Summary: A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.

Top Publications

  1. Bollen Y, Nabuurs S, van Berkel W, van Mierlo C. Last in, first out: the role of cofactor binding in flavodoxin folding. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7836-44 pubmed
    ..The last step in flavodoxin folding is thus the binding of FMN to native apoflavodoxin...
  2. Giró M, Carrillo N, Krapp A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase contribute to damage repair during the soxRS response of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2006;152:1119-28 pubmed
    The NADP(H)-dependent enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and ferredoxin(flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductase (FPR), encoded by the zwf and fpr genes, respectively, are committed members of the soxRS regulatory system involved in ..
  3. Yousef N, Pistorius E, Michel K. Comparative analysis of idiA and isiA transcription under iron starvation and oxidative stress in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 wild-type and selected mutants. Arch Microbiol. 2003;180:471-83 pubmed
  4. Bollen Y, Sánchez I, van Mierlo C. Formation of on- and off-pathway intermediates in the folding kinetics of Azotobacter vinelandii apoflavodoxin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:10475-89 pubmed
    ..The presence of such on-pathway and off-pathway intermediates in the folding kinetics of alpha-beta parallel proteins is apparently governed by protein topology. ..
  5. Stockman B, Krezel A, Markley J, Leonhardt K, Straus N. Hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin: assignment of beta-sheet and flavin binding site resonances and analysis of protein-flavin interactions. Biochemistry. 1990;29:9600-9 pubmed
    ..the five-stranded parallel beta-sheet and the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site of oxidized Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin. Interstrand nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) indicate that the beta-sheet arrangement is similar to that ..
  6. Nuallain B, Mayhew S. A comparison of the urea-induced unfolding of apoflavodoxin and flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:212-23 pubmed
    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the urea-induced unfolding of flavodoxin and apoflavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were investigated by measuring changes in flavin and protein fluorescence...
  7. Cotruvo J, Stubbe J. NrdI, a flavodoxin involved in maintenance of the diferric-tyrosyl radical cofactor in Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that NrdI is a flavodoxin counterpart to YfaE for the class Ib RNR...
  8. Gaudu P, Weiss B. Flavodoxin mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1788-93 pubmed
    The flavodoxins are flavin mononucleotide-containing electron transferases. Flavodoxin I has been presumed to be the only flavodoxin of Escherichia coli, and its gene, fldA, is known to belong to the soxRS (superoxide response) oxidative ..
  9. van Mierlo C, van Dongen W, Vergeldt F, van Berkel W, Steensma E. The equilibrium unfolding of Azotobacter vinelandii apoflavodoxin II occurs via a relatively stable folding intermediate. Protein Sci. 1998;7:2331-44 pubmed
    A flavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is chosen as a model system to study the folding of alpha/beta doubly wound proteins. The guanidinium hydrochloride induced unfolding of apoflavodoxin is demonstrated to be reversible...

More Information


  1. Nicolet Y, Drennan C. AdoMet radical proteins--from structure to evolution--alignment of divergent protein sequences reveals strong secondary structure element conservation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:4015-25 pubmed
    ..These differences in barrel architecture also explain how AdoMet radical enzymes can act on substrates that range in size from 10 atoms to 608 residue proteins. ..
  2. Hall D, Jordan Starck T, Loo R, Ludwig M, Matthews R. Interaction of flavodoxin with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. Biochemistry. 2000;39:10711-9 pubmed
    ..Reduced flavodoxin donates an electron for this reaction in E. coli, and S-adenosylmethionine serves as the methyl donor...
  3. Bueno M, Ayuso Tejedor S, Sancho J. Do proteins with similar folds have similar transition state structures? A diffuse transition state of the 169 residue apoflavodoxin. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:813-24 pubmed
    ..The data gathered on the apoflavodoxin transition state are compared with results from experimental studies in other proteins to revisit the relationship between the native state topology and transition state structure. ..
  4. Muralidhara B, Rathinakumar R, Wittung Stafshede P. Folding of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin is accelerated by cofactor fly-casting. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;451:51-8 pubmed
    ..We here assess the kinetic folding/binding landscape for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin that coordinates an FMN cofactor. The apo-form folds in a two-step process involving a burst-phase intermediate...
  5. Nabuurs S, Westphal A, van Mierlo C. Noncooperative Formation of the off-pathway molten globule during folding of the alpha-beta parallel protein apoflavodoxin. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:2739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The molten globule that is observed during folding of flavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is a kinetically off-pathway species, as it has to unfold before the native state of ..
