Summary: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Cheng D, Liu X, Liu G, Dou S, Xiao N, et al. Comparing the intracellular fate of components within a noncovalent streptavidin nanoparticle with covalent conjugation. Nucl Med Biol. 2012;39:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the noncovalent nature of a streptavidin/biotin three-component nanoparticle possessing these qualities may be required for dissociation of the ..
  2. Coad B, Vasilev K, Diener K, Hayball J, Short R, Griesser H. Immobilized streptavidin gradients as bioconjugation platforms. Langmuir. 2012;28:2710-7 pubmed publisher
    Surface density gradients of streptavidin (SAV) were created on solid surfaces and demonstrated functionality as a bioconjugation platform...
  3. Lau P, Potter C, Carragher B, Macrae I. DOLORS: versatile strategy for internal labeling and domain localization in electron microscopy. Structure. 2012;20:1995-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..DOLORS uses monovalent streptavidin added posttranslationally to tagged sites in the target protein...
  4. Hyster T, Knörr L, Ward T, Rovis T. Biotinylated Rh(III) complexes in engineered streptavidin for accelerated asymmetric C-H activation. Science. 2012;338:500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of a bifunctional artificial metalloenzyme in which a glutamic acid or aspartic acid residue engineered into streptavidin acts in concert with a docked biotinylated rhodium(III) complex to enable catalytic asymmetric carbon-hydrogen (..
  5. Ruigrok V, van Duijn E, Barendregt A, Dyer K, Tainer J, Stoltenburg R, et al. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterisation of streptavidin-binding aptamers. Chembiochem. 2012;13:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, streptavidin-binding aptamers were isolated and characterised by distinct analytical techniques...
  6. O Sullivan V, Barrette Ng I, Hommema E, Hermanson G, Schofield M, Wu S, et al. Development of a tetrameric streptavidin mutein with reversible biotin binding capability: engineering a mobile loop as an exit door for biotin. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35203 pubmed publisher
    A novel form of tetrameric streptavidin has been engineered to have reversible biotin binding capability. In wild-type streptavidin, loop(3-4) functions as a lid for the entry and exit of biotin...
  7. Liu L, Du J, Li S, Yuan B, Han H, Jing M, et al. Amplified voltammetric detection of dopamine using ferrocene-capped gold nanoparticle/streptavidin conjugates. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;41:730-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The anchored DA was then derivatized with biotin for the attachment of ferrocene-capped gold nanoparticle/streptavidin conjugates. The voltammetric responses were found to be proportional to the concentrations of DA ranging from 0...
  8. Ross J, Shaw J, Molloy P. Identification of differentially methylated regions using streptavidin bisulfite ligand methylation enrichment (SuBLiME), a new method to enrich for methylated DNA prior to deep bisulfite genomic sequencing. Epigenetics. 2013;8:113-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The method, called streptavidin bisulfite ligand methylation enrichment (SuBLiME), involves the specific labeling (using a biotin-labeled ..
  9. Arribillaga L, Durantez M, Lozano T, Rudilla F, Rehberger F, Casares N, et al. A fusion protein between streptavidin and the endogenous TLR4 ligand EDA targets biotinylated antigens to dendritic cells and induces T cell responses in vivo. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:864720 pubmed publisher
    ..EDA to any antigen of choice, we have prepared the fusion protein EDAvidin by linking EDA to the N terminus of streptavidin, allowing its conjugation with biotinylated antigens...

More Information


  1. Oda T, Kikkawa M. Novel structural labeling method using cryo-electron tomography and biotin-streptavidin system. J Struct Biol. 2013;183:305-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel method for identifying the 3D locations of proteins using biotin-streptavidin labeling and cryo-electron tomography...
  2. Fahrer J, Schweitzer B, Fiedler K, Langer T, Gierschik P, Barth H. C2-streptavidin mediates the delivery of biotin-conjugated tumor suppressor protein p53 into tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2013;24:595-603 pubmed publisher
    We have previously generated a recombinant C2-streptavidin fusion protein for the delivery of biotin-labeled molecules of low molecular weight into the cytosol of mammalian cells...
  3. Leppek K, Stoecklin G. An optimized streptavidin-binding RNA aptamer for purification of ribonucleoprotein complexes identifies novel ARE-binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present an RNA-based method to identify RNP components using a modified streptavidin (SA)-binding RNA aptamer termed S1m...
