flagellin

Summary

Summary: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.

Top Publications

  1. Diethmaier C, Pietack N, Gunka K, Wrede C, Lehnik Habrink M, Herzberg C, et al. A novel factor controlling bistability in Bacillus subtilis: the YmdB protein affects flagellin expression and biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5997-6007 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis. We observed a strong overexpression of the hag gene encoding flagellin and of other genes of the ?(D)-dependent motility regulon in the ymdB mutant, whereas the two major operons for ..
  2. Jones G, Wu J, Ding Y, Uchida K, Aizawa S, Robotham A, et al. Identification of genes involved in the acetamidino group modification of the flagellin N-linked glycan of Methanococcus maripaludis. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2693-702 pubmed publisher
    N-linked glycosylation of protein is a posttranslational modification found in all three domains of life. The flagellin proteins of the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis are known to be modified with an N-linked tetrasaccharide ..
  3. Sultan S, Manne A, Stewart P, Bestor A, Rosa P, Charon N, et al. Motility is crucial for the infectious life cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide substantial evidence that the periplasmic flagella, and consequently motility, are critical not only for optimal survival in ticks but also for infection of the mammalian host by the arthropod tick vector...
  4. Bates J, Graff A, Phipps J, Grayson J, Mizel S. Enhanced antigen processing of flagellin fusion proteins promotes the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response independently of TLR5 and MyD88. J Immunol. 2011;186:6255-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Flagellin is a highly effective adjuvant for CD4(+) T cell and humoral immune responses. However, there is conflicting data in the literature regarding the ability of flagellin to promote a CD8(+) T cell response...
  5. Faezi S, Safarloo M, Amirmozafari N, Nikokar I, Siadat S, Holder I, et al. Protective efficacy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type-A flagellin in the murine burn wound model of infection. APMIS. 2014;122:115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..was to develop a vaccination strategy that would enhance the protective response against the recombinant type A flagellin (r-fla-A) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the burn wound sepsis model...
  6. Kofoed E, Vance R. Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature. 2011;477:592-5 pubmed publisher
    ..containing 4) protein was previously shown to be activated in response to two distinct bacterial proteins, flagellin and PrgJ, a conserved component of pathogen-associated type III secretion systems...
  7. Hong S, Byun Y, Nguyen C, Kim S, Seong B, Park S, et al. Intranasal administration of a flagellin-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine enhances mucosal immune responses to protect mice against lethal infection. Vaccine. 2012;30:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that a bacterial flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, when mixed with antigen and administered intranasally, exerts a strong mucosal adjuvant ..
  8. Kumar G, Pratap C, Mishra O, Kumar K, Nath G. Use of urine with nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene (fliC) for diagnosis of typhoid fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1964-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nested PCR was done targeting the flagellin gene (fliC) of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi...
  9. Gao N, Sang Yoon G, Liu X, Mi X, Chen W, Standiford T, et al. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of differentially expressed genes in flagellin-pretreated mouse corneal epithelial cells in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: involvement of S100A8/A9. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:993-1005 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that pre-exposure of the cornea to Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin induces profound mucosal innate protection against infections by modifying gene expression...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kovacs N, Patko D, Orgovan N, Kurunczi S, Ramsden J, Vonderviszt F, et al. Optical anisotropy of flagellin layers: in situ and label-free measurement of adsorbed protein orientation using OWLS. Anal Chem. 2013;85:5382-9 pubmed publisher
    The surface adsorption of the protein flagellin was followed in situ using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS)...
  2. Stern A, Berg H. Single-file diffusion of flagellin in flagellar filaments. Biophys J. 2013;105:182-4 pubmed publisher
    A bacterial flagellar filament is a cylindrical crystal of a protein known as flagellin. Flagellin subunits travel from the cytoplasm through a 2 nm axial pore and polymerize at the filament's distal end...
