tetanus toxin


Summary: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Nilsen K, Walker M, Cock H. Characterization of the tetanus toxin model of refractory focal neocortical epilepsy in the rat. Epilepsia. 2005;46:179-87 pubmed
    ..Chronic focal epilepsy was induced by injecting 25-50 ng of tetanus toxin or vehicle alone (controls) into the motor neocortex of rats...
  2. Francis J, Bastia E, Matthews C, Parks D, Schwarzschild M, Brown R, et al. Tetanus toxin fragment C as a vector to enhance delivery of proteins to the CNS. Brain Res. 2004;1011:7-13 pubmed
    The non-toxic neuronal binding domain of tetanus toxin (tetanus toxin fragment C, TTC) has been used as a vector to enhance delivery of potentially therapeutic proteins to motor neurons from the periphery following an intramuscular ..
  3. Lalli G, Bohnert S, Deinhardt K, Verastegui C, Schiavo G. The journey of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins in neurons. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:431-7 pubmed
    ..Recent discoveries regarding the mechanism of membrane recruitment and sorting of these neurotoxins within neurons make them ideal tools to uncover essential aspects of neuronal physiology in health and disease. ..
  4. Chian R, Li J, Ay I, Celia S, Kashi B, Tamrazian E, et al. IGF-1:tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein improves delivery of IGF-1 to spinal cord but fails to prolong survival of ALS mice. Brain Res. 2009;1287:1-19 pubmed publisher
    ..delivery of human insulin-like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1) to brain and spinal cord, we generated a soluble IGF-1:tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein (IGF-1:TTC) as a secreted product from insect cells...
  5. Kitamura M, Igimi S, Furukawa K, Furukawa K. Different response of the knockout mice lacking b-series gangliosides against botulinum and tetanus toxins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1741:1-3 pubmed
    ..We found that botulinum toxins were fully toxic, while tetanus toxin was much less toxic in the knockout mice...
  6. Foster K. Engineered toxins: new therapeutics. Toxicon. 2009;54:587-92 pubmed publisher
  7. Shin M, Nonaka K, Wakita M, Yamaga T, Torii Y, Harakawa T, et al. Effects of tetanus toxin on spontaneous and evoked transmitter release at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the rat SDCN neurons. Toxicon. 2012;59:385-92 pubmed publisher
    We observed the effects of tetanus toxin (TeNT) on spontaneous miniature and evoked postsynaptic currents at inhibitory (glycinergic) and excitatory (glutamatergic) synapses in SDCN of rat spinal cord, by use of 'synaptic bouton' ..
  8. Payne A, Messi M, Zheng Z, Delbono O. Motor neuron targeting of IGF-1 attenuates age-related external Ca2+-dependent skeletal muscle contraction in senescent mice. Exp Gerontol. 2007;42:309-19 pubmed
    ..To determine if the effects of IGF-1 overexpression are on muscle or nerve, aging mice were injected with a tetanus toxin fragment-C (TTC) fusion protein that targets IGF-1 to spinal cord motor neurons...
  9. Lee S, Belitsky B, Brown D, Brinker J, Kerstein K, Herrmann J, et al. Efficacy, heat stability and safety of intranasally administered Bacillus subtilis spore or vegetative cell vaccines expressing tetanus toxin fragment C. Vaccine. 2010;28:6658-65 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus subtilis strains expressing tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) were tested as vaccine candidates against tetanus in adult mice. Mice received three intranasal (IN) exposures to 10(9) spores or 10(8) vegetative cells of B...

More Information


  1. Chen S, Hall C, Barbieri J. Substrate recognition of VAMP-2 by botulinum neurotoxin B and tetanus neurotoxin. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BoNT/B and TeNT possess similar organization but have unique residues to recognize and cleave VAMP-2. These studies provide new insights into how the clostridial neurotoxins recognize their substrates. ..