  6. Guelker M, Stagg L, Wittung Stafshede P, Shamoo Y. Pseudosymmetry, high copy number and twinning complicate the structure determination of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 29577) flavodoxin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:523-34 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure of oxidized flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 29577) was determined by molecular replacement in two crystal forms, P3(1)21 and P4(3), at 2.5 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively...
  7. Wolfova J, Smatanova I, Brynda J, Mesters J, Lapkouski M, Kuty M, et al. Structural organization of WrbA in apo- and holoprotein crystals. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1288-98 pubmed publisher
    Two previously reported holoprotein crystal forms of the flavodoxin-like E. coli protein WrbA, diffracting to 2.6 and 2.0 A resolution, and new crystals of WrbA apoprotein diffracting to 1...
  8. Nabuurs S, van Mierlo C. Interrupted hydrogen/deuterium exchange reveals the stable core of the remarkably helical molten globule of alpha-beta parallel protein flavodoxin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The molten globule that is observed during folding of alpha-beta parallel flavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is a remarkably non-native species...
  9. Curley G, Carr M, Mayhew S, Voordouw G. Redox and flavin-binding properties of recombinant flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). Eur J Biochem. 1991;202:1091-100 pubmed
    b>Flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) has been expressed at a high level (3-4% soluble protein) in Escherichia coli by subcloning a minimal insert carrying the gene behind the tac promoter of plasmid pDK6...
  10. Visser N, Westphal A, van Hoek A, van Mierlo C, Visser A, van Amerongen H. Tryptophan-tryptophan energy migration as a tool to follow apoflavodoxin folding. Biophys J. 2008;95:2462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, apoFD's unfolded state is not a featureless statistical coil but contains well-defined substructures. The approach presented is a powerful tool to study protein folding. ..
  11. Redondo F, de la Peña T, Morcillo C, Lucas M, Pueyo J. Overexpression of flavodoxin in bacteroids induces changes in antioxidant metabolism leading to delayed senescence and starch accumulation in alfalfa root nodules. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1166-78 pubmed publisher
    Sinorhizobium meliloti cells were engineered to overexpress Anabaena variabilis flavodoxin, a protein that is involved in the response to oxidative stress...
  12. Muralidhara B, Wittung Stafshede P. FMN binding and unfolding of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin: "hidden" intermediates at low denaturant concentrations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1747:239-50 pubmed
    The flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin stays associated with the polypeptide upon guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) induced unfolding...
  13. Homouz D, Stagg L, Wittung Stafshede P, Cheung M. Macromolecular crowding modulates folding mechanism of alpha/beta protein apoflavodoxin. Biophys J. 2009;96:671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Macromolecular crowding effects may be a tool for the manipulation of protein-folding and function in living cells. ..
  14. Inda L, Luisa Peleato M. Development of an ELISA approach for the determination of flavodoxin and ferredoxin as markers of iron deficiency in phytoplankton. Phytochemistry. 2003;63:303-8 pubmed
    ..b>Flavodoxin is a small flavoprotein proposed as a marker for iron deficiency, since it is induced as a consequence of iron ..
  15. van Mierlo C, Lijnzaad P, Vervoort J, Muller F, Berendsen H, de Vlieg J. Tertiary structure of two-electron reduced Megasphaera elsdenii flavodoxin and some implications, as determined by two-dimensional 1H-NMR and restrained molecular dynamics. Eur J Biochem. 1990;194:185-98 pubmed
    The tertiary structure of the non-crystallizable two-electron-reduced Megasphaera elsdenii flavodoxin (15 kDa, 137 amino acid residues) has been determined using nuclear Overhauser enhancement restraints extracted from two-dimensional 1H-..
  16. Grandori R, Khalifah P, Boice J, Fairman R, Giovanielli K, Carey J. Biochemical characterization of WrbA, founding member of a new family of multimeric flavodoxin-like proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20960-6 pubmed
    ..sequence similarity with flavodoxins and that its members are predicted to share the alpha/beta core of the flavodoxin fold but with a short conserved insertion unique to the new family, which could account for reports that some ..
  17. Nogues I, Martínez Júlvez M, Navarro J, Hervas M, Armenteros L, de la Rosa M, et al. Role of hydrophobic interactions in the flavodoxin mediated electron transfer from photosystem I to ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in Anabaena PCC 7119. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2036-45 pubmed
    ..2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 27498-27510). Since in this system flavodoxin (Fld) can efficiently replace Fd in the overall ET process, we have further investigated if such hydrophobic ..
