acute phase proteins


Summary: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Top Publications

  1. Ahiboh H, Oga A, Yapi H, Kouakou G, Boua K, Edjeme N, et al. [Anaemia, iron index status and acute phase proteins in malaria (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2008;101:25-8 pubmed
    ..When parasitaemia is low anaemia gets a haemolytic feature. When parasitaemia is high, anaemia gets haemolytic and inflammatory features. Anaemia occurs more often with a good iron index status...
  2. Yang J, Bielenberg D, Rodig S, Doiron R, Clifton M, Kung A, et al. Lipocalin 2 promotes breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these in vitro, in vivo, and human studies demonstrate that Lcn2 promotes breast cancer progression by inducing EMT through the ERalpha/Slug axis and may be a useful biomarker of breast cancer. ..
  3. Aghel A, Shrestha K, Mullens W, Borowski A, Tang W. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in predicting worsening renal function in acute decompensated heart failure. J Card Fail. 2010;16:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of elevated admission serum NGAL levels is associated with heightened risk of subsequent development of WRF in patients admitted with ADHF. ..
  4. Siew E, Ware L, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Moons K, Wickersham N, et al. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin moderately predicts acute kidney injury in critically ill adults. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1823-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Bachman M, Miller V, Weiser J. Mucosal lipocalin 2 has pro-inflammatory and iron-sequestering effects in response to bacterial enterobactin. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000622 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Lcn2 may represent a novel mechanism of sensing microbial metabolism to modulate the host response appropriately. ..
  6. Poniatowski B, Malyszko J, Bachorzewska Gajewska H, Malyszko J, Dobrzycki S. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a marker of renal function in patients with chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2009;32:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..NGAL should be investigated as a potential early and sensitive marker of kidney impairment/injury. ..
  7. Nickolas T, O Rourke M, Yang J, Sise M, Canetta P, Barasch N, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a single emergency department measurement of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for diagnosing acute kidney injury. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:810-9 pubmed
    ..Few kidney biopsies were performed. A single measurement of urinary NGAL helps to distinguish acute injury from normal function, prerenal azotemia, and chronic kidney disease and predicts poor inpatient outcomes. ..
  8. Bolignano D, Donato V, Lacquaniti A, Fazio M, Bono C, Coppolino G, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in human neoplasias: a new protein enters the scene. Cancer Lett. 2010;288:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in the field of clinical oncology, attention is currently focused on the potential use of NGAL levels in making an early diagnosis, establishing a prognosis and predicting response to different treatments. ..
  9. Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Bachorzewska Gajewska H, Poniatowski B, Dobrzycki S, Mysliwiec M. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a new and sensitive marker of kidney function in chronic kidney disease patients and renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:158-61 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Roudkenar M, Halabian R, Roushandeh A, Nourani M, Masroori N, Ebrahimi M, et al. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3140-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia. ..
  2. Shapiro N, Trzeciak S, Hollander J, Birkhahn R, Otero R, Osborn T, et al. A prospective, multicenter derivation of a biomarker panel to assess risk of organ dysfunction, shock, and death in emergency department patients with suspected sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is warranted to prospectively validate the clinical utility of these biomarkers and the sepsis score in risk-stratifying patients with suspected sepsis. ..
  3. Devarajan P. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL): a new marker of kidney disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2008;241:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Such studies will be facilitated by the anticipated widespread availability of standardized commercial tools in the near future. ..
  4. Bolignano D, Coppolino G, Romeo A, De Paola L, Buemi A, Lacquaniti A, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) reflects iron status in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, NGAL might be proposed as a new tool in the assessment of iron deficiency and in the management of iron therapy for HD patients. ..
  5. Kramer H, Lavender K, Qin L, Stacey A, Liu M, Di Gleria K, et al. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000893 pubmed publisher
    ..Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies. ..
  6. Makris K, Markou N, Evodia E, Dimopoulou E, Drakopoulos I, Ntetsika K, et al. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early marker of acute kidney injury in critically ill multiple trauma patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary NGAL levels as a predictor of early AKI (first 5 days after injury) in multi-trauma patients...
  7. Nazifi S, Razavi S, Esmailnejad Z, Gheisari H. Study on acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and ceruloplasmin) changes and their diagnostic values in bovine tropical theileriosis. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:41-6 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to assess the pattern of changes and the relative value of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen) in bovine tropical theileriosis...
  8. Fazio F, Assenza A, Tosto F, Casella S, Piccione G, Caola G. Modifications of some acute phase proteins and the white blood cell count in thoroughbreds during training. Vet Rec. 2010;167:370-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Training was associated with a significant increase in the concentrations of plasma fibrinogen (P<0.01) and serum haptoglobin (P<0.0005), but had no significant effect on the WBC count. ..