  2. Bohnert S, Schiavo G. Tetanus toxin is transported in a novel neuronal compartment characterized by a specialized pH regulation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42336-44 pubmed
    b>Tetanus toxin binds specifically to motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction. There, it is internalized into vesicular carriers undergoing fast retrograde transport to the spinal cord...
  3. Deinhardt K, Salinas S, Verastegui C, Watson R, Worth D, Hanrahan S, et al. Rab5 and Rab7 control endocytic sorting along the axonal retrograde transport pathway. Neuron. 2006;52:293-305 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Rab7 plays an essential role in axonal retrograde transport by controlling a vesicular compartment implicated in neurotrophin traffic. ..
  4. Lalli G, Gschmeissner S, Schiavo G. Myosin Va and microtubule-based motors are required for fast axonal retrograde transport of tetanus toxin in motor neurons. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4639-50 pubmed
    Using a novel assay based on the sorting and transport of a fluorescent fragment of tetanus toxin, we have investigated the cytoskeletal and motor requirements of axonal retrograde transport in living mammalian motor neurons...
  5. Yeh F, Dong M, Yao J, Tepp W, Lin G, Johnson E, et al. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001207 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxin entry into knockout neurons was rescued by infecting with viruses that express SV2A or SV2B. Tetanus toxin elicited the hyper excitability in dissociated spinal cord neurons - due to preferential loss of inhibitory ..
  6. Kwakkenbos M, DIEHL S, Yasuda E, Bakker A, Van Geelen C, Lukens M, et al. Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming. Nat Med. 2010;16:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This method provides a new tool to study B cell biology and signal transduction through antigen-specific B cell receptors and for the rapid generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies. ..
  7. Payne A, Zheng Z, Messi M, Milligan C, Gonzalez E, Delbono O. Motor neurone targeting of IGF-1 prevents specific force decline in ageing mouse muscle. J Physiol. 2006;570:283-94 pubmed
    ..Since age-related decline in muscle function stems partly from motor neurone loss, a tetanus toxin fragment-C (TTC) fusion protein was created to target IGF-1 to motor neurones...
  8. Slade A, Schoeniger J, Sasaki D, Yip C. In situ scanning probe microscopy studies of tetanus toxin-membrane interactions. Biophys J. 2006;91:4565-74 pubmed
    ..We report herein the results of an in situ scanning probe microscopy study of the interaction of tetanus toxin C-fragment (Tet C) with supported planar lipid bilayers containing the ganglioside receptor G(T1b)...
  9. Demain A, Gerson D, Fang A. Effective levels of tetanus toxin can be made in a production medium totally lacking both animal (e.g., brain heart infusion) and dairy proteins or digests (e.g., casein hydrolysates). Vaccine. 2005;23:5420-3 pubmed
    We have developed a fermentation medium for Clostridium tetani that results in the formation of tetanus toxin and contains no meat (e.g., beef heart infusion) or dairy (e.g...
  10. Chen C, Fu Z, KIM J, Barbieri J, Baldwin M. Gangliosides as high affinity receptors for tetanus neurotoxin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that gangliosides are functional dual receptors for TeNT. ..
  11. Leitner W, Baker M, Berenberg T, Lu M, Yannie P, Udey M. Enhancement of DNA tumor vaccine efficacy by gene gun-mediated codelivery of threshold amounts of plasmid-encoded helper antigen. Blood. 2009;113:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the ability of 2 helper antigens (beta-galactosidase or fragment C of tetanus toxin) encoded by one plasmid to augment responses to a self-antigen (lymphoma-associated T-cell receptor) encoded ..
  12. Mander A, Chowdhury F, Low L, Ottensmeier C. Fit for purpose? A case study: validation of immunological endpoint assays for the detection of cellular and humoral responses to anti-tumour DNA fusion vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:789-800 pubmed publisher
  13. Proux Gillardeaux V, Gavard J, Irinopoulou T, Mège R, Galli T. Tetanus neurotoxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs epithelial cell migration and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6362-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Cb-dependent membrane trafficking participates in cell motility through the regulation of cell adhesion. ..