  18. Lindhoud S, van den Berg W, van den Heuvel R, Heck A, van Mierlo C, van Berkel W. Cofactor binding protects flavodoxin against oxidative stress. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41363 pubmed publisher
    ..cofactor binding is among these mechanisms, because flavin mononucleotide (FMN) protects Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation...
  19. Mulrooney S, Howard M, Hausinger R. The Escherichia coli alkylation response protein AidB is a redox partner of flavodoxin and binds RNA and acyl carrier protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;513:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, AidB was shown to form tight complexes with both flavodoxin and acyl carrier protein...
  20. Watt W, Tulinsky A, Swenson R, Watenpaugh K. Comparison of the crystal structures of a flavodoxin in its three oxidation states at cryogenic temperatures. J Mol Biol. 1991;218:195-208 pubmed
    The focus of this study has been to determine the conformation of the holoprotein of recombinant flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris with the FMN in each of its three oxidation states...
  21. Laudenbach D, Reith M, Straus N. Isolation, sequence analysis, and transcriptional studies of the flavodoxin gene from Anacystis nidulans R2. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:258-65 pubmed
    ..conditions of iron stress, many cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae replace ferredoxin with the flavoprotein flavodoxin. The gene for flavodoxin was cloned from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 by using three mixed ..
  22. Fantuzzi A, Artali R, Bombieri G, Marchini N, Meneghetti F, Gilardi G, et al. Redox properties and crystal structures of a Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin mutant in the monomeric and homodimeric forms. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:496-505 pubmed publisher
    The mutant S64C of the short-chain flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris has been designed to introduce an accessible and reactive group on the protein surface...
  23. Cremades N, Bueno M, Neira J, Velazquez Campoy A, Sancho J. Conformational stability of Helicobacter pylori flavodoxin: fit to function at pH 5. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2883-95 pubmed
    b>Flavodoxin is an essential protein for Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen living in the very acidic environment of the gastric tract and responsible for several diseases...
  24. Zurbriggen M, Tognetti V, Carrillo N. Stress-inducible flavodoxin from photosynthetic microorganisms. The mystery of flavodoxin loss from the plant genome. IUBMB Life. 2007;59:355-60 pubmed
  25. van Mierlo C, van den Oever J, Steensma E. Apoflavodoxin (un)folding followed at the residue level by NMR. Protein Sci. 2000;9:145-57 pubmed
  26. Doherty G, Motherway R, Mayhew S, Malthouse J. 13C NMR of cyanylated flavodoxin from Megasphaera elsdenii and of thiocyanate model compounds. Biochemistry. 1992;31:7922-30 pubmed
    Both of the thiol groups of Megasphaera elsdenii flavodoxin have been cyanylated using 13C-enriched cyanide. This chemical modification increases the dissociation constant of the apoflavodoxin-flavin mononucleotide (FMN) complex from 0...
  27. Daher B, Venancio E, de Freitas S, Báo S, Vianney P, Andrade R, et al. The highly expressed yeast gene pby20 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis encodes a flavodoxin-like protein. Fungal Genet Biol. 2005;42:434-43 pubmed
    ..analysis and fluorescence emission assay, PbY20 was recognized as a member of the flavin mononucleotide flavodoxin-like WrbA family, which are involved in heat shock and oxidative stress in biological systems...
  28. Roca I, Torrents E, Sahlin M, Gibert I, Sj berg B. NrdI essentiality for class Ib ribonucleotide reduction in Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes rendered it active. Our results highlight the essential role of the flavodoxin NrdI protein in vivo, and we suggest that it is needed to reduce met-NrdF, thereby enabling the spontaneous ..
  29. Campos L, Bueno M, López Llano J, Jimenez M, Sancho J. Structure of stable protein folding intermediates by equilibrium phi-analysis: the apoflavodoxin thermal intermediate. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:239-55 pubmed
    ..In addition, it constitutes a useful guide to rationally stabilise the native state relative to the intermediate state, a far from trivial task. ..
  30. Nabuurs S, Westphal A, van Mierlo C. Extensive formation of off-pathway species during folding of an alpha-beta parallel protein is due to docking of (non)native structure elements in unfolded molecules. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:16914-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rather than directing productive folding, conformational preorganization in the unfolded state of an alpha-beta parallel-type protein promotes off-pathway species formation. ..