  9. Wheeler D, Devarajan P, Ma Q, Harmon K, Monaco M, Cvijanovich N, et al. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a marker of acute kidney injury in critically ill children with septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..009). Serum NGAL is a highly sensitive but nonspecific predictor of acute kidney injury in critically ill children with septic shock. Further validation of serum NGAL as a biomarker of acute kidney injury in this population is warranted. ..
  10. Zebeli Q, Dunn S, Ametaj B. Strong associations among rumen endotoxin and acute phase proteins with plasma minerals in lactating cows fed graded amounts of concentrate. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:1545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that new feeding strategies should be developed to curb the release of endotoxin in the rumen fluid to prevent perturbing minerals in the plasma. ..
  11. Eckersall P, Bell R. Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Vet J. 2010;185:23-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, infection and trauma for decades in human medicine but have been relatively under-utilised in the context of veterinary medicine...
  12. Smith E, Zurakowski D, Saad A, Scott R, Moses M. Urinary biomarkers predict brain tumor presence and response to therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:2378-86 pubmed publisher
  13. Lomborg S, Nielsen L, Heegaard P, Jacobsen S. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves...
  14. De Pablos V, Barcia C, Martinez S, Gomez A, Ros Bernal F, Zamarro Parra J, et al. MPTP administration increases plasma levels of acute phase proteins in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Neurosci Lett. 2009;463:37-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since acute phase proteins (APPs) are involved in a number of homeostatic alterations and inflammatory processes, we analyzed the ..
  15. Ding L, Hanawa H, Ota Y, Hasegawa G, Hao K, Asami F, et al. Lipocalin-2/neutrophil gelatinase-B associated lipocalin is strongly induced in hearts of rats with autoimmune myocarditis and in human myocarditis. Circ J. 2010;74:523-30 pubmed
    ..In contrast, levels of B-type natriuretic peptide increased only slowly as the disease progressed. Cardiomyocytes, vascular wall cells and fibroblasts in myocarditis strongly express Lcn2/NGAL via proinflammatory cytokines. ..
  16. Haase Fielitz A, Bellomo R, Devarajan P, Story D, Matalanis G, Dragun D, et al. Novel and conventional serum biomarkers predicting acute kidney injury in adult cardiac surgery--a prospective cohort study. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma NGAL and serum cystatin C were superior to conventional biomarkers in the prediction of AKI and were also of prognostic value in this setting. ..
  17. Tóthová C, Nagy O, Seide H, Kovác G. The effect of chronic respiratory diseases on acute phase proteins and selected blood parameters of protein metabolism in calves. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2010;123:307-13 pubmed
    This work was aimed at evaluation of the influence of chronic respiratory diseases on selected acute phase proteins (APPs), and on the concentrations of some parameters of protein metabolism in calves, as well as at evaluation of APPs as ..
  18. Brunetti N, Padalino R, De Gennaro L, Cuculo A, Ziccardi L, Pellegrino P, et al. Acute phase proteins activation in subjects with coronary atherosclerosis and micro-vessel coronary circulation impairment. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2009;28:50-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate possible correlations between acute phase proteins (APPs) activation and coronary flow in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography...
  19. Devarajan P. NGAL in acute kidney injury: from serendipity to utility. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52:395-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Kasprzyk M, Dyszkiewicz W, Zwaruń D, Leśniewska K, Wiktorowicz K. [The assessment of acute phase proteins as prognostic factors in patients surgically treated for non-small cell lung cancer]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2008;76:321-6 pubmed
    ..These proteins could serve as prognostic factors in the risk assessment of the cancer recurrence after the surgical management. ..
  21. Chan Y, Liu J, Pociask D, Zheng M, Mietzner T, Berger T, et al. Lipocalin 2 is required for pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:4947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that lipocalin 2 is a crucial component of mucosal immune defense against pulmonary infection with K. pneumoniae. ..
  22. Bolignano D, Coppolino G, Aloisi C, Romeo A, Nicocia G, Buemi M. Effect of a single intravenous immunoglobulin infusion on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in proteinuric patients with normal renal function. J Investig Med. 2008;56:997-1003 pubmed publisher
  23. Minter R, Bi X, Ben Josef G, Wang T, Hu B, Arbabi S, et al. LPS-binding protein mediates LPS-induced liver injury and mortality in the setting of biliary obstruction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased LBP production in the setting of cholestatic liver disease appears to be deleterious and may represent a potential therapeutic target for preventing overwhelming inflammatory responses to LPS in this setting. ..
  24. Bolignano D, Lacquaniti A, Coppolino G, Campo S, Arena A, Buemi M. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin reflects the severity of renal impairment in subjects affected by chronic kidney disease. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2008;31:255-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirm NGAL as an important biomarker in clinical nephrology, extending to CKD the pathophysiological role of this protein in tubular adaptations to renal damage. ..
