fetal hemoglobin

Summary

Summary: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.

Top Publications

  1. Sankaran V, Menne T, Xu J, Akie T, Lettre G, Van Handel B, et al. Human fetal hemoglobin expression is regulated by the developmental stage-specific repressor BCL11A. Science. 2008;322:1839-42 pubmed publisher
    Differences in the amount of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) that persists into adulthood affect the severity of sickle cell disease and the beta-thalassemia syndromes...
  2. Thein S, Menzel S, Lathrop M, Garner C. Control of fetal hemoglobin: new insights emerging from genomics and clinical implications. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:R216-23 pubmed publisher
    Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, alpha(2)gamma(2)) are of no consequence in healthy adults, but confer major clinical benefits in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and beta thalassemia, diseases that represent major public ..
  3. Dziegiel M, Nielsen L, Berkowicz A. Detecting fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006;13:490-5 pubmed
    ..Fetal and maternal red blood cells differ in their content of fetal hemoglobin (alpha2gamma2)...
  4. Italia K, Jain D, Gattani S, Jijina F, Nadkarni A, Sawant P, et al. Hydroxyurea in sickle cell disease--a study of clinico-pharmacological efficacy in the Indian haplotype. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;42:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaso-occlusive crisis is common among non-tribal patients. Hydroxyurea, induces fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis and reduces the clinical severity of sickle cell disease but individual patients have a ..
  5. Lettre G, Sankaran V, Bezerra M, Araújo A, Uda M, Sanna S, et al. DNA polymorphisms at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels and pain crises in sickle cell disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Interindividual variation in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is a known and potentially heritable modifier of SCD severity...
  6. Amoyal I, Prus E, Fibach E. Vanadate elevates fetal hemoglobin in human erythroid precursors by inhibiting cell maturation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:654-61 pubmed
    Increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in erythroid precursors of patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia), in which adult hemoglobin synthesis is defective, ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the ..
  7. Bhatnagar P, Purvis S, Barron Casella E, Debaun M, Casella J, Arking D, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies genetic variants influencing F-cell levels in sickle-cell patients. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:316-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level has emerged as an important prognostic factor in sickle-cell disease (SCD) and can be measured by the proportion of HbF-containing erythrocytes (F-cells)...
  8. Guida V, Cappabianca M, Colosimo A, Rafanelli F, Amato A, Dallapiccola B. Influence of Ggamma-158C --> and beta- (AT)x(T)y globin gene polymorphisms on HbF levels in Italian beta-thalassemia carriers and wild-type subjects. Haematologica. 2006;91:1275-6 pubmed
    ..manifestations of beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) intermedia phenotypes are influenced by the persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and by several polymorphisms located in the promoters of A- and beta-globin genes...
  9. ATWEH G, Fathallah H. Pharmacologic induction of fetal hemoglobin production. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2010;24:1131-44 pubmed publisher
    Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is an important therapeutic option in adult patients with hemoglobin disorders...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Manca L, Masala B. Disorders of the synthesis of human fetal hemoglobin. IUBMB Life. 2008;60:94-111 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), the predominant hemoglobin in the fetus, is a mixture of two molecular species (alpha(2)(G)gamma(2) and alpha(2)(A)gamma(2)) that differ only at position 136 reflecting the products of two nonallelic gamma-globin ..
  2. Mabaera R, Greene M, Richardson C, Conine S, Kozul C, Lowrey C. Neither DNA hypomethylation nor changes in the kinetics of erythroid differentiation explain 5-azacytidine's ability to induce human fetal hemoglobin. Blood. 2008;111:411-20 pubmed
    5-azacytidine (5-Aza) is a potent inducer of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in people with beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Two models have been proposed to explain this activity...
  3. Chin J, Singh M, Banzon V, Vaitkus K, Ibanez V, Kouznetsova T, et al. Transcriptional activation of the gamma-globin gene in baboons treated with decitabine and in cultured erythroid progenitor cells involves different mechanisms. Exp Hematol. 2009;37:1131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for increased gamma-globin expression in vivo in decitabine-treated baboons and in vitro in cultured erythroid progenitor cells (EPC) from adult baboon bone marrow (BM)...
