Summary: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.

Top Publications

  1. Hardison R. Evolution of hemoglobin and its genes. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a011627 pubmed publisher
    Insights into the evolution of hemoglobins and their genes are an abundant source of ideas regarding hemoglobin function and regulation of globin gene expression...
  2. Brenner H, Tao S. Superior diagnostic performance of faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin in a head-to-head comparison with guaiac based faecal occult blood test among 2235 participants of screening colonoscopy. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:3049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, FITs can detect much larger proportions of colorectal neoplasms even if their cut-offs are set to levels that ensure equally low positivity rates as gFOBT...
  3. Odutola A, Afolabi M, Jafali J, Baldeh I, Owolabi O, Owiafe P, et al. Haematological and biochemical reference values of Gambian infants. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:275-283 pubmed publisher
  4. McLean B, Buttifant D, Gore C, White K, Liess C, Kemp J. Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:391-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp...
  5. Sundararaj S, Singh D, Saxena A, Vashisht K, Sijwali P, Dixit R, et al. The Ionic and hydrophobic interactions are required for the auto activation of cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47227 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed the interactions involved in auto processing of two major hemoglobinases of malaria parasite...
  6. Zhao J, de Serrano V, Zhao J, Le P, Franzen S. Structural and kinetic study of an internal substrate binding site in dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin A from Amphitrite ornata. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological role of the internal site may involve interactions with any of a number of aromatic toxins found in benthic ecosystems where A. ornata resides. ..
  7. Banerjee S, Jia Y, Siburt C, Abraham B, Wood F, Bonaventura C, et al. Haptoglobin alters oxygenation and oxidation of hemoglobin and decreases propagation of peroxide-induced oxidative reactions. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative shift in the redox potential of Hb-Hp and its stabilized ferryl state may be central elements in the protection against Hb-induced oxidative damage afforded by formation of the Hb-Hp complex. ..
  8. Zhao J, Srajer V, Franzen S. Functional consequences of the open distal pocket of dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin observed by time-resolved X-ray crystallography. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together with the high reduction potential of DHP, the open distal site helps to explain how a globin can also function as a peroxidase. ..
  9. Zhao A, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Li J, Yang T, Liu Z, et al. Prevalence of anemia and its risk factors among children 6-36 months old in Burma. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..029), and fever in the last 3 months (P = 0.001). There is a high prevalence of anemia in children, and their nutritional status is quite poor. To control anemia, humanitarians and governments should launch comprehensive interventions. ..

More Information


  1. Guillen U, Cummings J, Bell E, Hosono S, Frantz A, Maier R, et al. International survey of transfusion practices for extremely premature infants. Semin Perinatol. 2012;36:244-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An international survey using hypothetical scenarios shows that red blood cell transfusion practices vary widely among practicing neonatologists in participating countries. ..
  2. Mazhar A, Sharif S, Cuccia J, Nelson J, Kelly K, Durkin A. Spatial frequency domain imaging of port wine stain biochemical composition in response to laser therapy: a pilot study. Lasers Surg Med. 2012;44:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work will investigate the potential of SFDI to provide intra-operative guidance for laser therapy of PWS lesions on an individual patient basis. ..
  3. Chugh M, Sundararaman V, Kumar S, Reddy V, Siddiqui W, Stuart K, et al. Protein complex directs hemoglobin-to-hemozoin formation in Plasmodium falciparum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may have important implications in the development of previously undefined antimalarials. ..
  4. Faiss R, Leger B, Vesin J, Fournier P, Eggel Y, Deriaz O, et al. Significant molecular and systemic adaptations after repeated sprint training in hypoxia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56522 pubmed publisher
    ..01) in RSH. Our findings show larger improvement in repeated sprint performance in RSH than in RSN with significant molecular adaptations and larger blood perfusion variations in active muscles. ..
  5. Patel A, Wesley R, Leitman S, Bryant B. Capillary versus venous haemoglobin determination in the assessment of healthy blood donors. Vox Sang. 2013;104:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..False-pass and false-fail rates were low and acceptable in the donor screening setting, with 'true' values not differing by a clinically significant degree from threshold values used to assess acceptability for blood donation. ..
  6. Zhang Z, Jia H, Zhang Q, Wan Y, Zhou Y, Jia Q, et al. Assessment of hematopoietic failure due to Rpl11 deficiency in a zebrafish model of Diamond-Blackfan anemia by deep sequencing. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:896 pubmed publisher
    ..The present analyses demonstrate that Rpl11-deficient zebrafish may serve as a model of DBA and may provide insights into the pathogenesis of mutant RPL11-mediated human DBA disease...