  14. Moreno Igoa M, Calvo A, Ciriza J, Muñoz M, Zaragoza P, Osta R. Non-viral gene delivery of the GDNF, either alone or fused to the C-fragment of tetanus toxin protein, prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2012;30:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this idea, we genetically fused GDNF to the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC), a peptide able to specifically deliver molecules to motoneurons...
  15. Stevenson F, Rice J, Ottensmeier C, Thirdborough S, Zhu D. DNA fusion gene vaccines against cancer: from the laboratory to the clinic. Immunol Rev. 2004;199:156-80 pubmed
    ..We have dissected the immunogenic tetanus toxin to obtain specific sequences able to activate antibody, CD4+, or CD8+ T cells to attack selected fused tumor ..
  16. Jiruska P, Shtaya A, Bodansky D, Chang W, Gray W, Jefferys J. Dentate gyrus progenitor cell proliferation after the onset of spontaneous seizures in the tetanus toxin model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;54:492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spontaneous seizures in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of tetanus toxin, which does not cause status or, in most cases, detectable neuronal loss. We found a 4...
  17. Caleo M, Schiavo G. Central effects of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. Toxicon. 2009;54:593-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss recent findings indicating that, besides their well known local actions at the neuromuscular junction, BoNTs can also affect central circuits. ..
  18. Rodriguez Moncalvo V, Campos A. Role of serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila larval response to light. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the function of 5-HT neurons in Drosophila larval behavior as well as into the mechanisms underlying regulation of larval response to light. ..
  19. Burster T, Reich M, Zaidi N, Voelter W, Boehm B, Kalbacher H. Cathepsin E regulates the presentation of tetanus toxin C-fragment in PMA activated primary human B cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..in B cells after induction with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), resulted in enhanced presentation of tetanus toxin C-fragment (TTC) to the respective T cells...
  20. Sikorra S, Henke T, Galli T, Binz T. Substrate recognition mechanism of VAMP/synaptobrevin-cleaving clostridial neurotoxins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that, similar to the SNAP-25 proteolyzing BoNT/A and E, VAMP/synaptobrevin-specific clostridial neurotoxins also initiate substrate interaction, employing an exosite located N-terminal of the scissile peptide bond. ..
  21. Ciriza J, Moreno Igoa M, Calvo A, Yague G, Palacio J, Miana Mena F, et al. A genetic fusion GDNF-C fragment of tetanus toxin prolongs survival in a symptomatic mouse ALS model. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2008;26:459-65 pubmed
    ..An alternative strategy is the use of the atoxic C fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) as a neurotrophic factor carrier for motorneurones...
  22. Reder S, Riffelmann M, Becker C, Wirsing von Konig C. Measuring immunoglobulin g antibodies to tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin with single-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a bead-based multiplex assay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated a vaccine panel of a multianalyte system that measures antibodies to tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin (PT) from Bordetella pertussis...
  23. Chin J, Sohn Y, Lee S, Park Y, Choi M. Production of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed to tetanus toxin in CHO cell. Biologicals. 2003;31:45-53 pubmed
    ..produced antibodies against tetanus toxoid, only two antibodies from hybrid CH8 and CH5 only neutralized the tetanus toxin and completely protected the mice that had been challenged with the toxin even at the level of 90 mean lethal ..
  24. Hafezparast M, Klocke R, Ruhrberg C, Marquardt A, Ahmad Annuar A, Bowen S, et al. Mutations in dynein link motor neuron degeneration to defects in retrograde transport. Science. 2003;300:808-12 pubmed
    ..These mutations exclusively perturb neuron-specific functions of dynein. ..