  25. Bennett M, Dent C, Ma Q, Dastrala S, Grenier F, Workman R, et al. Urine NGAL predicts severity of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a prospective study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:665-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Accurate measurements of urine NGAL are obtained using the ARCHITECT platform. Urine NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of AKI severity after CPB. ..
  26. Moniaux N, Chakraborty S, Yalniz M, Gonzalez J, Shostrom V, Standop J, et al. Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a marker of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1540-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, serum NGAL measurement could be investigated as a possible biomarker in pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. ..
  27. Sakr Y, Burgett U, Nacul F, Reinhart K, Brunkhorst F. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in a surgical intensive care unit: a marker of sepsis?. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:2014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation of LBP concentrations with disease severity and outcome is weak compared with other markers and its use as a biomarker is not warranted in this patient population. ..
  28. D Anna R, Baviera G, Giordano D, Todarello G, Russo S, Recupero S, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin serum evaluation through normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3-23.3; p < 0.001); and in the third trimester: 57.2 ng/mL (IQR 18.7-70.9) versus 15.8 ng/mL (IQR 9.1-22.5; p < 0.001). NGAL serum values were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and with proteinuria. ..
  29. Haase Fielitz A, Bellomo R, Devarajan P, Bennett M, Story D, Matalanis G, et al. The predictive performance of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) increases with grade of acute kidney injury. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:3349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..83). In adult cardiac surgery patients, the predictive value of NGAL increases with grade of AKI. This observation needs to be taken into account when interpreting any future studies of this biomarker. ..
  30. Catalan V, Gomez Ambrosi J, Rodriguez A, Ramirez B, Silva C, Rotellar F, et al. Increased adipose tissue expression of lipocalin-2 in obesity is related to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activities in humans. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, LCN2 is associated with MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as well as with pro-inflammatory markers suggesting its potential involvement in the low-grade chronic inflammation accompanying obesity. ..
  31. Lin S, Chen Y, Fan Y, Lin C, Chen S, Wang A, et al. Precise mapping of increased sialylation pattern and the expression of acute phase proteins accompanying murine tumor progression in BALB/c mouse by integrated sera proteomics and glycomics. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:3293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..same genetic background but bearing two distinct tumor origins both exhibited elevated expression levels of acute phase proteins including haptoglobin and serum amyloid P protein, in response to tumor progression...
  32. Salluh J, Bozza P. Biomarkers of sepsis: lost in translation?. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:2192-4 pubmed publisher
  33. Correale M, Brunetti N, De Gennaro L, Di Biase M. Acute phase proteins in atherosclerosis (acute coronary syndrome). Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008;6:272-7 pubmed
    ..remain over time a useful marker, the role and implications of increased plasma concentrations of other acute phase proteins (APPs), such as alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), alpha-1 glycoprotein (A1GP), haptoglobin (HG), ceruloplasmin (..
  34. Woo H, Min J, Bai C, Song S, Kang H, Lee H, et al. Expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in nasal polyps. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:1182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of NGAL is upregulated in nasal polyps, and additional work is needed to reveal the possible role of NGAL in the defense systems of the nasal mucosa and the process of polyp formation. ..
  35. Lowrie M, Penderis J, Eckersall P, McLaughlin M, Mellor D, Anderson T. The role of acute phase proteins in diagnosis and management of steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis in dogs. Vet J. 2009;182:125-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute phase proteins (APPs) have become an important tool in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of inflammatory diseases in humans and are developing a similar utility in domestic species...
  36. Karlsen J, Borregaard N, Cowland J. Induction of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression by co-stimulation with interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha is controlled by IkappaB-zeta but neither by C/EBP-beta nor C/EBP-delta. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14088-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-stimulation with IL-17 leads to accumulation of IkappaB-zeta mRNA and IkappaB-zeta protein, which can bind to NF-kappaB on the LCN2 promoter and thus induce NGAL expression. ..
  37. Bolignano D, Della Torre A, Lacquaniti A, Costantino G, Fries W, Buemi M. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in patients with crohn disease undergoing treatment with infliximab. J Investig Med. 2010;58:569-71 pubmed publisher
  38. Bahmani P, Halabian R, Rouhbakhsh M, Roushandeh A, Masroori N, Ebrahimi M, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 1, 2. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that NGAL is a potent inducer of HO-1 and somewhat SOD(1) and SOD(2) and it appears that part of antioxidant property of NGAL could be attributed to the induction of HO-1 and SOD(1, 2). ..