  7. Wachsmuth N, Völzke C, Prommer N, Schmidt Trucksass A, Frese F, Spahl O, et al. The effects of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass in swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:1199-211 pubmed publisher
    ..In healthy subjects it exceeds by far the oscillation occurring at sea level. After return from altitude performance increases after a delay of 3 weeks. ..
  8. Romero Espejel M, González López M, Olivares Trejo J. Streptococcus pneumoniae requires iron for its viability and expresses two membrane proteins that bind haemoglobin and haem. Metallomics. 2013;5:384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are the first findings that attempt to explain the mechanisms developed by S. pneumoniae to acquire iron from Hb or haem in the host, which could allow a better understanding of the biology of this bacterium. ..
  9. Iram A, Naeem A. Detection and analysis of protofibrils and fibrils of hemoglobin: implications for the pathogenesis and cure of heme loss related maladies. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;533:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Comet assay showed that protofibrils are cytotoxic to lymphocytes. SEM and XRD confirmed these aggregates to be fibrillar in nature. ..
  10. Plummer A, Thompson M, Franzen S. Role of polarity of the distal pocket in the control of inhibitor binding in dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the comparison of L100T and isosteric L100V reveals that an increase in polarity plays a decisive role in excluding the inhibitor from the distal binding pocket. ..
  11. Janz D, Bastarache J, Peterson J, Sills G, Wickersham N, May A, et al. Association between cell-free hemoglobin, acetaminophen, and mortality in patients with sepsis: an observational study. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetaminophen may exert a protective effect by reducing cell-free hemoglobin-induced oxidative injury. ..
  12. Robach P, Siebenmann C, Jacobs R, Rasmussen P, Nordsborg N, Pesta D, et al. The role of haemoglobin mass on VO(2)max following normobaric 'live high-train low' in endurance-trained athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:822-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Neya M, Enoki T, Ohiwa N, Kawahara T, Gore C. Increased hemoglobin mass and VO2max with 10 h nightly simulated altitude at 3000 m. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:366-72 pubmed
    ..Together the combination of the natural and simulated altitude was a sufficient total dose of hypoxia to increase both Hbmass and VO2max. ..
  14. Ouédraogo S, Koura G, Accrombessi M, Bodeau Livinec F, Massougbodji A, Cot M. Maternal anemia at first antenatal visit: prevalence and risk factors in a malaria-endemic area in Benin. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:418-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Most anemia was caused by factors that could be prevented by available tools, stressing the need to reinforce their implementation and to evaluate their effectiveness throughout the course of the pregnancy. ..
  15. d Alessandro B, Dhawan A. Transillumination imaging for blood oxygen saturation estimation of skin lesions. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012;59:2660-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show that subsurface oxygen saturation can be reasonably estimated with good implications for the reconstruction of 3-D skin lesion volumes using transillumination toward early detection of malignancy. ..
  16. van der Harst P, Zhang W, Mateo Leach I, Rendon A, Verweij N, Sehmi J, et al. Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell. Nature. 2012;492:369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function. ..
  17. Etzerodt A, Kjolby M, Nielsen M, Maniecki M, Svendsen P, Moestrup S. Plasma clearance of hemoglobin and haptoglobin in mice and effect of CD163 gene targeting disruption. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:2254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The new data further underscore the fact that the Hp system in man seems to have a broader and more sophisticated role. This has major implications in the translation of data on Hb metabolism from mouse to man. ..
  18. Lundby C, Millet G, Calbet J, Bartsch P, Subudhi A. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:792-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Another aim is to encourage investigators to design well-controlled studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of altitude training. ..
  19. Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Kolyva C, Highton D, Elwell C, Smith M. Normobaric hyperoxia does not change optical scattering or pathlength but does increase oxidised cytochrome C oxidase concentration in patients with brain injury. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;765:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the measurement of chromophore concentration in the injured brain is not confounded by changes in optical scattering or pathlength and that NBH induces an increase in cerebral aerobic metabolism. ..
  20. Grispo M, Natarajan C, Projecto Garcia J, Moriyama H, Weber R, Storz J. Gene duplication and the evolution of hemoglobin isoform differentiation in birds. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37647-58 pubmed publisher
  21. Thom C, Dickson C, Gell D, Weiss M. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013;3:a011858 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. ..
  22. Steinmetz T, Tschechne B, Harlin O, Klement B, Franzem M, Wamhoff J, et al. Clinical experience with ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of cancer- and chemotherapy-associated anaemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated effectiveness and tolerability of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in routine treatment of anaemic cancer patients...