  4. Nadkarni A, Wadia M, Gorakshakar A, Kiyama R, Colah R, Mohanty D. Molecular characterization of delta beta-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin in the Indian population. Hemoglobin. 2008;32:425-33 pubmed publisher
    delta beta-Thalassemia (delta beta-thal) and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by elevated levels of Hb F in adult life...
  5. da Cunha A, Brugnerotto A, Corat M, Devlin E, Gimenes A, de Melo M, et al. High levels of human gamma-globin are expressed in adult mice carrying a transgene of the Brazilian type of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin ((A)gamma -195). Hemoglobin. 2009;33:439-47 pubmed publisher
    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by increased levels of Hb F during adult life...
  6. Solovieff N, Milton J, Hartley S, Sherva R, Sebastiani P, Dworkis D, et al. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia: genome-wide association studies suggest a regulatory region in the 5' olfactory receptor gene cluster. Blood. 2010;115:1815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of 848 blacks with sickle cell anemia, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fetal hemoglobin concentration...
  7. Sankaran V, Xu J, Orkin S. Advances in the understanding of haemoglobin switching. Br J Haematol. 2010;149:181-94 pubmed publisher
  8. Zein S, Li W, Ramakrishnan V, Lou T, Sivanand S, Mackie A, et al. Identification of fetal hemoglobin-inducing agents using the human leukemia KU812 cell line. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) ameliorates the clinical severity of sickle cell disease; therefore continued research to identify efficacious HbF-inducing agents is desirable...
  9. Lebensburger J, Johnson S, Askenazi D, Rozario N, HOWARD T, Hilliard L. Protective role of hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin in early kidney disease for children with sickle cell anemia. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:430-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In children not on therapy, low hemoglobin, low fetal hemoglobin and high lactate dehydrogenase were associated with MA...
  10. Campbell A, Cui S, Shi L, Urbonya R, Mathias A, Bradley K, et al. Forced TR2/TR4 expression in sickle cell disease mice confers enhanced fetal hemoglobin synthesis and alleviated disease phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in red blood cells of SCD patients have been shown to improve morbidity and mortality...
  11. Makani J, Williams T, Marsh K. Sickle cell disease in Africa: burden and research priorities. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:3-14 pubmed
  12. Jawaid K, Wahlberg K, Thein S, Best S. Binding patterns of BCL11A in the globin and GATA1 loci and characterization of the BCL11A fetal hemoglobin locus. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010;45:140-6 pubmed publisher
    BCL11A is a major regulator of fetal hemoglobin production. Reduced levels of BCL11A have been shown to delay switching from fetal to adult hemoglobin, suggesting that it acts as a stage-specific repressor of gamma globin expression...
  13. Lou T, Singh M, Mackie A, Li W, Pace B. Hydroxyurea generates nitric oxide in human erythroid cells: mechanisms for gamma-globin gene activation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:1374-82 pubmed publisher
    Hydroxyurea (HU) induces fetal hemoglobin synthesis through activation of cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Studies in sickle cell patients demonstrated increased circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels after oral HU treatment...
  14. Galarneau G, Palmer C, Sankaran V, Orkin S, Hirschhorn J, Lettre G. Fine-mapping at three loci known to affect fetal hemoglobin levels explains additional genetic variation. Nat Genet. 2010;42:1049-51 pubmed publisher
    ..and genotyping in African Americans with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to characterize associations with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB and ?-globin loci...
  15. Fertrin K, Costa F. Genomic polymorphisms in sickle cell disease: implications for clinical diversity and treatment. Expert Rev Hematol. 2010;3:443-58 pubmed publisher
  16. Sripichai O, Kiefer C, Bhanu N, Tanno T, Noh S, Goh S, et al. Cytokine-mediated increases in fetal hemoglobin are associated with globin gene histone modification and transcription factor reprogramming. Blood. 2009;114:2299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..cells cultured with cytokine combinations that produced low versus high levels of gamma-globin mRNA and fetal hemoglobin (HbF)...
  17. Bhatnagar P, Keefer J, Casella J, Barron Casella E, Bean C, Hooper C, et al. Association between baseline fetal hemoglobin levels and incidence of severe vaso-occlusive pain episodes in children with sickle cell anemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:E125-7 pubmed publisher
    The ameliorating effect of high fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels on the incidence of pain episodes in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is well-known; however, in children this relationship is less clearly established...
