Summary: Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

Top Publications

  1. Berth M, Stalpaert M, Bosmans E. [The Hypo Ionic Protein Profile (HIPP). Laboratory analytical evaluation in Complementary and Alternative Medicine]. Acta Clin Belg. 2008;63:242-6 pubmed
    ..Since these proteins cannot be distinguished from each other, the diagnostic value of the HIPP will be limited. The HIPP is an outdated and aspecific assay for protein measurements. ..
  2. Alonso C, Palumbo A, Bullous A, Pretto F, Neri D, Boyle R. Site-specific and stoichiometric conjugation of cationic porphyrins to antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:302-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoreactivity and in vitro photocytotoxicity for these well-characterized porphyrin-antibody conjugates are described. ..
  3. Kaukola T, Tuimala J, Herva R, Kingsmore S, Hallman M. Cord immunoproteins as predictors of respiratory outcome in preterm infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:100.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0-23.1; P < .001). Soluble glycoprotein 130 independently predicted BPD (OR, 6.07; 95%CI, 2.20-16.7; P < .001). Specific antenatal immunologic activation predicts either acute or chronic respiratory disease in very preterm infants. ..
  4. Bestagno M, Sola I, Dallegno E, Sabella P, Poggianella M, Plana Durán J, et al. Recombinant dimeric small immunoproteins neutralize transmissible gastroenteritis virus infectivity efficiently in vitro and confer passive immunity in vivo. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:187-95 pubmed
    Small immunoproteins (SIPs) are single-chain molecules comprising the variable regions of an antibody assembled in a single polypeptide (scFv) and joined to the immunoglobulin heavy-chain dimerizing domain...
  5. Yan F, Xu L, Liu L, Yan R, Song X, Li X. Immunoproteomic analysis of whole proteins from male and female adult Haemonchus contortus. Vet J. 2010;185:174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GDH and GST have been identified as immunogenic proteins of H. contortus previously, whereas the other proteins are newly recognised immunogenic proteins in this nematode. ..
  6. Ruiz J, Ortega F, Warnberg J, Moreno L, Carrero J, Gonzalez Gross M, et al. Inflammatory proteins and muscle strength in adolescents: the Avena study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The patterns of these associations seem more relevant in overweight adolescents, suggesting that having high levels of muscle strength may counteract the negative consequences ascribed to body fat. ..
  7. Bellavista E, Mishto M, Santoro A, Bertoni Freddari C, Sessions R, Franceschi C. Immunoproteasome in Macaca fascicularis: no age-dependent modification of abundance and activity in the brain and insight into an in silico structural model. Rejuvenation Res. 2008;11:73-82 pubmed
    ..A comparison with humans suggests that in multiprotein complexes some functional subunits, such as alpha subunits, appear to be preferentially conserved during evolution. ..
  8. Degauque N, Mariat C, Kenny J, Sanchez Fueyo A, Alexopoulos S, Kuchroo V, et al. Regulation of T-cell immunity by T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain proteins. Transplantation. 2007;84:S12-6 pubmed
    ..Likewise, it is tempting to speculate that Tim proteins might also modulate the function of other T helper cell subsets such as TH3, TR1 and TH17 cells, among others. ..
  9. Gemmell E, Drysdale K, Seymour G. Gene expression in splenic CD4 and CD8 cells from BALB/c mice immunized with Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodontol. 2006;77:622-33 pubmed
    ..The present study has shown that P. gingivalis had a predominant downregulatory effect on gene expression in CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice. ..

More Information


  1. Bergón E, Miranda I, Miravalles E. Linearity and detection limit in the measurement of serum M-protein with the capillary zone electrophoresis system Capillarys. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43:721-3 pubmed
    ..All these limitations have to be taken into account when monitoring monoclonal proteins, because the loss of linearity and the protein background may hide an increase in concentration at low levels. ..
  2. Timár C, Lorincz A, Ligeti E. Changing world of neutrophils. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:1521-33 pubmed publisher
  3. Yi L, Wang Y, Ma Z, Lin H, Xu B, Grenier D, et al. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus immunogenic GroEL protein involved in biofilm formation. Vet Res. 2016;47:50 pubmed publisher
    ..equi spp. zooepidemicus infections. It may therefore be a candidate of interest to be included in vaccines against S. equi spp. zooepidemicus infections. ..