  25. Larsen K, Benn S, Ay I, Chian R, Celia S, Remington M, et al. A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF):tetanus toxin fragment C protein conjugate improves delivery of GDNF to spinal cord motor neurons in mice. Brain Res. 2006;1120:1-12 pubmed
    ..we employed chemical conjugation techniques to link recombinant human GDNF to the neuronal binding fragment of tetanus toxin (tetanus toxin fragment C, or TTC)...
  26. Miana Mena F, Muñoz M, Roux S, Ciriza J, Zaragoza P, Brulet P, et al. A non-viral vector for targeting gene therapy to motoneurons in the CNS. Neurodegener Dis. 2004;1:101-8 pubmed
    ..We propose the use of the atoxic fragment C of tetanus toxin (TTC) as biological activity carrier to the motoneurons...
  27. Chaineau M, Danglot L, Galli T. Multiple roles of the vesicular-SNARE TI-VAMP in post-Golgi and endosomal trafficking. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..TI-VAMP is involved both in secretory and endocytic pathways which mediate neurite outgrowth and synaptic transmission, plasma membrane remodeling and lysosomal secretion. ..
  28. Conway M, Whittal R, Baldwin M, Burlingame A, Balhorn R. Electrospray mass spectrometry of NeuAc oligomers associated with the C fragment of the tetanus toxin. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2006;17:967-976 pubmed publisher
    ..While the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TetC) has been identified to be the ganglioside binding domain, remarkably little is known about how this ..
  29. Perreault M, Bernier A, Renaud J, Roux S, Glover J. C fragment of tetanus toxin hybrid proteins evaluated for muscle-specific transsynaptic mapping of spinal motor circuitry in the newborn mouse. Neuroscience. 2006;141:803-16 pubmed
    We investigated whether the non-toxic C fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) fused to either beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein could be utilized to transsynaptically trace muscle-specific spinal circuitry in the neonatal mouse ..
  30. Roux S, Colasante C, Saint Cloment C, Barbier J, Curie T, Girard E, et al. Internalization of a GFP-tetanus toxin C-terminal fragment fusion protein at mature mouse neuromuscular junctions. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:572-82 pubmed
    ..traffic of a fusion protein composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP)and the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) were studied after its in vivo injection...
  31. Benn S, Ay I, Bastia E, Chian R, Celia S, Pepinsky R, et al. Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion facilitates protein delivery to CNS neurons from cerebrospinal fluid in mice. J Neurochem. 2005;95:1118-31 pubmed
    ..intracerebroventricular administration, we compared the distribution of a human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase:tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein (SOD1:TTC) in mouse brain and spinal cord with that of tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC)..
  32. Schellingerhout D, Le Roux L, Bredow S, Gelovani J. Fluorescence imaging of fast retrograde axonal transport in living animals. Mol Imaging. 2009;8:319-29 pubmed
    ..To do this, we designed and tested a fluorescently labeled molecular probe based on the nontoxic C fragment of tetanus toxin (TTc). TTc was purified, labeled, and subjected to immunoassays and cell uptake assays...
  33. Harms K, Craig A. Synapse composition and organization following chronic activity blockade in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2005;490:72-84 pubmed
    ..In order to address the role of activity in synapse formation and postsynaptic specialization, we used tetanus toxin to chronically cleave VAMP2 and inhibit SNARE-mediated neurotransmitter release in cultured hippocampal ..
  34. Oliveira H, Fernandez R, Pires L, Martins M, Simoes S, Barbosa M, et al. Targeted gene delivery into peripheral sensorial neurons mediated by self-assembled vectors composed of poly(ethylene imine) and tetanus toxin fragment c. J Control Release. 2010;143:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The 50 kDa non-toxic fragment from tetanus toxin (HC), which has been previously shown to interact specifically with peripheral neurons and to undergo ..
  35. Jahouh F, Xu P, Vann W, KOVAC P, Banoub J. Mapping the glycation sites in the neoglycoconjugate from hexasaccharide antigen of Vibrio cholerae, serotype Ogawa and the recombinant tetanus toxin C-fragment carrier. J Mass Spectrom. 2013;48:1083-90 pubmed publisher
    ..fragment of the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae, serotype Ogawa, to the recombinant tetanus toxin C-fragment (rTT-Hc) carrier...
