contreras A. Intrathecal activation as a typical immune response within the central nervous system in angiostrongyliasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:230-5 pubmed publisher..Variant group B involves C4 in cerebrospinal fluid that comes from blood in the intrathecal activation of the classical pathway. Variant group C includes the alternative pathway. ..
- Mölne J, Breimer M, Svalander C. Immunoperoxidase versus immunofluorescence in the assessment of human renal biopsies. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45:674-83 pubmed..Discordant observations (116 of 398 observations; 29%) were in the majority (91 of 116 observations) due to positive IP findings of IgM and C1q, which deserve additional investigation. ..
- Sjöwall C, Olin A, Skogh T, Wetterö J, Morgelin M, Nived O, et al. C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin G and complement co-localize in renal immune deposits of proliferative lupus nephritis. Autoimmunity. 2013;46:205-14 pubmed publisher..The glomerular ICs may have been generated by deposition of circulating ICs or by in situ IC formation. ..
- Gonzalez Ortiz M, Martinez Abundis E, Grover Paez F, Pascoe Gonzalez S. Serum complement C3c concentration in non-obese young insulin-resistant Mexicans. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2002;15:256-9 pubmed..In conclusion, the serum complement C3c concentrations were similar between non-obese young insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant Mexicans.
- Endo M, Ohi H, Satomura A, Hidaka M, Ohsawa I, Kanmatsuse K, et al. Regulation of in situ complement activation via the lectin pathway in patients with IgA nephropathy. Clin Nephrol. 2001;55:185-91 pubmed..These findings suggest that the regulatory proteins control in situ complement activation via the lectin pathway immediately, and continuous activation due to inadequate control will lead to the advanced glomerular injury. ..
- Bao X, Wang X, Dong Q, Fang J, Li X. Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry. 2002;59:175-81 pubmed..These polysaccharides enhanced the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes in vitro to varying contents and PL-1 exhibited an immune-stimulating activity in mice. ..
- Rodriguez R, Gueant J, Aimone Gastin I, Gerard P, Amoghly F, Bellou A, et al. The increased histamine release in ischaemic heart disease patients undergoing coronaroangiography is not mediated by specific IgE. Allergy. 2002;57 Suppl 72:61-6 pubmed..The higher histamine release in ischaemic heart disease patients undergoing coronaroangiography is not mediated by IgE or complement activation. Further studies are needed to investigate the implication of histamine release factors. ..
- Kabut J, Kondera Anasz Z, Sikora J, Mielczarek Palacz A. Levels of complement components iC3b, C3c, C4, and SC5b-9 in peritoneal fluid and serum of infertile women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:1298-303 pubmed..The impairment of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of activation of complement system may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated infertility. ..
- Versura P, Cellini M, Torreggiani A, Bernabini B, Rossi A, Moretti M, et al. The biocompatibility of silicone, fluorosilicone and perfluorocarbon liquids as vitreous tamponades. an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:276-83 pubmed..Despite some negative features, silicone oil still appears the most biocompatible material for vitreous replacement. ..
- Tange M, Tearle R, Katerelos M, Crawford R, Robins A, Shinkel T, et al. Analysis of alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice. Transplant Proc. 1996;28:620-1 pubmed
- Shima M, Adachi M. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on serum levels of acute phase proteins in schoolchildren. Prev Med. 1996;25:617-24 pubmed..These findings suggest that the serum levels of C3c, Hp, and alpha 1AG among schoolchildren may reflect different levels of exposure to ETS. Boys seemed to be more susceptible to ETS exposure than girls. ..
- Sarrias M, Franchini S, Canziani G, Argyropoulos E, Moore W, Sahu A, et al. Kinetic analysis of the interactions of complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) with its ligands C3d, iC3b, and the EBV glycoprotein gp350/220. J Immunol. 2001;167:1490-9 pubmed..These findings suggest that binding of CR2 to iC3b and C3d is more complex than previously thought. ..