  23. Schaer D, Buehler P, Alayash A, Belcher J, Vercellotti G. Hemolysis and free hemoglobin revisited: exploring hemoglobin and hemin scavengers as a novel class of therapeutic proteins. Blood. 2013;121:1276-84 pubmed publisher
  24. Gough C, Sharpe K, Garvican L, Anson J, Saunders P, Gore C. The effects of injury and illness on haemoglobin mass. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34:763-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Boyle J. Heme and haemoglobin direct macrophage Mhem phenotype and counter foam cell formation in areas of intraplaque haemorrhage. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012;23:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies have recently shown that haemoglobin drives a novel macrophage subset that is protected from foam cell formation...
  26. Jaako P, Debnath S, Olsson K, Bryder D, Flygare J, Karlsson S. Dietary L-leucine improves the anemia in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Blood. 2012;120:2225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the rationale for clinical trials of L-leucine as a therapeutic agent for DBA. ..
  27. Prasad R, Atul -, Soni A, Puri S, Sijwali P. Expression, characterization, and cellular localization of knowpains, papain-like cysteine proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasite. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51619 pubmed publisher
  28. Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, Concepción M, Hernandez Gea V, Aracil C, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by Fundació Investigació Sant Pau; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00414713.). ..
  29. Suchdev P, Ruth L, Earley M, Macharia A, Williams T. The burden and consequences of inherited blood disorders among young children in western Kenya. Matern Child Nutr. 2014;10:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) or homozygotes (67.7%, P?=?0.03). Inherited blood disorders are common among pre-school children in western Kenya and are important contributors to anaemia. ..
  30. Etzerodt A, Moestrup S. CD163 and inflammation: biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:2352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic and therapeutic properties of CD163 await further clinical studies and regulatory approval before implementation in the clinic. ..
  31. Andersen C, Torvund Jensen M, Nielsen M, de Oliveira C, Hersleth H, Andersen N, et al. Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex. Nature. 2012;489:456-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such receptor cross-linkage may facilitate scavenging and explain the increased functional affinity of multimeric haptoglobin-haemoglobin for CD163 (ref. 4)...
  32. Majernikova M, Rosenberger J, Prihodova L, Jarcuskova M, Roland R, Groothoff J, et al. Posttransplant Anemia as a Prognostic Factor of Mortality in Kidney-Transplant Recipients. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6987240 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical evaluation and treatment of anemia might reduce the higher risk of mortality in patients with PTA in early stages of CKD after KT. ..
  33. Torre S, Biondani E, Menon T, Marchi D, Franzoi M, Ferrarini D, et al. Continuous Metabolic Monitoring in Infant Cardiac Surgery: Toward an Individualized Cardiopulmonary Bypass Strategy. Artif Organs. 2016;40:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy allows reduction of at least 10% of predicted CPB flows under normothermia and may lay the ground for further tailoring of CPB parameters to individual patient needs. ..
  34. Hauge H, Vendramin N, Taksdal T, Olsen A, Wessel Ø, Mikkelsen S, et al. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180293 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout...
  35. Ghalandari S, Kariman N, Sheikhan Z, Mojab F, Mirzaei M, Shahrahmani H. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Capsella bursa pastoris on Early Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Clinical Trial Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2017;23:794-799 pubmed publisher
    ..PPH can have irreversible complications for the mother even if it does not lead to death. This study was conducted to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Capsella bursa pastoris on early PPH...
  36. Steinkellner H, Singh H, Muckenthaler M, Goldenberg H, Moganty R, Scheiber Mojdehkar B, et al. No changes in heme synthesis in human Friedreich´s ataxia erythroid progenitor cells. Gene. 2017;621:5-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly support the fact that so far no anemia in FRDA patients was reported. ..
  37. Zheng H, Langner K, Shields G, Hou J, Kowiel M, Allen F, et al. Data mining of iron(II) and iron(III) bond-valence parameters, and their relevance for macromolecular crystallography. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol. 2017;73:316-325 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of this data-driven method for parameter discovery, and how the spin state affects the interpretation of heme-containing proteins and iron-binding sites in macromolecular structures, are discussed. ..
  38. Yang M, Xie J, Ouyang Y, Zhang X, Shi M, Li X, et al. ABO blood type is associated with renal outcomes in patients with IgA nephropathy. Oncotarget. 2017;8:73603-73612 pubmed publisher
    ..IgAN patients with blood type O or A have an independent increased risk for renal function deterioration which might be explained by an increased level of inflammatory status...
  39. Ozturk M, Ozturk O, Ulubay M, Karasahin E, Ozgurtas T, Yenen M, et al. Anemia prevalence at the time of pregnancy detection. Turk J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;14:176-180 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of this problem is 18% in developed countries, whereas it is between 35-75% in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia at the time of pregnancy detection...