  18. Fathallah H, Taher A, Bazarbachi A, Atweh G. Differences in response to fetal hemoglobin induction therapy in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;43:58-62 pubmed publisher
    Inducers of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) have shown considerable promise in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the same agents have shown less clinical activity in beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal)...
  19. Serjeant G, Higgs D, Hambleton I. Elderly survivors with homozygous sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:642-3 pubmed
  20. Testa U. Fetal hemoglobin chemical inducers for treatment of hemoglobinopathies. Ann Hematol. 2009;88:505-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in HbF in response to these drugs varies among patients with beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease due to individual genetic determinants. ..
  21. Thein S. Genetic modifiers of the beta-haemoglobinopathies. Br J Haematol. 2008;141:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrating multiplex genetic testing with clinical and laboratory data to generate predictive models shows potential, but such genetic approaches also require large datasets. ..
  22. Moutouh de Parseval L, Verhelle D, Glezer E, Jensen Pergakes K, Ferguson G, Corral L, et al. Pomalidomide and lenalidomide regulate erythropoiesis and fetal hemoglobin production in human CD34+ cells. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:248-58 pubmed
    ..New therapies, including hydroxyurea, have attempted to augment the synthesis of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and improve current treatment...
  23. Hsieh M, Linde N, Wynter A, Metzger M, Wong C, Langsetmo I, et al. HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibition results in endogenous erythropoietin induction, erythrocytosis, and modest fetal hemoglobin expression in rhesus macaques. Blood. 2007;110:2140-7 pubmed
    ..6- to 207-fold above control animals. Furthermore, several PHIs induced fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression in primary human erythroid cells in vitro, as determined by flow cytometry...
  24. Makani J, Menzel S, Nkya S, Cox S, Drasar E, Soka D, et al. Genetics of fetal hemoglobin in Tanzanian and British patients with sickle cell anemia. Blood. 2011;117:1390-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α(2)γ(2)) is a major contributor to the remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity of sickle cell anemia (SCA)...
  25. Fathallah H, Weinberg R, Galperin Y, Sutton M, Atweh G. Role of epigenetic modifications in normal globin gene regulation and butyrate-mediated induction of fetal hemoglobin. Blood. 2007;110:3391-7 pubmed
    ..Although butyrate was shown to induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production in patients with hemoglobin disorders, the mechanism of this induction has not been fully ..
  26. Sebastiani P, Wang L, Nolan V, Melista E, Ma Q, Baldwin C, et al. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia: Bayesian modeling of genetic associations. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:189-95 pubmed
    ..in: (1) the beta-globin gene-like cluster, (2) quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously associated with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration on chromosomes 6q, 8q, and Xp, and (3) candidate genes that could effect HbF levels, in ..
  27. Bauer D, Kamran S, Orkin S. Reawakening fetal hemoglobin: prospects for new therapies for the ?-globin disorders. Blood. 2012;120:2945-53 pubmed publisher
    The level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) modifies the severity of the common ?-globin disorders...
  28. Wilber A, Tschulena U, Hargrove P, Kim Y, Persons D, Barbas C, et al. A zinc-finger transcriptional activator designed to interact with the gamma-globin gene promoters enhances fetal hemoglobin production in primary human adult erythroblasts. Blood. 2010;115:3033-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a potent genetic modifier of the severity of beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia...
  29. Xu J, Peng C, Sankaran V, Shao Z, Esrick E, Chong B, et al. Correction of sickle cell disease in adult mice by interference with fetal hemoglobin silencing. Science. 2011;334:993-6 pubmed publisher
    Persistence of human fetal hemoglobin (HbF, ?(2)?(2)) in adults lessens the severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the ?-thalassemias...
  30. Lampronti I, Bianchi N, Zuccato C, Dall Acqua F, Vedaldi D, Viola G, et al. Increase in gamma-globin mRNA content in human erythroid cells treated with angelicin analogs. Int J Hematol. 2009;90:318-327 pubmed publisher
    ..pharmacologically mediated regulation of human gamma-globin gene expression, with the consequent induction of fetal hemoglobin, is considered a potential therapeutic approach in hematological disorders including beta-thalassemia and ..