  4. De Marzo N, Jovine L, Rizzotti P, Cassetti P, Boschetto P, Miotto D, et al. Modification of serum proteins in guinea pigs immunized and challenged with toluene diisocyanate. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26:153-60 pubmed
  5. Eckhardt A, Jágr M, Pataridis S, Mikšík I. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth. J Endod. 2014;40:1961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. ..
  6. Soen Y, Chen D, Kraft D, Davis M, Brown P. Detection and characterization of cellular immune responses using peptide-MHC microarrays. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E65 pubmed
  7. Arndt P, Leger R, Garratty G. Positive direct antiglobulin tests and haemolytic anaemia following therapy with the beta-lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam, may also be associated with non-immunologic adsorption of protein onto red blood cells. Vox Sang. 2003;85:53 pubmed
  8. Franz M, Brehm B, Richter P, Gruen K, Neri D, Kosmehl H, et al. Changes in extra cellular matrix remodelling and re-expression of fibronectin and tenascin-C splicing variants in human myocardial tissue of the right atrial auricle: implications for a targeted therapy of cardiovascular diseases using human SIP form. J Mol Histol. 2010;41:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Human recombinant SIP format antibodies usable for an antibody-mediated targeted delivery of drugs might offer completely new therapeutic options in cardiac diseases. ..
  9. Yang Z, Chen J, Liu M, Zhang L, Liu D. [The construction and expression of eukaryotic expression plasmid of Legionella pneumophila immunogenic protein]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;38:198-201 pubmed
    ..We have successfully expressed immunogenic protein of Legionella pneumophila. The expressed product showed the good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. ..
  10. Tang L, De Seta F, Odreman F, Venge P, Piva C, Guaschino S, et al. Proteomic analysis of human cervical-vaginal fluids. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:2874-83 pubmed
    ..Neutrophil and eosinophil granule secretion proteins were also detected in variable amounts in the lavage fluids by both immunoassay and immunoblotting, indicating polymorphonuclear cell activation...
  11. Perrin M, Fogleman A, Allen J. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?. J Hum Lact. 2013;29:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation. ..
  12. French B, Oliva J, Bardag Gorce F, French S. The immunoproteasome in steatohepatitis: its role in Mallory-Denk body formation. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;90:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in the immunoproteasome subunit proteins was made at the expense of the 26S proteasome. This indicates that the shift from the 26S to the immunoproteasome had occurred in the MDB positive hepatocytes. ..
  13. Ueda H, Matsunaga H, Uchida H, Ueda M. Prothymosin alpha as robustness molecule against ischemic stress to brain and retina. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..From the experiment using anti-ProTalpha IgG or antisense oligonucleotide for ProTalpha, it was revealed that ProTalpha has a pathophysiological role in protecting neurons in stroke. ..
  14. Magnadottir B, Gudmundsdottir B, Groman D. Immuno-histochemical determination of humoral immune markers within bacterial induced granuloma formation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:1372-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Yapi H, Ahiboh H, Yayo E, Edjeme A, Attoungbre Hauhouot M, Allico J, et al. [Immune, inflammatory, and nutritional protein profile in children with iron deficiency in Côte d'Ivoire]. Sante. 2009;19:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteins concerned include IgG, TBPA and albumin. The public authorities should pay particular attention to improving children's diets, especially their micronutrient levels, including for iron, vitamin A and zinc. ..
  16. Oehmcke S, Morgelin M, Herwald H. Activation of the human contact system on neutrophil extracellular traps. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we present evidence that M1 protein, a streptococcal surface protein, in concert with human fibrinogen triggers polymorphonuclear neutrophils to form NETs. ..
  17. Li B, Yin G, Kang Y, Zheng C, He X. [Study on relationship between hemocompatibility and protein adsorption for DLC]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2002;19:547-51 pubmed
    ..It probably makes a rational explanation for the result of hemocompatibility tests in vitro that DLC is superior to, DF and graphite. ..
  18. Plager D, Weiss E, Kephart G, Mocharla R, Matsumoto R, Checkel J, et al. Identification of basophils by a mAb directed against pro-major basic protein 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:626-34 pubmed
    ..The J175-7D4 mAb recognizes proMBP1 as a novel marker for human basophils. J175-7D4 should prove useful for characterizing basophil involvement in human health and disease. ..