  3. Clarke C, Chinchilla D, Hind S, Taguchi F, Miki R, Ichinose Y, et al. Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility. New Phytol. 2013;200:847-60 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial flagellin (FliC) epitopes flg22 and flgII-28 are microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs)...
  4. Neville B, Sheridan P, Harris H, Coughlan S, Flint H, Duncan S, et al. Pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins of prevalent motile commensal bacteria are variably abundant in the intestinal microbiome of elderly humans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68919 pubmed publisher
    ..These flagellate species contribute "cell motility" category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome...
  5. Letran S, Lee S, Atif S, Flores Langarica A, Uematsu S, Akira S, et al. TLR5-deficient mice lack basal inflammatory and metabolic defects but exhibit impaired CD4 T cell responses to a flagellated pathogen. J Immunol. 2011;186:5406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the absence of TLR5 hindered the initial activation and clonal expansion of intestinal flagellin-specific CD4 T cells following oral Salmonella infection...
  6. Cai Z, Sanchez A, Shi Z, Zhang T, Liu M, Zhang D. Activation of Toll-like receptor 5 on breast cancer cells by flagellin suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2011;71:2466-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, flagellin/TLR5 signaling in breast cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation and an anchorage-independent growth, a ..
  7. Hatta M, Sultan A, Pastoor R, Smits H. New flagellin gene for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from the East Indonesian archipelago. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Salmonella Typhi isolates from Indonesia have been described that in addition to the phase 1 Hd flagellin gene contain a second flagellin gene named z66. S...
  8. Huang F. Regulation of Salmonella flagellin-induced interleukin-8 in intestinal epithelial cells by muramyl dipeptide. Cell Immunol. 2012;278:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flagellin, recognized by TLR5, is Salmonella's dominant pro-inflammatory determinant in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
  9. Rogers T, Thorpe C, Paton A, Paton J. Role of lipid rafts and flagellin in invasion of colonic epithelial cells by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O113:H21. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2858-67 pubmed publisher
    ..98NK2?fliC) to show that invasion of colonic epithelial (HCT-8) cells is heavily dependent on production of flagellin, even though adherence to the cells was actually enhanced in the mutant...
  10. Hajam I, Dar P, Chandrasekar S, Nanda R, Kishore S, Bhanuprakash V, et al. Co-administration of flagellin augments immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antigen. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the effect of flagellin, a toll-like receptor 5 agonist, on the immune responses to inactivated FMDV antigen in guinea pig model...
  11. Lage S, Buzzo C, Amaral E, Matteucci K, Massis L, Icimoto M, et al. Cytosolic flagellin-induced lysosomal pathway regulates inflammasome-dependent and -independent macrophage responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor family, caspase activation recruitment domain domain-containing 4) inflammasome activation by cytosolic flagellin results in caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of IL-1?/IL-18 and pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death ..
  12. Zhao Y, Yang J, Shi J, Gong Y, Lu Q, Xu H, et al. The NLRC4 inflammasome receptors for bacterial flagellin and type III secretion apparatus. Nature. 2011;477:596-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The inflammasome assembled by the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein NLRC4 responds to bacterial flagellin and a conserved type III secretion system (TTSS) rod component...
  13. Hong C, Kim S, Lee H, Lee S, Lim S, Rhee J, et al. A bacterial flagellin in combination with proinflammatory cytokines activates human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes having increased homing signals to cancer. J Immunother. 2014;37:16-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Flagellin, the cognate ligand for toll-like receptor 5, has potent adjuvant activity in various vaccines. However, its efficacy in generating dendritic cells (DCs) remains contentious...
  14. Li Y, Liu F, Han C, Yan H. Monoclonal antibody that blocks the Toll-like receptor 5 binding region of flagellin. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2012;31:60-2 pubmed publisher
    The conserved domain of bacteria-derived flagellin coupling Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) activates NF-?B and MAPK signaling transductions, which subsequently regulate the transcription and expression of genes encoding immune mediators...