  4. Park S, Shenoi J, Frayo S, Hamlin D, Lin Y, Wilbur D, et al. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using genetically engineered antibody-streptavidin fusion proteins for treatment of non-hodgkin lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:7373-82 pubmed publisher
    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using streptavidin (SAv)-biotin technology can deliver higher therapeutic doses of radioactivity to tumors than conventional RIT...
  5. Kim M, Wang C, Benedetti F, Rabbi M, Bennett V, Marszalek P. Nanomechanics of streptavidin hubs for molecular materials. Adv Mater. 2011;23:5684-8 pubmed publisher reported for creating protein-based nanomaterials by genetically fusing large polypeptides to monomeric streptavidin and exploiting the propensity of streptavidin monomers(SM) to self-assemble into stable tetramers...
  6. Oohora K, Burazerovic S, Onoda A, Wilson Y, Ward T, Hayashi T. Chemically programmed supramolecular assembly of hemoprotein and streptavidin with alternating alignment. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:3818-21 pubmed publisher
    ..picture) and a bis(biotin) unit (blue) was synthesized and shown to specifically bind to both apomyoglobin and streptavidin. In the presence of the dyad, the 1:1 association of a disulfide-bridged myoglobin dimer (green) with ..
  7. Lim K, Huang H, Pralle A, Park S. Stable, high-affinity streptavidin monomer for protein labeling and monovalent biotin detection. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:57-67 pubmed publisher
    The coupling between the quaternary structure, stability and function of streptavidin makes it difficult to engineer a stable, high affinity monomer for biotechnology applications...
  8. Davidson A, King J, Insall R. The use of streptavidin conjugates as immunoblot loading controls and mitochondrial markers for use with Dictyostelium discoideum. Biotechniques. 2013;55:39-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate the use of labeled streptavidin to detect biotinylated mitochondrial 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase ? (MCCC1), providing a robust and ..
  9. Bog U, Laue T, Grossmann T, Beck T, Wienhold T, Richter B, et al. On-chip microlasers for biomolecular detection via highly localized deposition of a multifunctional phospholipid ink. Lab Chip. 2013;13:2701-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a proof-of-concept we show how this highly localized molecule deposition suffices for low-threshold lasing in air and water, and demonstrate the capability of the ink-lasers as biosensors in a biotin-streptavidin binding experiment.
  10. Zeng J, Jia X, Zhang J, Mei Y. The F130L mutation in streptavidin reduces its binding affinity to biotin through electronic polarization effect. J Comput Chem. 2013;34:2677-86 pubmed publisher
    Recently, Baugh et al. discovered that a distal point mutation (F130L) in streptavidin causes no distinct variation to the structure of the binding pocket but a 1000-fold reduction in biotin binding affinity...
  11. Mei Y, Li Y, Zeng J, Zhang J. Electrostatic polarization is critical for the strong binding in streptavidin-biotin system. J Comput Chem. 2012;33:1374-82 pubmed publisher carried out to study of the difference of binding free energies between biotin and iminobiotin to streptavidin. Three atomic charge schemes are implemented and compared...
  12. Fairhead M, Krndija D, Lowe E, Howarth M. Plug-and-play pairing via defined divalent streptavidins. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:199-214 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptavidin is one of the most important hubs for molecular biology, either multimerizing biomolecules, bridging one molecule to another, or anchoring to a biotinylated surface/nanoparticle...
  13. Yan H, Jiang W, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Wang B, Yang L, et al. Novel multi-biotin grafted poly(lactic acid) and its self-assembling nanoparticles capable of binding to streptavidin. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..can meet regular requirements as well conjugate more biotins in the polymer to provide better binding with streptavidin. A biotin-graft-PLA was synthesized based on previously published biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-..
  14. Le Trong I, Wang Z, Hyre D, Lybrand T, Stayton P, Stenkamp R. Streptavidin and its biotin complex at atomic resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011;67:813-21 pubmed publisher
    Atomic resolution crystallographic studies of streptavidin and its biotin complex have been carried out at 1.03 and 0.95?Å, respectively...
  15. Stone J, Artyomov M, Chervin A, Chakraborty A, Eisen H, Kranz D. Interaction of streptavidin-based peptide-MHC oligomers (tetramers) with cell-surface TCRs. J Immunol. 2011;187:6281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed the equilibrium binding of streptavidin-based pMHC oligomers (tetramers) and their dissociation kinetics from CD8(pos) T cells from 2C-TCR transgenic ..