  39. Cruz D, De Cal M, Garzotto F, Perazella M, Lentini P, Corradi V, et al. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in an adult ICU population. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Early identification of high risk patients may allow potentially beneficial therapies to be initiated early in the disease process before irreversible injury occurs. ..
  40. Ngure R, Eckersall P, Jennings F, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, et al. Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:14-20 pubmed
    ..This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp)...
  41. Lepper P, Schumann C, Triantafilou K, Rasche F, Schuster T, Frank H, et al. Association of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and coronary artery disease in men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:25-31 pubmed
    ..The present results underlie the potential importance of innate immune mechanisms for CAD. Further studies are warranted to bolster the data and to identify pathogenetic links between innate immune system activation and atherosclerosis. ..
  42. Kubben F, Sier C, Hawinkels L, Tschesche H, van Duijn W, Zuidwijk K, et al. Clinical evidence for a protective role of lipocalin-2 against MMP-9 autodegradation and the impact for gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:1869-76 pubmed
    ..087, P=0.006) and multivariate analyses (HR 2.095, P=0.025). ..
  43. Clapperton M, Bishop S, Pineiro M, Campbell F, Glass E. The association between plasma levels of acute phase proteins, haptoglobin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), pig-MAP, transthyretin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in Large White and Meishan pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;119:303-9 pubmed
    During infection, the acute phase response triggers the release of acute phase proteins (APP), alpha-(1) acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and Pig-MAP into the circulation, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of ..
  44. Faure M, Choné F, Mettraux C, Godin J, Bechereau F, Vuichoud J, et al. Threonine utilization for synthesis of acute phase proteins, intestinal proteins, and mucins is increased during sepsis in rats. J Nutr. 2007;137:1802-7 pubmed
    ..Because this threonine requirement is likely covered by muscle protein mobilization, increasing the threonine dietary supply would be an effective early nutritional management for patients with sepsis. ..
  45. Yan Q, Yang Q, Mody N, Graham T, Hsu C, Xu Z, et al. The adipokine lipocalin 2 is regulated by obesity and promotes insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2007;56:2533-40 pubmed
    ..Exogenous Lcn2 promotes insulin resistance in cultured hepatocytes. Lcn2 is an adipokine with potential importance in insulin resistance associated with obesity. ..
  46. Zappitelli M, Washburn K, Arikan A, Loftis L, Ma Q, Devarajan P, et al. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early marker of acute kidney injury in critically ill children: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2007;11:R84 pubmed
    ..63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). We found uNGAL to be a useful early AKI marker that predicted development of severe AKI in a heterogeneous group of patients with unknown timing of kidney injury. ..
  47. Folkesson M, Kazi M, Zhu C, Silveira A, Hemdahl A, Hamsten A, et al. Presence of NGAL/MMP-9 complexes in human abdominal aortic aneurysms. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:427-33 pubmed
    ..Neutrophil-derived NGAL could enhance the proteolytic activity associated with AAA, but the importance of this mechanism for aneurysm growth remains to be shown. ..
  48. Rezamand P, Hoagland T, Moyes K, Silbart L, Andrew S. Energy status, lipid-soluble vitamins, and acute phase proteins in periparturient Holstein and Jersey dairy cows with or without subclinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5097-107 pubmed
    ..Dairy cows with greater tissue energy stores prepartum and reduced plasma proteins, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol had a greater risk for developing a new IMI during the periparturient period. ..
  49. Dent C, Ma Q, Dastrala S, Bennett M, Mitsnefes M, Barasch J, et al. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin predicts acute kidney injury, morbidity and mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective uncontrolled cohort study. Crit Care. 2007;11:R127 pubmed
    ..Accurate measurements of plasma NGAL are obtained using the point-of-care Triage(R) NGAL device. Plasma NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of AKI, morbidity, and mortality after pediatric CPB. ..
  50. Borregaard N, Sørensen O, Theilgaard Monch K. Neutrophil granules: a library of innate immunity proteins. Trends Immunol. 2007;28:340-5 pubmed
    ..Likewise, it has become clear that some proteins previously thought to be specific to the neutrophil are expressed in epithelial cells during inflammation. ..
  51. Gaïni S, Koldkjaer O, Møller H, Pedersen C, Pedersen S. A comparison of high-mobility group-box 1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and procalcitonin in severe community-acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study. Crit Care. 2007;11:R76 pubmed
    ..PCT performed best as a diagnostic test marker for bacteraemia. ..
  52. Morera A, Henry M, Garcia Hernandez A, Fernandez Lopez L. Acute phase proteins as biological markers of negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2007;35:249-52 pubmed
    ..This paper aims to study the relationship between Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) and psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia...
  53. Bauer M, Eickhoff J, Gould M, Mundhenke C, Maass N, Friedl A. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a predictor of poor prognosis in human primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;108:389-97 pubmed