  31. Mabaera R, West R, Conine S, Macari E, Boyd C, Engman C, et al. A cell stress signaling model of fetal hemoglobin induction: what doesn't kill red blood cells may make them stronger. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:1057-72 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach to achieving this goal is the pharmacologic induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF)...
  32. Musallam K, Taher A, Cappellini M, Sankaran V. Clinical experience with fetal hemoglobin induction therapy in patients with ?-thalassemia. Blood. 2013;121:2199-212; quiz 2372 pubmed publisher
    Recent molecular studies of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) regulation have reinvigorated the field and shown promise for the development of clinical HbF inducers to be used in patients with ?-thalassemia and sickle cell disease...
  33. Azzouzi I, Moest H, Winkler J, Fauchere J, Gerber A, Wollscheid B, et al. MicroRNA-96 directly inhibits ?-globin expression in human erythropoiesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22838 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin, HbF (?(2)?(2)), is the main hemoglobin synthesized up to birth, but it subsequently declines and adult hemoglobin, HbA (?(2)?(2)), becomes predominant...
  34. Wilber A, Hargrove P, Kim Y, Riberdy J, Sankaran V, Papanikolaou E, et al. Therapeutic levels of fetal hemoglobin in erythroid progeny of ?-thalassemic CD34+ cells after lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Blood. 2011;117:2817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (????;HbF), such as occurs with hereditary persistence of HbF, ameliorate the severity of ?-thalassemia, ..
  35. He Y, Lin W, Luo J. Influences of genetic variation on fetal hemoglobin. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011;28:708-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) plays a dominant role in ameliorating morbidity and mortality of hemoglobinopathies...
  36. Sankaran V, Xu J, Byron R, Greisman H, Fisher C, Weatherall D, et al. A functional element necessary for fetal hemoglobin silencing. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:807-14 pubmed publisher
    An improved understanding of the regulation of the fetal hemoglobin genes holds promise for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for fetal hemoglobin induction in the ?-hemoglobinopathies...
  37. Ma Q, Wyszynski D, Farrell J, Kutlar A, Farrer L, Baldwin C, et al. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia: genetic determinants of response to hydroxyurea. Pharmacogenomics J. 2007;7:386-94 pubmed
    The increase in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in response to hydroxyurea (HU) varies among patients with sickle cell anemia. Twenty-nine candidate genes within loci previously reported to be linked to HbF level (6q22.3-q23.2, 8q11-q12 and Xp22...
  38. Papachatzopoulou A, Kaimakis P, Pourfarzad F, Menounos P, Evangelakou P, Kollia P, et al. Increased gamma-globin gene expression in beta-thalassemia intermedia patients correlates with a mutation in 3'HS1. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:1005-9 pubmed
    ..show that the 3'HS1 (+179 C>T) variation results in a GATA-1 binding site and correlates with increased fetal hemoglobin production in beta-thalassemia intermedia patients...
  39. Rusanova I, Escames G, Cossio G, de Borace R, Moreno B, Chahboune M, et al. Oxidative stress status, clinical outcome, and ?-globin gene cluster haplotypes in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. Eur J Haematol. 2010;85:529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..LPO levels were reduced in patients with high fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels, whereas the NOx levels and GRd activity tended to increase in this group...
  40. Uda M, Galanello R, Sanna S, Lettre G, Sankaran V, Chen W, et al. Genome-wide association study shows BCL11A associated with persistent fetal hemoglobin and amelioration of the phenotype of beta-thalassemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons for this are not well understood, although the level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is one well characterized ameliorating factor in both of these conditions...
  41. Gibney G, Panhuysen C, So J, Ma E, Ha S, Li C, et al. Variation and heritability of Hb F and F-cells among beta-thalassemia heterozygotes in Hong Kong. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:458-64 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production can partially compensate for the lack of adult hemoglobin (Hb A) in patients with beta-thalassemia major or intermedia, and ameliorate the clinical severity of these diseases...
  42. Thornburg C, Calatroni A, Telen M, Kemper A. Adherence to hydroxyurea therapy in children with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr. 2010;156:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary outcome was association between treatment adherence and percent fetal hemoglobin (HbF)...