  16. Jiang H, Zeng X, Xi Z, Liu M, Li C, Li Z, et al. Improvement on controllable fabrication of streptavidin-modified three-layer core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2@Au magnetic nanocomposites with low fluorescence background. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2013;9:674-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Fe3O4@SiO2@Au magnetic nanocomposites were modified with streptavidin (SA) successfully, and it was validated that they performed low fluorescence background, suggesting that they ..
  17. Horling L, Neuhuber W, Raab M. Pitfalls using tyramide signal amplification (TSA) in the mouse gastrointestinal tract: endogenous streptavidin-binding sites lead to false positive staining. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;204:124-132 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of them are based on the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase system and include streptavidin-coupled secondary antibodies...
  18. Schmidt C, Kim B, Grabner H, Ries J, Kulomaa M, Vogel V. Tuning the "roadblock" effect in kinesin-based transport. Nano Lett. 2012;12:3466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into kinesin transport regulation and might facilitate the choice of appropriate cargo linkers for motor protein-driven transport devices. ..
  19. He S, Lam A, Jeune Smith Y, Hess H. Modeling negative cooperativity in streptavidin adsorption onto biotinylated microtubules. Langmuir. 2012;28:10635-9 pubmed publisher
    The nanoscale architecture of binding sites can result in complex binding kinetics. Here, the adsorption of streptavidin and neutravidin to biotinylated microtubules is found to exhibit negative cooperativity due to electrostatic ..
  20. Yomogida K, Chou Y, Pang J, Baravati B, Maniaci B, Wu S, et al. Streptavidin suppresses T cell activation and inhibits IL-2 production and CD25 expression. Cytokine. 2012;58:431-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptavidin is widely used as a detection tool in biology research because of its high affinity and specificity binding to biotin...
  21. Wilson R. Preparation of single-stranded DNA from PCR products with streptavidin magnetic beads. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2011;21:437-40 pubmed publisher
    ..used method for producing single-stranded DNA is alkaline denaturation of biotinylated PCR products attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads...
  22. Ma M, Bong D. Protein assembly directed by synthetic molecular recognition motifs. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:7296-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have coupled biotin to TCA and TM to allow pseudo-tetrahedral display of TCA and TM on streptavidin through biotin-ligand binding...
  23. Nakamura K, Wang Y, Liu X, Kubo A, Hnatowich D. Cell culture and xenograft-bearing animal studies of radiolabeled antisense DNA carrier nanoparticles with streptavidin as a linker. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:1845-52 pubmed
    ..We are investigating streptavidin as a convenient linker for biotinylated carriers and oligomers because it requires only simple mixing for ..
  24. Ebner A, Marek M, Kaiser K, Kada G, Hahn C, Lackner B, et al. Application of biotin-4-fluorescein in homogeneous fluorescence assays for avidin, streptavidin, and biotin or biotin derivatives. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;418:73-88 pubmed
    ..This competitive assay correctly measures the small dose of d-biotin in multivitamin tablets (e.g., 150 microg in 5 g of solid) after subtracting the background fluorescence of the colored aqueous solution. ..
  25. Konopsky V, Alieva E. A biosensor based on photonic crystal surface waves with an independent registration of the liquid refractive index. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;25:1212-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique was tested using binding of biotin molecules to a streptavidin monolayer at low and high biotin concentrations...
  26. Yamamoto D, Nagura N, Omote S, Taniguchi M, Ando T. Streptavidin 2D crystal substrates for visualizing biomolecular processes by atomic force microscopy. Biophys J. 2009;97:2358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize three types of streptavidin two-dimensional crystals as substrates, concerning their qualities of surface roughness, uniformity, stability, ..
  27. Howarth M, Ting A. Imaging proteins in live mammalian cells with biotin ligase and monovalent streptavidin. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The biotin group then allows sensitive and stable binding by streptavidin conjugates...
  28. Liu H, Bachand G, Kim H, Hayden C, Abate E, Sasaki D. Lipid nanotube formation from streptavidin-membrane binding. Langmuir. 2008;24:3686-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel transformation of giant lipid vesicles to produce nanotubular structures was observed upon the binding of streptavidin to biotinylated membranes...