  36. Fishman P, Parks D, Bowen T, Matthews C. Localized tetanus in immunized mice. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:697-701 pubmed publisher
    The capacity of tetanus toxin to enhance motor neuron excitability has suggested its potential use as a therapeutic...
  37. James E, Bui J, Berger D, Huston L, Roti M, Kwok W. Tetramer-guided epitope mapping reveals broad, individualized repertoires of tetanus toxin-specific CD4+ T cells and suggests HLA-based differences in epitope recognition. Int Immunol. 2007;19:1291-301 pubmed
    Tetanus toxoid is a routine positive control antigen for cellular assays. Previous studies identified multiple tetanus toxin (TT) epitopes, including some 'universal' epitopes...
  38. Vittes G, Harden E, Ottensmeier C, Rice J, Stevenson F. DNA fusion gene vaccines induce cytotoxic T-cell attack on naturally processed peptides of human prostate-specific membrane antigen. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We have designed tolerance-breaking DNA fusion vaccines incorporating a domain of tetanus toxin fused to candidate tumor-derived peptide sequences...
  39. Hu X, Yue Q, Ouyang H, Chen Y, Xu X, Yin W, et al. Immune response to fused core protein of hepatitis C virus and truncated tetanus toxin peptides in mice. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..T helper epitopes could promote cytokine secretion and antibody production to fight HCV. Tetanus toxin, an immunogen with many T helper epitopes, was once used in HBV therapeutic vaccine design...
  40. Moreno Igoa M, Calvo A, Penas C, Manzano R, Oliván S, Muñoz M, et al. Fragment C of tetanus toxin, more than a carrier. Novel perspectives in non-viral ALS gene therapy. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010;88:297-308 pubmed publisher
    The non-toxic carboxy-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin heavy chain (TTC) has been implicated in the activation of cascades responsible for trophic actions and neuroprotection by inhibition of apoptosis...
  41. Bongat A, Saksena R, Adamo R, Fujimoto Y, Shiokawa Z, Peterson D, et al. Multimeric bivalent immunogens from recombinant tetanus toxin HC fragment, synthetic hexasaccharides, and a glycopeptide adjuvant. Glycoconj J. 2010;27:69-77 pubmed publisher
    Using recombinant tetanus toxin H(C) fragment (rTT-H(C)) as carrier, we prepared multimeric bivalent immunogens featuring the synthetic hexasaccharide fragment of O-PS of Vibrio cholerae O:1, serotype Ogawa, in combination with either ..
  42. Chaib Oukadour I, Gil C, Rodriguez Alvarez J, Ortega A, Aguilera J. Tetanus toxin H(C) fragment reduces neuronal MPP+ toxicity. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;41:297-303 pubmed publisher
    The non-toxic carboxi-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (H(C)) elicits neuroprotection of cerebellar granule neurons against apoptotic death induced by potassium deprivation...
  43. Miana Mena F, Muñoz M, Ciriza J, Soria J, Brulet P, Zaragoza P, et al. Fragment C tetanus toxin: a putative activity-dependent neuroanatomical tracer. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2003;63:211-8 pubmed
    The non-toxic C fragment of tetanus toxin fused to the beta-galactosidase enzyme was analysed as a neuroanatomical tracer...
  44. Box M, Parks D, Knight A, Hale C, Fishman P, Fairweather N. A multi-domain protein system based on the HC fragment of tetanus toxin for targeting DNA to neuronal cells. J Drug Target. 2003;11:333-43 pubmed
    ..Neuronal targeting activity of the proteins was achieved by inclusion of the HC fragment of tetanus toxin (TeNT), a protein with well-characterised tropism for the central nervous system...