  31. Hughes N, Chalk P, Clayton C, Kelly D. Identification of carboxylation enzymes and characterization of a novel four-subunit pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase from Helicobacter pylori. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3953-9 pubmed
    ..H14CO3- fixation activity, which was shown to be due to the isotope exchange reaction of pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (EC, was present...
  32. Lowery T, Wilson P, Zhang B, Bunker J, Harrison R, Nyborg A, et al. Flavodoxin hydroquinone reduces Azotobacter vinelandii Fe protein to the all-ferrous redox state with a S = 0 spin state. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17131-6 pubmed
    Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin hydroquinone (FldHQ) is a physiological reductant to nitrogenase supporting catalysis that is twice as energy efficient (ATP/2e- = 2) as dithionite (ATP/2e- = 4)...
  33. Champier L, Sibille N, Bersch B, Brutscher B, Blackledge M, Coves J. Reactivity, secondary structure, and molecular topology of the Escherichia coli sulfite reductase flavodoxin-like domain. Biochemistry. 2002;41:3770-80 pubmed
    The flavodoxin-like domain, missing in the three-dimensional structure of the monomeric, simplified model of the Escherichia coli sulfite reductase flavoprotein component (SiR-FP), has now been expressed independently...
  34. Ayuso Tejedor S, Angarica V, Bueno M, Campos L, Abian O, Bernado P, et al. Design and structure of an equilibrium protein folding intermediate: a hint into dynamical regions of proteins. J Mol Biol. 2010;400:922-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of the apoflavodoxin thermal intermediate suggests that the regions of natively folded proteins that are easily responsive to thermal activation may contain cores of intermediate hydrophobicity. ..
  35. Nabuurs S, de Kort B, Westphal A, van Mierlo C. Non-native hydrophobic interactions detected in unfolded apoflavodoxin by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, native and non-native secondary structure have been discovered in unfolded A. vinelandii flavodoxin. These structured elements transiently interact and subsequently form the ordered core of an off-pathway folding ..
  36. Muralidhara B, Wittung Stafshede P. Thermal unfolding of Apo and Holo Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin: cofactor stabilizes folded and intermediate states. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12855-64 pubmed
    We here compare thermal unfolding of the apo and holo forms of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin, which noncovalently binds a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor...
  37. Mulliez E, Padovani D, Atta M, Alcouffe C, Fontecave M. Activation of class III ribonucleotide reductase by flavodoxin: a protein radical-driven electron transfer to the iron-sulfur center. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3730-6 pubmed
    ..DTT), an Fe-S protein called beta or "activase", and a reducing system consisting of NADPH, NADPH:flavodoxin oxidoreductase, and flavodoxin (fldx)...
  38. Hughes N, Clayton C, Chalk P, Kelly D. Helicobacter pylori porCDAB and oorDABC genes encode distinct pyruvate:flavodoxin and 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductases which mediate electron transport to NADP. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1119-28 pubmed
    ..that the major routes for the generation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and succinyl-CoA are via pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) and 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase (OOR), respectively...
  39. Frago S, Goñi G, Herguedas B, Peregrina J, Serrano A, Perez Dorado I, et al. Tuning of the FMN binding and oxido-reduction properties by neighboring side chains in Anabaena flavodoxin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;467:206-17 pubmed
    ..These effects are discussed on the bases of the X-ray structures of some of the Fld mutants, suggesting that in Anabaena Fld the structural control of both electron transfer steps is much more subtle than in other Flds. ..
  40. Setif P. Ferredoxin and flavodoxin reduction by photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1507:161-79 pubmed
    Ferredoxin and flavodoxin are soluble proteins which are reduced by the terminal electron acceptors of photosystem I...
  41. O Farrell P, Walsh M, McCarthy A, Higgins T, Voordouw G, Mayhew S. Modulation of the redox potentials of FMN in Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin: thermodynamic properties and crystal structures of glycine-61 mutants. Biochemistry. 1998;37:8405-16 pubmed publisher
    Mutants of the electron-transfer protein flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were made by site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of glycine-61 in stabilizing the semiquinone of FMN by the protein and in controlling the ..
  42. Zurbriggen M, Tognetti V, Fillat M, Hajirezaei M, Valle E, Carrillo N. Combating stress with flavodoxin: a promising route for crop improvement. Trends Biotechnol. 2008;26:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..a stress-sensitive target, was replaced in tobacco chloroplasts by an isofunctional protein, a cyanobacterial flavodoxin, which is absent in plants...