  15. Zhang H, Liu L, Wen K, Huang J, Geng S, Shen J, et al. Chimeric flagellin expressed by Salmonella typhimurium induces an ESAT-6-specific Th1-type immune response and CTL effects following intranasal immunization. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011;8:496-501 pubmed publisher
    The flagellin component FliC of Salmonella typhimurium is capable of activating the innate immune system via specific interactions with TLR5 and can also act as a carrier of foreign antigen to elicit antigen-specific immune responses...
  16. Gao N, Kumar A, Guo H, Wu X, Wheater M, Yu F. Topical flagellin-mediated innate defense against Candida albicans keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3074-82 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to investigate whether flagellin, the sole ligand of Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5), induces an innate defense that is sufficient to protect injured corneas from Candida albicans...
  17. Hirai H, Takai R, Iwano M, Nakai M, Kondo M, Takayama S, et al. Glycosylation regulates specific induction of rice immune responses by Acidovorax avenae flagellin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25519-30 pubmed publisher
    Plants have a sensitive system that detects various pathogen-derived molecules to protect against infection. Flagellin, a main component of the bacterial flagellum, from the rice avirulent N1141 strain of the Gram-negative ..
  18. Galletti R, Ferrari S, De Lorenzo G. Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 play different roles in basal and oligogalacturonide- or flagellin-induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:804-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that OG- and flg22-induced defense responses effective against B. cinerea are mainly dependent on MAPKs, with a greater contribution of MPK6...
  19. Hossain M, Jaye D, Pollack B, Farris A, Tselanyane M, David E, et al. Flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, reduces graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients while enhancing antiviral immunity. J Immunol. 2011;187:5130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used flagellin, a TLR5 agonist protein (?50 kDa) extracted from bacterial flagella, as a novel experimental treatment strategy ..
  20. Vassilieva E, Wang B, Vzorov A, Wang L, Wang Y, Bozja J, et al. Enhanced mucosal immune responses to HIV virus-like particles containing a membrane-anchored adjuvant. MBio. 2011;2:e00328-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To further improve the immunogenicity of such VLPs, membrane-anchored forms of bacterial flagellin (FliC) or a flagellin with a truncated variable region (tFliC) were constructed to be incorporated into the VLPs ..
  21. Doskocilová A, Plíhal O, Volc J, Chumová J, Kourová H, Halada P, et al. A nodulin/glutamine synthetase-like fusion protein is implicated in the regulation of root morphogenesis and in signalling triggered by flagellin. Planta. 2011;234:459-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that flagellin enhanced the expression of the NodGS protein, which was then preferentially localized in the nuclear periphery...
  22. Carvalho F, Nalbantoglu I, Aitken J, Uchiyama R, Su Y, Doho G, et al. Cytosolic flagellin receptor NLRC4 protects mice against mucosal and systemic challenges. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5:288-98 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial flagellin is a dominant innate immune activator of the intestine. Therefore, we examined the role of the intracellular flagellin receptor, NLRC4, in protecting the gut and/or driving inflammation...
  23. Danna C, Millet Y, Koller T, Han S, Bent A, Ronald P, et al. The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like kinase FLS2 is the pattern-recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin. Similarly to FLS2, the rice transmembrane protein XA21 is the receptor for the sulfated form of the Xanthomonas ..
  24. Kajikawa A, Nordone S, Zhang L, Stoeker L, LaVoy A, Klaenhammer T, et al. Dissimilar properties of two recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus strains displaying Salmonella FliC with different anchoring motifs. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, two recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus derivatives displaying Salmonella flagellin (FliC) were constructed using different anchor motifs...
  25. Eaves Pyles T, Bu H, Tan X, Cong Y, Patel J, Davey R, et al. Luminal-applied flagellin is internalized by polarized intestinal epithelial cells and elicits immune responses via the TLR5 dependent mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24869 pubmed publisher
    Bacteria release flagellin that elicits innate responses via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)...