  45. Tymciu S, Durieux Alexandrenne C, Wijkhuisen A, Creminon C, Frobert Y, Grassi J, et al. Enhancement of antibody responses in DNA vaccination using a vector encoding a universal T-helper cell epitope. DNA Cell Biol. 2004;23:395-402 pubmed
    ..variable of a well-characterized antibody) fused to a small-size universal T-helper cell epitope derived from tetanus toxin, whose efficiency in classical protein-based immunization protocols has already been demonstrated...
  46. Chaib Oukadour I, Gil C, Aguilera J. The C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin rescues cerebellar granule neurones from apoptotic death: involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Neurochem. 2004;90:1227-36 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the C-terminal domain of the tetanus toxin heavy-chain (Hc-TeTx) is able to produce the same neuroprotective effect, as assessed by reduction of ..
  47. Rind H, Butowt R, von Bartheld C. Synaptic targeting of retrogradely transported trophic factors in motoneurons: comparison of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and cardiotrophin-1 with tetanus toxin. J Neurosci. 2005;25:539-49 pubmed
    ..may be degraded, or they may be recycled and transferred to other neurons, similar to the known route of tetanus toxin. We tested whether neonatal rat hypoglossal motoneurons target retrogradely transported trophic factors to ..
  48. Roux S, Colasante C, Saint Cloment C, Barbier J, Curie T, Girard E, et al. Internalization of a GFP-tetanus toxin C-terminal fragment fusion protein at mature mouse neuromuscular junctions. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:79-89 pubmed
    ..traffic of a fusion protein composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) were studied after its in vivo injection...
  49. Jayaraman S, Eswaramoorthy S, Kumaran D, Swaminathan S. Common binding site for disialyllactose and tri-peptide in C-fragment of tetanus neurotoxin. Proteins. 2005;61:288-95 pubmed
    ..DiSia and YEW binding at the same site in tetanus toxin provides a putative site that could be occupied either by a ganglioside moiety or a peptide...
  50. Fishman P, Matthews C, Parks D, Box M, Fairweather N. Immunization does not interfere with uptake and transport by motor neurons of the binding fragment of tetanus toxin. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:1540-3 pubmed
    The nontoxic binding domain of tetanus toxin (fragment C or TTC) readily undergoes retrograde axonal transport from an intramuscular injection site...
  51. Deinhardt K, Berninghausen O, Willison H, Hopkins C, Schiavo G. Tetanus toxin is internalized by a sequential clathrin-dependent mechanism initiated within lipid microdomains and independent of epsin1. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:459-71 pubmed
  52. Binz T, Rummel A. Cell entry strategy of clostridial neurotoxins. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the present knowledge about the cell receptor molecules and the mode of toxin-receptor interaction that enables the toxins' sophisticated access to their site of action. ..
  53. Ay I, Francis J, Brown R. VEGF increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue dye and tetanus toxin fragment C but not adeno-associated virus in ALS mice. Brain Res. 2008;1234:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..agents: a small molecule (Evans blue dye) that is known to bind plasma proteins, an exogenous protein (tetanus toxin fragment C; TTC), and a viral vector (recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 marked with lacZ; rAAV2/..
  54. Mauriello E, Cangiano G, Maurano F, Saggese V, De Felice M, Rossi M, et al. Germination-independent induction of cellular immune response by Bacillus subtilis spores displaying the C fragment of the tetanus toxin. Vaccine. 2007;25:788-93 pubmed
    Bacillus subtilis spores displaying the tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) on their surface have been previously shown to induce the production of specific IgG and secretory IgA in mice immunized through the oral or nasal route...
  55. Low L, Mander A, McCann K, Dearnaley D, Tjelle T, Mathiesen I, et al. DNA vaccination with electroporation induces increased antibody responses in patients with prostate cancer. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:1269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..DOM-PSMA(27). This vaccine encodes a domain (DOM) of fragment C of tetanus toxin to induce CD4(+) T cell help, fused to a tumor-derived epitope from prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ..