- Luo H, Li W, Yang F, Zhou L, Wen P, Zhou J. [Expressions of complement C1q and C3c in rat brain tissues with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;29:897-900 pubmed
- Ortega Vinuesa J, Tengvall P, Wälivaara B, Lundstrom I. Stagnant versus dynamic conditions: a comparative adsorption study of blood proteins. Biomaterials. 1998;19:251-62 pubmed..The difference between non-flow or low shear rate conditions and physiological flow conditions was enhanced for the complement cascade system. ..
- Romi F, Kristoffersen E, Aarli J, Gilhus N. The role of complement in myasthenia gravis: serological evidence of complement consumption in vivo. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;158:191-4 pubmed..An increased in vivo complement consumption was detected in MG patients with high AChR antibody concentrations, unrelated to MG severity and non-AChR muscle antibodies. ..
- Muscari A, Bastagi L, Poggiopollini G, Tomassetti V, Massarelli G, Boni P, et al. Short term effect of atorvastatin and vitamin E on serum levels of C3, a sensitive marker of the risk of myocardial infarction in men. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2001;15:453-8 pubmed..In all groups a progressive decrease in HDL cholesterol occurred (-17%, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, treatment with atorvastatin plus vitamin E for three months can lower persistently elevated C3 levels. ..
- Ramos Sevillano E, Rodríguez Sosa C, Cafini F, Gimenez M, Navarro A, Sevillano D, et al. Cefditoren and ceftriaxone enhance complement-mediated immunity in the presence of specific antibodies against antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44135 pubmed publisher..pneumoniae infections. ..
- Palarasah Y, Skjodt K, Brandt J, Teisner B, Koch C, Vitved L, et al. Generation of a C3c specific monoclonal antibody and assessment of C3c as a putative inflammatory marker derived from complement factor C3. J Immunol Methods. 2010;362:142-50 pubmed publisher..47 ?g/ml and a range of 2.12-4.92 ?g/ml. We believe that such an antibody might be of potential value in the assessment of in vivo complement activity during the inflammatory processes. ..
- Jordan M, Silveira P, Shepherd D, Chu C, Kinder S, Chen J, et al. Linkage analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus induced in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice by Mycobacterium bovis. J Immunol. 2000;165:1673-84 pubmed..However, three of the four regions identified had been previously implicated in other autoimmune diseases. ..
- Brorson S, Strøm E. A new immunoelectron microscopy approach for the detection of immunoglobulin and complement deposits in epoxy-embedded renal biopsies. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1998;22:449-57 pubmed..Moreover, the renal tissue can be processed in an automatic ultraprocessor together with other specimens which are to be prepared for routine electron microscopy. ..
- Grimoud A, Pontet F, Rousselet F, Lodter J, Duffaut D, Seguela J. [Comparison of protein concentrations in saliva and serum]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1988;46:361-70 pubmed
- Krause I, Garty B, Davidovits M, Cleper R, Tamary H, Rosenmann E, et al. Low serum C3, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia: unusual features of henoch-schonlein purpura. Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:906-9 pubmed..These findings may further support the importance of complement activation in the pathogenesis of HSP. ..
- Sacks S, Zhou W. The effect of locally synthesised complement on acute renal allograft rejection. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003;81:404-10 pubmed..Alternative approaches are therefore required to control the local effect of complement in the extravascular tissue compartment of the graft. ..
- Super M, Levinsky R, Turner M. The level of mannan-binding protein regulates the binding of complement-derived opsonins to mannan and zymosan at low serum concentrations. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990;79:144-50 pubmed
- Padilla Docal B, Dorta Contreras A, Fundora Hernández H, Noris García E, Bu Coifiu Fanego R, González Hernández M, et al. C3c intrathecal synthesis evaluation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:800-2 pubmed..Intrathecal synthesis of C3c and its liberation to the CSF means that the activation of the complement system in any of the two ways has taken place, and that once performed its biological functions, has suffered a degradation process. ..