  19. Gavilan M, Pintado C, Gavilán E, García Cuervo L, Castaño A, Rios R, et al. Age-related differences in the dynamics of hippocampal proteasome recovery. J Neurochem. 2012;123:635-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly suggest that age-dependent differences in proteasome level and composition could contribute to neurodegeneration induced by proteasome dysfunction in normal and pathological aging. ..
  20. van Helden M, de Graaf N, Bekker C, Boog C, Zaiss D, Sijts A. Immunoproteasome-deficiency has no effects on NK cell education, but confers lymphocytes into targets for NK cells in infected wild-type mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23769 pubmed publisher
  21. Hoette T, Abergel R, Xu J, Strong R, Raymond K. The role of electrostatics in siderophore recognition by the immunoprotein Siderocalin. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:17584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..8, and 0.3 nM for m = 0-3). These results elucidate the role of electrostatics in the mechanism of siderophore recognition by Siderocalin. ..
  22. Colic Hadzic B, Mladina N, Hadzic D. [Humoral immunity in children with immunodeficiency and immunosuppression]. Med Arh. 2009;63:9-12 pubmed
    ..500 IU/ml were found in 3 (10%) patients with Hyper IgE syndrome. Results of our study have shown the possibility of evaluation of the level and the scale of disorder of the immunological system in children. ..
  23. Guan L, Wims L, Kane R, Smuckler M, Morrison S, Hawthorne M. Homogeneous immunoconjugates for boron neutron-capture therapy: design, synthesis, and preliminary characterization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13206-10 pubmed
    ..In this regard, engineered immunoproteins fitted with unique, exposed cysteine residues provide attractive vehicles for site-specific modification...
  24. Cakan G, Bezirci F, Kacka A, Cesur S, Aksaray S, Tezeren D, et al. Assessment of diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and serological markers in human brucellosis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:366-70 pubmed
    ..The markers that can predict the variability of agglutination titer was also determined. It was found that the titer value alone does not fully represent disease status. ..
  25. McCurdy D, Tai L, Nguyen J, Wang Z, Yang H, Udar N, et al. MAGE Xp-2: a member of the MAGE gene family isolated from an expression library using systemic lupus erythematosus sera. Mol Genet Metab. 1998;63:3-13 pubmed
    ..MAGE gene expression may be important not only for tumor recognition and cancer therapy, but, because it is the apparent target of autoantibodies in SLE sera, it may also play a role in autoimmune diseases. ..
  26. Fretzayas A, Sionti I, Moustaki M, Nicolaidou P. Clinical impact of altered immunoglobulin levels in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Pediatr Int. 2009;51:381-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal involvement was seen in 32% of children with increased IgA values. Most importantly, elevated IgA concentration along with reduced IgM levels was associated with higher prevalence of severe complications. ..
  27. Mosoian A. Intracellular and extracellular cytokine-like functions of prothymosin ?: implications for the development of immunotherapies. Future Med Chem. 2011;3:1199-208 pubmed publisher
  28. Sudheesh P, LaFrentz B, Call D, Siems W, LaPatra S, Wiens G, et al. Identification of potential vaccine target antigens by immunoproteomic analysis of a virulent and a non-virulent strain of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;74:37-47 pubmed
    ..This approach for antigen identification may provide a basis for targeted vaccine development against CWD and RTFS. ..
  29. Basler M, Groettrup M. Immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors and their application. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;832:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, we provide the methodology to analyse the specificity and cell permeability of immunoproteasome inhibitors, as well as to functionally investigate immunoproteasome inhibitors in antigen presentation. ..
  30. Occhino M, Raffaghello L, Burrone O, Gambini C, Pistoia V, Corrias M, et al. Generation and characterization of dimeric small immunoproteins specific for neuroblastoma associated antigen GD2. Int J Mol Med. 2004;14:383-8 pubmed
    ..Mini-antibody technology allows the production of dimeric single-chain antibodies, also called small immunoproteins (SIPs), which are composed of a scFv fused to a dimerizing domain of immunoglobulin heavy chains...
  31. Ohta S, Nakaji S, Suzuki K, Totsuka M, Umeda T, Sugawara K. Depressed humoral immunity after weight reduction in competitive judoists. Luminescence. 2002;17:150-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that such immunosuppression appeared in the recovery period after the competition rather than immediately before the competition. ..