  43. Osborne C, Chen L, Matthews R. Isolation, cloning, mapping, and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding flavodoxin in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1729-37 pubmed
    ..We have purified flavodoxin to homogeneity from E...
  44. Tognetti V, Zurbriggen M, Morandi E, Fillat M, Valle E, Hajirezaei M, et al. Enhanced plant tolerance to iron starvation by functional substitution of chloroplast ferredoxin with a bacterial flavodoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11495-500 pubmed
    ..algae, Fd down-regulation under Fe deficit is compensated by induction of an isofunctional electron carrier, flavodoxin (Fld), a flavin mononucleotide-containing protein not found in plants...
  45. St Maurice M, Cremades N, Croxen M, Sisson G, Sancho J, Hoffman P. Flavodoxin:quinone reductase (FqrB): a redox partner of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that reversibly couples pyruvate oxidation to NADPH production in Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4764-73 pubmed
    ..FqrB also reduced flavodoxin (FldA), the electron carrier of PFOR...
  46. Ayuso Tejedor S, García Fandiño R, Orozco M, Sancho J, Bernado P. Structural analysis of an equilibrium folding intermediate in the apoflavodoxin native ensemble by small-angle X-ray scattering. J Mol Biol. 2011;406:604-19 pubmed publisher
    ..used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to study the thermal denaturation of four variants of Anabaena PCC 7119 flavodoxin, including the wild-type apo and holo forms, and two mutants, E20K/E72K and F98N...
  47. Drennan C, Pattridge K, Weber C, Metzger A, Hoover D, Ludwig M. Refined structures of oxidized flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:711-24 pubmed
    b>Flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans (Synechococcus PCC 7942) was the first member of the flavodoxin family to be characterized, and is the structural prototype for the "long-chain" flavodoxins that have molecular masses of ..
  48. Nabuurs S, Westphal A, aan den Toorn M, Lindhoud S, van Mierlo C. Topological switching between an alpha-beta parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:8290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas native apoflavodoxin contains a parallel beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices (i.e., the flavodoxin-like or alpha-beta parallel topology), it is shown that the molten globule has a totally different topology: it ..
  49. Cremades N, Velazquez Campoy A, Martínez Júlvez M, Neira J, Perez Dorado I, Hermoso J, et al. Discovery of specific flavodoxin inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents against Helicobacter pylori infection. ACS Chem Biol. 2009;4:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the development of novel therapeutics that specifically target the unique flavodoxin component of an essential metabolic pathway of H. pylori...
  50. Coba de la Peña T, Redondo F, Manrique E, Lucas M, Pueyo J. Nitrogen fixation persists under conditions of salt stress in transgenic Medicago truncatula plants expressing a cyanobacterial flavodoxin. Plant Biotechnol J. 2010;8:954-65 pubmed publisher
    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin in plants can provide tolerance to a wide range of environmental stresses...
  51. Mediavilla M, Di Venanzio G, Guibert E, Tiribelli C. Heterologous ferredoxin reductase and flavodoxin protect Cos-7 cells from oxidative stress. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13501 pubmed publisher
    Ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase (FNR) from Pisum sativum and Flavodoxin (Fld) from Anabaena PCC 7119 have been reported to protect a variety of cells and organisms from oxidative insults...
  52. Lawson R, von Wachenfeldt C, Haq I, Perkins J, Munro A. Expression and characterization of the two flavodoxin proteins of Bacillus subtilis, YkuN and YkuP: biophysical properties and interactions with cytochrome P450 BioI. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12390-409 pubmed
    ..subtilis genome sequence had resulted in an altered reading frame and misassignment of YkuP as a long-chain flavodoxin. YkuN and YkuP were expressed in their blue (neutral semiquinone) forms and reoxidized to the quinone form ..
  53. Lodeyro A, Ceccoli R, Pierella Karlusich J, Carrillo N. The importance of flavodoxin for environmental stress tolerance in photosynthetic microorganisms and transgenic plants. Mechanism, evolution and biotechnological potential. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:2917-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Ferredoxin levels decline in plants and cyanobacteria exposed to environmental stress and iron starvation. Flavodoxin is an isofunctional flavoprotein present in cyanobacteria and algae (not plants) which is induced and replaces ..