- Janssen B, Huizinga E, Raaijmakers H, Roos A, Daha M, Nilsson Ekdahl K, et al. Structures of complement component C3 provide insights into the function and evolution of immunity. Nature. 2005;437:505-11 pubmed
- Verbakel C, de Bruin R, Bonthuis F, Jonker M, Dekker S, Marquet R, et al. Contrast in the efficacy of hDAF mouse hearts between ex vivo perfusion and transplantation into primates. Xenotransplantation. 2001;8:284-91 pubmed..In conclusion, in the ex vivo situation, the efficacy of hDAF transgenesis in preventing HAR is limited by serum complement concentration. ..
- Chyatte D, Bruno G, Desai S, Todor D. Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1999;45:1137-46; discussion 1146-7 pubmed..41) were found in aneurysm tissue, but none were found in the basilar arteries. Extensive inflammatory and immunological reactions are common in unruptured intracranial aneurysms and may be related to aneurysm formation and rupture. ..
- Sahu A, Isaacs S, Soulika A, Lambris J. Interaction of vaccinia virus complement control protein with human complement proteins: factor I-mediated degradation of C3b to iC3b1 inactivates the alternative complement pathway. J Immunol. 1998;160:5596-604 pubmed..These results suggest that the interaction of VCP with C3 is different from that of factor H and CR1 and that VCP-supported first cleavage of C3b by factor I is sufficient to render C3b nonfunctional. ..
- Berge V, Berge K, Johnson E. Vitronectin modulates the expression of complement components of the terminal pathway synthesized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. APMIS. 1996;104:523-30 pubmed..The results indicate that vitronectin regulates the expression of synthezised and surface-bound TCC in serum-free EC cultures, comparable to previous findings in serum. ..
- Thielmann M, Marggraf G, Neuhauser M, Forkel J, Herold U, Kamler M, et al. Administration of C1-esterase inhibitor during emergency coronary artery bypass surgery in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30:285-93 pubmed..C1-INH administration in emergency CABG with acute STEMI is safe and effective to inhibit complement activation and may reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury as measured by cTnI. ..
- Halstead S, Humphreys P, Goodfellow J, Wagner E, Smith R, Willison H. Complement inhibition abrogates nerve terminal injury in Miller Fisher syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2005;58:203-10 pubmed..These data provide a rationale for considering clinical trials of APT070 in Guillain-Barré syndrome, its variant forms, and other complement dependent neuromuscular disorders...
- Turker G, Koksal N. Complement 4 levels as early predictors of poor response to surfactant therapy in respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Perinatol. 2005;22:149-54 pubmed..C4 level may help investigators determine the mechanisms underlying poor responsiveness to surfactant. ..
- Akinlade K, Arinola O, Salimonu L, Oyeyinka G. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and complement components (C3c, C4 and Factor B) in diabetic Nigerians. West Afr J Med. 2004;23:253-5 pubmed..Probably as a result of hyperinsulinaemia associated with insulin resistance. ..
- Sampietro T, Bigazzi F, Dal Pino B, Rossi G, Chella E, Lusso S, et al. Up regulation of C3, C4, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 co-expresses with high sensitivity C reactive protein in familial hypoalphalipoproteinaemia: further evidence of inflammatory activation. Heart. 2004;90:1438-42 pubmed..The lack of signs and symptoms of inflammation in these patients may suggest that the immune response is up regulated as part of the pro-inflammatory mechanisms that are activated in this atherogenic condition. ..
- Olszanski R, Konarski M, Kierznikowicz B. Changes of selected morphotic parameters and blood plasma proteins in blood of divers after a single short-time operational heliox exposure. Int Marit Health. 2002;53:111-21 pubmed
- Vasta G, Quesenberry M, Ahmed H, O Leary N. C-type lectins and galectins mediate innate and adaptive immune functions: their roles in the complement activation pathway. Dev Comp Immunol. 1999;23:401-20 pubmed..Therefore, despite being 'new' to the textbooks, experimental evidence indicates that this pathway is ancient, and has been conserved intact throughout its evolution. ..
- Fredlund H, Olcen P, Danielsson D. A reference procedure to study chemiluminescence induced in polymorphonuclear leukocytes by Neisseria meningitidis. APMIS. 1988;96:941-9 pubmed..The index procedure of CL measurements may be a suitable method to study the appearance of natural immunity to MC disease, as well as the pathogenicity of particular MC strains. ..