  56. Jiruska P, Finnerty G, Powell A, Lofti N, Cmejla R, Jefferys J. Epileptic high-frequency network activity in a model of non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 2010;133:1380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The model is induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of tetanus toxin. Recordings from the hippocampi of freely-moving epileptic rats revealed high-frequency activity (>100 Hz), ..
  57. Breidenbach M, Brunger A. 2.3 A crystal structure of tetanus neurotoxin light chain. Biochemistry. 2005;44:7450-7 pubmed
  58. Tregoning J, Clare S, Bowe F, Edwards L, Fairweather N, Qazi O, et al. Protection against tetanus toxin using a plant-based vaccine. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1320-6 pubmed
    ..In the following study, we show that soluble protein from tobacco leaves expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin protected mice against a lethal tetanus toxin challenge. More importantly, we show that a single intranasal (i...
  59. Orecna M, Hafko R, Toporcerová V, Strbak V, Bacova Z. Cell swelling-induced insulin secretion from INS-1E cells is inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ and is tetanus toxin resistant. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:197-208 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetanus toxin (TeTx) in medium containing Ca(2+) and a group of calcium channel blockers inhibited hypotonicity-induced ..
  60. Liu J, Teng Q, Garrity Moses M, Federici T, Tanase D, Imperiale M, et al. A novel peptide defined through phage display for therapeutic protein and vector neuronal targeting. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;19:407-18 pubmed
    A novel peptide with the binding characteristics of tetanus toxin was identified with phage display, for application in therapeutic protein and vector motor and sensory neuron targeting...
  61. Montecucco C, Rossetto O, Schiavo G. Presynaptic receptor arrays for clostridial neurotoxins. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:442-6 pubmed
  62. Townsend S, Evrony G, Gu F, Schulz M, Brown R, Langer R. Tetanus toxin C fragment-conjugated nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to neurons. Biomaterials. 2007;28:5176-84 pubmed
    ..The tetanus toxin C fragment (TTC), which is efficiently retrogradely transported in neurons and binds to neurons with high ..
  63. Roux S, Saint Cloment C, Curie T, Girard E, Miana Mena F, Barbier J, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates in vivo internalization of tetanus neurotoxin C-terminal fragment fusion proteins in mature mouse motor nerve terminals. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1546-54 pubmed
    In a previous study it was reported that fusion proteins composed of the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) and green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase (GFP-TTC and beta-gal-TTC, respectively) rapidly cluster at ..
  64. Blum F, Chen C, Kroken A, Barbieri J. Tetanus toxin and botulinum toxin a utilize unique mechanisms to enter neurons of the central nervous system. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1662-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Mainardi M, Pietrasanta M, Vannini E, Rossetto O, Caleo M. Tetanus neurotoxin-induced epilepsy in mouse visual cortex. Epilepsia. 2012;53:e132-6 pubmed publisher
  66. Mendieta L, Venegas B, Moreno N, Patricio A, Martinez I, Aguilera J, et al. The carboxyl-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin prevents dopaminergic degeneration and improves motor behavior in rats with striatal MPP(+)-lesions. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:98-106 pubmed publisher
    Recently it has been shown that the C-terminus fragment of the tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) is transported retrogradely and had shown neuroprotective effects, preventing neuronal death by apoptosis...
  67. Li J, Chian R, Ay I, Kashi B, Celia S, Tamrazian E, et al. Insect GDNF:TTC fusion protein improves delivery of GDNF to mouse CNS. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:947-51 pubmed publisher
    ..CNS motor neurons in vivo, we evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacological activity of a recombinant GDNF:tetanus toxin C-fragment fusion protein in mouse CNS...
  68. Sedigh Sarvestani M, Thuku G, Sunderam S, Parkar A, Weinstein S, Schiff S, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep and hippocampal theta oscillations precede seizure onset in the tetanus toxin model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Six rats received injections of tetanus toxin (TeTX) in the ventral hippocampus that resulted in chronic spontaneous seizures...