  26. Schülke S, Burggraf M, Waibler Z, Wangorsch A, Wolfheimer S, Kalinke U, et al. A fusion protein of flagellin and ovalbumin suppresses the TH2 response and prevents murine intestinal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1340-1348.e12 pubmed publisher
    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 agonist flagellin is associated with immunomodulatory functions...
  27. Knudsen M, Johansson D, Kostic L, Nordström E, Tegerstedt K, Pasetto A, et al. The adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicons is enhanced by incorporating the microbial molecule flagellin into the replicon. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65964 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial flagellin stimulates TLR5 and when delivered intracellularly the cytosolic PRR NLRC4, leading to secretion of ..
  28. Sun L, Jin M, Ding W, Yuan J, Kelly J, Gao H. Posttranslational modification of flagellin FlaB in Shewanella oneidensis. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2550-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the functional flagellin FlaB was isolated and analyzed with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS...
  29. Turley C, Rupp R, Johnson C, Taylor D, Wolfson J, Tussey L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant M2e-flagellin influenza vaccine (STF2.4xM2e) in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2011;29:5145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..is a recombinant fusion protein that links four tandem copies of the M2e antigen to Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, a TLR5 ligand used as an adjuvant...
  30. Lage S, Amarante Mendes G, Bortoluci K. Evaluation of pyroptosis in macrophages using cytosolic delivery of purified flagellin. Methods. 2013;61:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use cytosolic delivery of purified flagellin as an experimental tool to trigger pyroptosis and describe potential methods to study this form of cell death...
  31. Liu G, Tarbet B, Song L, Reiserova L, Weaver B, Chen Y, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of flagellin-fused vaccine candidates targeting 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20928 pubmed publisher
    We have previously demonstrated that the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen fused to flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium fljB (STF2, a TLR5 ligand) elicits protective immunity to H1N1 and H5N1 lethal influenza infections in ..
  32. Wilson R, Maruoka S, Whitehead G, Foley J, Flake G, Sever M, et al. The Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin promotes asthma by priming allergic responses to indoor allergens. Nat Med. 2012;18:1705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A screen for adjuvant activity of microbial products revealed that the bacterial protein flagellin (FLA) stimulated strong allergic airway responses to an innocuous inhaled protein, ovalbumin (OVA)...
  33. Halff E, Diebolder C, Versteeg M, Schouten A, Brondijk T, Huizinga E. Formation and structure of a NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome induced by direct interactions with conserved N- and C-terminal regions of flagellin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38460-72 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors NAIP5 and NLRC4 play an essential role in the innate immune response to the bacterial tail protein flagellin. Upon flagellin detection, NAIP5 and NLRC4 form a hetero-oligomeric inflammasome that induces caspase-1-..
  34. Yamamura H, Hanawa K, Kusunoki M, Nakamura K, Nakagawa Y, Ishida Y, et al. Variation and predicted structure of the flagellin gene in Actinoplanes species. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;324:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To infer the flagellar diversity of Actinoplanes species, novel degenerate primers were designed for the flagellin (fliC) gene...
  35. Wang B, Gill H, Kang S, Wang L, Wang Y, Vassilieva E, et al. Enhanced influenza virus-like particle vaccines containing the extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 and a Toll-like receptor ligand. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..fusion protein by replacing the hyperimmunogenic region of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) with four repeats of M2e (4...
  36. Kinnebrew M, Buffie C, Diehl G, Zenewicz L, Leiner I, Hohl T, et al. Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense. Immunity. 2012;36:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and ..
  37. Mueller K, Bittel P, Chinchilla D, Jehle A, Albert M, Boller T, et al. Chimeric FLS2 receptors reveal the basis for differential flagellin perception in Arabidopsis and tomato. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2213-24 pubmed publisher
    The flagellin receptor of Arabidopsis thaliana, At-FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), has become a model for mechanistic and functional studies on plant immune receptors...