  43. Gambari R, Fibach E. Medicinal chemistry of fetal hemoglobin inducers for treatment of beta-thalassemia. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14:199-212 pubmed
    ..approaches to the therapy of beta-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF)...
  44. Zuccato C, Breda L, Salvatori F, Breveglieri G, Gardenghi S, Bianchi N, et al. A combined approach for ?-thalassemia based on gene therapy-mediated adult hemoglobin (HbA) production and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:1201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..whether, in absence of complete reversion of the ?-globin phenotype upon gene transfer, it is possible to use fetal hemoglobin induction to eliminate the residual ?-globin aggregates and achieve normal levels of hemoglobin...
  45. Lee Y, de Vasconcellos J, Yuan J, Byrnes C, Noh S, Meier E, et al. LIN28B-mediated expression of fetal hemoglobin and production of fetal-like erythrocytes from adult human erythroblasts ex vivo. Blood. 2013;122:1034-41 pubmed publisher
    Reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) holds therapeutic potential for sickle cell disease and ?-thalassemias...
  46. Anderson U, Olsson M, Rutardóttir S, Centlow M, Kristensen K, Isberg P, et al. Fetal hemoglobin and ?1-microglobulin as first- and early second-trimester predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:520.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and ?(1)-microglobulin (A1M) in maternal serum as first-trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia (PE). The design was a case-control study...
  47. Fyrberg A, Peterson C, Kagedal B, Lotfi K. Induction of fetal hemoglobin and ABCB1 gene expression in 9-?-D-arabinofuranosylguanine-resistant MOLT-4 cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68:583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that fetal hemoglobin genes and the multidrug resistance ABCB1 gene, encoding the drug efflux pump P-gp, were the most highly ..
  48. Wolk M, Martin J, Nowicki M. Foetal haemoglobin-blood cells (F-cells) as a feature of embryonic tumours (blastomas). Br J Cancer. 2007;97:412-9 pubmed
    ..Foetal haemoglobin, as well as being a potential prognostic cancer marker, is a potential indicator of DNA hypomethylation implicated in the development of these tumours, as well as in others previously noted for the presence of HbF. ..
  49. Ma Q, Abel K, Sripichai O, Whitacre J, Angkachatchai V, Makarasara W, et al. Beta-globin gene cluster polymorphisms are strongly associated with severity of HbE/beta(0)-thalassemia. Clin Genet. 2007;72:497-505 pubmed
    ..6E-12). Carriers of the T allele of XmnI were more likely to have a milder disease course and higher level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in both the mild (p = 0.005) and severe (p = 8.7E-06) patient groups...
  50. Zheng W, Liu Y, Chen D, Rong K, Ge Y, Gong C, et al. Complex interaction of Hb Q-Thailand and Hb E with alpha(0)-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin in a Chinese family. Ann Hematol. 2010;89:883-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and Hb E in combination with alpha(0)-thalassemia and Southeast Asian-type hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (SEA-HPFH)...
  51. Italia K, Jijina F, Merchant R, Panjwani S, Nadkarni A, Sawant P, et al. Response to hydroxyurea in beta thalassemia major and intermedia: experience in western India. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;407:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In group I, clinical response to hydroxyurea was better in patients with alpha-thalassemia, XmnI (+/+) and a higher mean fold increase in gamma mRNA expression. In group II, only one-third of patients showed a partial response. ..
  52. Tangvarasittichai S, Tangvarasittichai O, Jermnim N. Comparison of fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) with HPLC, electrophoresis & microcolumn chromatography techniques for the diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia. Indian J Med Res. 2009;129:242-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggested that FPLC method could be used as a cost-effective method for routine beta-thalassaemia diagnosis. ..
  53. Khatri I, Alexander C, Brandenburg K, Fournier K, Mach J, Rietschel E, et al. Induction of tolerogenic vs immunogenic dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of GM-CSF is regulated by the strength of signaling from monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in association with glutathione and fetal hemoglobin gamma-chain. Immunol Lett. 2009;124:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies had suggested that major interacting components within FSLE were gamma-chain of fetal hemoglobin (Hgbgamma) and glutathione (GSH)...