  29. Iversen L, Cherouati N, Berthing T, Stamou D, Martinez K. Templated protein assembly on micro-contact-printed surface patterns. Use of the SNAP-tag protein functionality. Langmuir. 2008;24:6375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..When patterns of streptavidin modified with BG-biotin (streptavidin-BG) are stamped onto a surface, the SFH can subsequently assemble on the ..
  30. Anamelechi C, Clermont E, Novak M, Reichert W. Dynamic seeding of perfusing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) onto dual-function cell adhesion ligands: Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-streptavidin and biotinylated fibronectin. Langmuir. 2009;25:5725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..substrates co-pre-adsorbed with two dual-function cell-adhesion ligands: biotinylated fibronectin (bFN) and RGD-streptavidin mutant (RGD-SA)...
  31. Jiang L, Yu Z, Tang Z, Jiang T, Zhang C, Lu Z. Protein arrays based on biotin-streptavidin system for the simultaneous detection of TORCH infections. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2008;8:2286-92 pubmed
    In this paper, we developed a protein array based on biotin-streptavidin system (PABS) used in the identification of IgM antibodies against TORCH antigens, including toxoplasma gondii (TOX), rubella virus (RuV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and ..
  32. Chivers C, Crozat E, Chu C, Moy V, Sherratt D, Howarth M. A streptavidin variant with slower biotin dissociation and increased mechanostability. Nat Methods. 2010;7:391-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptavidin binds biotin conjugates with exceptional stability but dissociation does occur, limiting its use in imaging, DNA amplification and nanotechnology...
  33. Sirskyj D, Weltzin R, Golshani A, Anderson D, Bozic J, Diaz Mitoma F, et al. Detection of influenza A and B neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated ferrets and macaques using specific biotin-streptavidin conjugated antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2010;163:459-64 pubmed publisher
    Several critical factors of an influenza microneutralization assay, utilizing a rapid biotin-streptavidin conjugated system for detecting influenza virus subtypes A and B, are addressed within this manuscript...
  34. Nusz G, Marinakos S, Curry A, Dahlin A, Hook F, Wax A, et al. Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod. Anal Chem. 2008;80:984-9 pubmed publisher
    We report the use of individual gold nanorods as plasmonic transducers to detect the binding of streptavidin to individual biotin-conjugated nanorods in real time on a surface...
  35. Lei Y, Li H, Zhang R, Han S. Theoretical study of cooperativity in biotin. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:14370-7 pubmed
    ..The folded states are a probable way of activating 1-NH by strong cooperative effects. In addition, the H-bonding cooperativities may be a significant reason for the strong and specific binding between biotin and streptavidin.
  36. Sharif S, Goldberg B. Detection of IgE antibodies to bacitracin using a commercially available streptavidin-linked solid phase in a patient with anaphylaxis to triple antibiotic ointment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98:563-6 pubmed
    ..Bacitracin was biotinylated and coupled to streptavidin ImmunoCAPs. IgE against bacitracin in the patient's serum was detected by fluorescent enzyme immunoassay...
  37. Bradley M, Alexander L, Sanchez Martin R. Cellular uptake of fluorescent labelled biotin-streptavidin microspheres. J Fluoresc. 2008;18:733-9 pubmed publisher
    Amino functionalized, cross-linked, polystyrene microspheres were covalently loaded with streptavidin to which was coupled fluorescently labeled biotin and biotinylated-tagged DNA...
  38. Korten T, Diez S. Setting up roadblocks for kinesin-1: mechanism for the selective speed control of cargo carrying microtubules. Lab Chip. 2008;8:1441-7 pubmed publisher
    ..microtubules we found that individual kinesin-1 motors frequently stopped upon encounters with attached streptavidin molecules...
  39. Chen C, Dellamaggiore K, Ouellette C, Sedano C, Lizadjohry M, Chernis G, et al. Aptamer-based endocytosis of a lysosomal enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15908-13 pubmed publisher
    ..After selection, an RNA aptamer and a DNA aptamer were modified with biotin and linked to dye-labeled streptavidin for detection by confocal microscopy...
  40. Liu X, Wang Y, Nakamura K, Kawauchi S, Akalin A, Cheng D, et al. Auger radiation-induced, antisense-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells using a 3-component streptavidin-delivery nanoparticle with 111In. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our nanoparticle consists of streptavidin that links 3 biotinylated components: the antiHer2 antibody trastuzumab (to improve pharmacokinetics), the tat ..