  40. Mayo S, Song Y, Cruz M, Phan T, Singh K, Garsin D, et al. Indomethacin injury to the rat small intestine is dependent upon biliary secretion and is associated with overgrowth of enterococci. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..NSAID-induced enterococcalSBOmay be involved either as a compensatory response to gut injury or with the pathogenic process itself and the subsequent development of sepsis. ..
  41. Takei T, Sakai M, Suzuki T, Yamamoto Y, Ogasawara Y, Shimizu T, et al. Surgical Resection of a Ruptured Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm. Am J Case Rep. 2016;17:39-42 pubmed
  42. Gburek J, Konopska B, Juszczyńska K, Piwowar A, Dziegiel P, Borska S, et al. Hemoglobin - a novel ligand of hepatocyte ectopic F1-ATPase. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;66:823-30 pubmed
    ..5 x 10(-7) M). The results indicate that haemoglobin binds to hepatocyte ectopic F1-ATPase. We suggested the plausible role of the receptor in endocytosis of haemoglobin by the hepatocyte. ..
  43. Mathisen S, Dalen I, Larsen J, Kurz M. Long-Term Mortality and Its Risk Factors in Stroke Survivors. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;25:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results from this study indicate that changes in creatinine, homocysteine, and hemoglobin should be followed more carefully as standard practice after acute stroke. ..
  44. Killilea D, Rohner F, Ghosh S, Otoo G, Smith L, Siekmann J, et al. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration. J Nutr. 2017;147:1218-1225 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. ..
  45. Li Q, Wan J, Lan X, Han X, Wang Z, Wang J. Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37:3110-3123 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does...
  46. Shen Z, Coupier G, Kaoui B, Polack B, Harting J, Misbah C, et al. Inversion of hematocrit partition at microfluidic bifurcations. Microvasc Res. 2016;105:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These parameters can lead to unexpected behaviors with consequences on the microcirculatory function and oxygen delivery in healthy and pathological conditions. ..
  47. Okonjo K. Bohr effect of human hemoglobin: Separation of tertiary and quaternary contributions based on the Wyman equation. Biophys Chem. 2017;228:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Both contributions serve to make the Bohr effect for 2,3-BPG bound hemoglobin higher than for stripped hemoglobin at physiological pH. ..
  48. Di Nisio M, Ageno W, Rutjes A, Pap A, Büller H. Risk of major bleeding in patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban or with heparin and vitamin K antagonists. Thromb Haemost. 2016;115:424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognostic model based on the combination of identified risk factors may be informative to estimate the risk of major bleeding both during the initial and later phases of anticoagulation. ..
  49. Ribeiro S, Garrido P, Fernandes J, Vala H, Rocha Pereira P, Costa E, et al. Impaired renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reticulocyte production as modulators of hypertension induced by rHuEPO in the rat. Life Sci. 2016;151:147-156 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypertension leads to early renal damage without alterations in traditional markers of renal function, thus underestimating the serious adverse effects and risks. ..
  50. Chen J, Lo N, Chong H, Bin Abd Razak H, Pang H, Tay D, et al. The influence of body mass index on functional outcome and quality of life after total knee arthroplasty. Bone Joint J. 2016;98-B:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The ten-year rate of survival of TKA was also comparable with those with a normal BMI. Morbidly obese patients should not be excluded from the benefits of TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:780-5. ..
  51. Yalew A, Terefe B, Alem M, Enawgaw B. Hematological reference intervals determination in adults at Gondar university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:483 pubmed
    ..The RBC, PCV, Hgb and MCHC reference intervals were different in gender. Thus, using of locally determined reference range is advisable. ..
  52. Gao R, Cui X, Hao Y, He G, Zhang M, Tang Y. Preparation of Cu(2+)-mediated magnetic imprinted polymers for the selective sorption of bovine hemoglobin. Talanta. 2016;150:46-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The feasibility of this method was further confirmed by using the imprinted nanomaterials to specifically extract bovine hemoglobin from real bovine blood samples. ..
  53. Garton T, He Y, Garton H, Keep R, Xi G, Strahle J. Hemoglobin-induced neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus after neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Brain Res. 2016;1635:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..p-JNK co-localized with the Hb/haptoglobin receptor CD163, suggesting a novel pathway by which Hb enters the neuron after IVH to result in cell death. ..
  54. Delanghe S, Delanghe J, Speeckaert R, Van Biesen W, Speeckaert M. Mechanisms and consequences of carbamoylation. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2017;13:580-593 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the relationship between carbamoylation and the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and assess the effects of strategies to lower the carbamoylation load. ..