  32. Subramanian A, Sarkar S. Use of a modified zirconia support in the separation of immunoproteins. J Chromatogr A. 2002;944:179-87 pubmed
    ..32 cm/min. Purity of products, obtained from a single chromatographic step was estimated to be greater than 89.0+/-2.6%. The utility of r_PEZ in the selective removal of immunoglobulins, as in immunoadsorption was discussed. ..
  33. Scotchie J, Fritz M, Mocanu M, Lessey B, Young S. Proteomic analysis of the luteal endometrial secretome. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the first application of proteomic analysis to endometrial secretions, allowing identification of novel endometrial proteins as well as those differentially secreted in prereceptive and receptive phases. ..
  34. Vawter M, Frye M, Hemperly J, VanderPutten D, Usen N, Doherty P, et al. Elevated concentration of N-CAM VASE isoforms in schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2000;34:25-34 pubmed
    ..These results provide further evidence of an abnormality of N-CAM protein in chronic schizophrenia and suggest differences between schizophrenia and affective disorders in regulation of N-CAM. ..
  35. Custodio W, Silva W, Paes Leme A, Cury J, Del Bel Cury A. Plasma proteins in the acquired denture pellicle enhance substrate surface free energy and Candida albicans phospholipase and proteinase activities. J Investig Clin Dent. 2015;6:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Blood plasma changes the proteome of the acquired denture pellicle, increasing surface free energy and the activity of Candida albicans phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase. ..
  36. González Miguel J, Morchon R, Gussoni S, Bossetti E, Hormaeche M, Kramer L, et al. Immunoproteomic approach for identification of Ascaris suum proteins recognized by pigs with porcine ascariasis. Vet Parasitol. 2014;203:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may aid the search for effective chemo-therapeutic targets in porcine ascariasis. Further studies are needed, however, to illustrate the effect of the host immune response on the survival mechanisms of A. suum. ..
  37. Bernardes G, Steiner M, Hartmann I, Neri D, Casi G. Site-specific chemical modification of antibody fragments using traceless cleavable linkers. Nat Protoc. 2013;8:2079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedures outlined are robust, enabling the preparation of ADCs with a defined number of drugs per antibody in a time frame between 7 and 24 h. ..
  38. Bao Y, Zhai Z, Wang S, Ma J, Zhang W, Lu C. Chaperonin GroEL: a novel phylogenetically conserved protein with strong immunoreactivity of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from duck identified by immunoproteomics. Vaccine. 2013;31:2947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..With high phylogenetic conservation, it is considered that GroEL would be an ideal immunogen of APEC for vaccine development. ..
  39. Kelly J, Hagler J, Kaplan I. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of a piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Environ Entomol. 2012;41:1527-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunoproteins are markers that are useful for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators important in biocontrol...
  40. Sokolov A, Pulina M, Ageeva K, Runova O, Zakharova E, Vasil ev V. Identification of leukocyte cationic proteins that interact with ceruloplasmin. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007;72:872-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, interaction with Cp of five cationic proteins, i.e. of eosinophilic cationic protein, cathepsin G, neutrophilic elastase, proteinase 3, and azurocidin is reported for the first time. ..
  41. Frisbee S, Chambers C, Frisbee J, Goodwill A, Crout R. Association between dental hygiene, cardiovascular disease risk factors and systemic inflammation in rural adults. J Dent Hyg. 2010;84:177-84 pubmed
    ..Results from this and other studies highlight the importance of dental hygiene in overall systemic health, and are beginning to collectively suggest that regular dental hygiene care is an integral part of comprehensive health care. ..
  42. Yao X, Liu J, McCabe J. Alterations of cerebral cortex and hippocampal proteasome subunit expression and function in a traumatic brain injury rat model. J Neurochem. 2008;104:353-63 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrated that both proteasome composition and function in the CNS were affected by trauma. Treatments that preserve proteasome function following CNS injury may be beneficial as an approach to cerebral neuroprotection. ..
  43. Lee K, Lee H, Hong J, Han J, Lee J, Whang K. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin downregulates the activated levels of inflammatory indices except erythrocyte sedimentation rate in acute stage of Kawasaki Disease. J Trop Pediatr. 2005;51:98-101 pubmed
    ..High-dose IVIG causes immediate changes in the levels of various proteins, except IgA and IgM, and downregulates the activated levels of inflammatory indices, except ESR, in the acute stage of KD. ..