  41. Paul A, Avci Adali M, Ziemer G, Wendel H. Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for DNA strand separation implicate a multitude of problems during cell-SELEX. Oligonucleotides. 2009;19:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..labeling of the complementary DNA strand to the desired aptamer and then separating the DNA strand by using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads...
  42. Rodrigo M, Postigo I, Wangensteen O, Guisantes J, Martinez J. A new application of Streptavidin ImmunoCAP for measuring IgG antibodies against non-available commercial antigens. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:1675-8 pubmed publisher
    ..breeders) and healthy unexposed individuals were evaluated by FEIA using biotinylated serum proteins coupled to streptavidin-activated solid phases...
  43. Zhou X, Xing D, Zhu D, Jia L. Magnetic bead and nanoparticle based electrochemiluminescence amplification assay for direct and sensitive measuring of telomerase activity. Anal Chem. 2009;81:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By the employment of the ECL nanoprobe, a gain of about 100-fold elevation of sensitivity was determined. The method described here is ideal for telomerase activity analysis due to its reliability and high sensitivity. ..
  44. Wang C, Yang G, Luo Z, Ding H. In vitro selection of high-affinity DNA aptamers for streptavidin. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:335-40 pubmed
    ..As an example, the selection of streptavidin-specific aptamers was performed...
  45. Kuzyk A, Laitinen K, Törmä P. DNA origami as a nanoscale template for protein assembly. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:235305 pubmed publisher
    ..Fabrication of complex protein structures is demonstrated by these two approaches. The latter approach has the potential to be extended to the assembly of multiple materials with single attachment chemistry. ..
  46. Lapin N, Chabal Y. Infrared characterization of biotinylated silicon oxide surfaces, surface stability, and specific attachment of streptavidin. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:8776-83 pubmed publisher
    ..surfaces, surface stability, and evolution of these functionalized surfaces under biospecific attachment of streptavidin were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
  47. General I, Meirovitch H. Relative stability of the open and closed conformations of the active site loop of streptavidin. J Chem Phys. 2011;134:025104 pubmed publisher
    The eight-residue surface loop, 45-52 (Ser, Ala, Val, Gly, Asn, Ala, Glu, Ser), of the homotetrameric protein streptavidin has a "closed" conformation in the streptavidin-biotin complex, where the corresponding binding affinity ..
  48. Yuan Y, Zhao Y, Xu W. Characterization of molecular interactions of an immobilized biotinylated monolayer and streptavidin-coated microspheres by bond-rupture scanning. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;680:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..difference, due to mass changes and bond breakages between supramolecular interaction of biotinylated SAM and streptavidin-coated polystyrene microsphere (SCPM)...
  49. Giorgetti L, Bongiorno G, Podestà A, Berlanda G, Scopelliti P, Carbone R, et al. Adsorption and stability of streptavidin on cluster-assembled nanostructured TiOx films. Langmuir. 2008;24:11637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..cluster beam deposition possess excellent biocompatibility and that these films can be functionalized with streptavidin, allowing the immobilization of biotinylated retroviral particles and the realization of living-cell ..
  50. McKay B, Molineux M, Turner R. Endogenous biotin in rat brain: implications for false-positive results with avidin-biotin and streptavidin-biotin techniques. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;418:111-28 pubmed
    The interaction between avidin and biotin or streptavidin and biotin forms the basis of several widely used immunohistochemical techniques...
  51. Marinakos S, Chen S, Chilkoti A. Plasmonic detection of a model analyte in serum by a gold nanorod sensor. Anal Chem. 2007;79:5278-83 pubmed
    ..b>Streptavidin binding to biotin was monitored by the wavelength shift of the LSPR peak in the UV-vis extinction spectrum of ..
  52. Schwartz A, Margeat E, Rahmouni A, Boudvillain M. Transcription termination factor rho can displace streptavidin from biotinylated RNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31469-76 pubmed
    ..a molecular motor that can apply significant disruptive forces on heterologous nucleoprotein assemblies such as streptavidin bound to biotinylated RNA molecules...
  53. Wang Y, Liu X, Nakamura K, Chen L, Rusckowski M, Hnatowich D. In vivo delivery of antisense MORF oligomer by MORF/carrier streptavidin nanoparticles. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2009;24:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we describe the use of a delivery nanoparticle, in which streptavidin served as a convenient bridge between a biotinylated oligomer and a biotinylated cell-membrane-penetrating ..