  38. Ghelardi E, Salvetti S, Ceragioli M, Gueye S, Celandroni F, Senesi S. Contribution of surfactin and SwrA to flagellin expression, swimming, and surface motility in Bacillus subtilis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:6540-4 pubmed publisher
    ..gene involved in surfactin production), we show that both swrA and surfactin upregulate the transcription of the flagellin gene and increase bacterial swimming...
  39. Faham A, Herringson T, Parish C, Suhrbier A, Khromykh A, Altin J. pDNA-lipoplexes engrafted with flagellin-related peptide induce potent immunity and anti-tumour effects. Vaccine. 2011;29:6911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a His-tagged flagellin-derived peptide (denoted 9Flg), previously reported to promote binding of liposomal antigen to TLR5-expressing ..
  40. Taylor D, Treanor J, Strout C, Johnson C, Fitzgerald T, Kavita U, et al. Induction of a potent immune response in the elderly using the TLR-5 agonist, flagellin, with a recombinant hemagglutinin influenza-flagellin fusion vaccine (VAX125, STF2.HA1 SI). Vaccine. 2011;29:4897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..HA1 domain of the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1) influenza virus (VAX125) genetically fused to the TLR5 ligand, flagellin, and produced in Escherichia coli. 120 subjects ? 65 years old were enrolled at three clinical centers...
  41. Jubelin G, Pages S, Lanois A, Boyer M, Gaudriault S, Ferdy J, et al. Studies of the dynamic expression of the Xenorhabdus FliAZ regulon reveal atypical iron-dependent regulation of the flagellin and haemolysin genes during insect infection. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..2008). In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the FliA-dependent flagellin gene fliC and FliZ-dependent haemolysin genes xaxAB during insect infection and nematode association by carrying ..
  42. Bobat S, Flores Langarica A, Hitchcock J, Marshall J, Kingsley R, Goodall M, et al. Soluble flagellin, FliC, induces an Ag-specific Th2 response, yet promotes T-bet-regulated Th1 clearance of Salmonella typhimurium infection. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1606-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that, in mice, immunization with soluble, recombinant FliC protein flagellin (sFliC) induces Th2 responses as evidenced by Ag-specific GATA-3, IL-4 mRNA, and protein induction in CD62L(lo) ..
  43. Lambert A, Picardeau M, Haake D, Sermswan R, Srikram A, Adler B, et al. FlaA proteins in Leptospira interrogans are essential for motility and virulence but are not required for formation of the flagellum sheath. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2019-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that FlaA subunits contribute to leptospiral translational motility, cellular shape, and virulence...
  44. Nguyen C, Kim S, Kim M, Lee S, Rhee J. Intranasal immunization with recombinant PspA fused with a flagellin enhances cross-protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:5731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that the Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, a bacterial flagellin protein and agonist of TLR5, has strong mucosal adjuvant activity and induces protective immunity upon co-..
  45. Neville B, Forde B, Claesson M, Darby T, Coghlan A, Nally K, et al. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40592 pubmed publisher
    ..ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L...
  46. Leba L, Cheval C, Ortiz Martín I, Ranty B, Beuzón C, Galaud J, et al. CML9, an Arabidopsis calmodulin-like protein, contributes to plant innate immunity through a flagellin-dependent signalling pathway. Plant J. 2012;71:976-89 pubmed publisher
    ..report here data on Arabidopsis thaliana CML9, whose expression is rapidly induced by phytopathogenic bacteria, flagellin and salicylic acid...
  47. Vetter M, Kronholm I, He F, Häweker H, Reymond M, Bergelson J, et al. Flagellin perception varies quantitatively in Arabidopsis thaliana and its relatives. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1655-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor kinase flagellin sensing 2 (FLS2) confers recognition of bacterial flagellin (flg22) and activates a manifold defense response...
  48. Meyer Hoffert U, Zimmermann A, Czapp M, Bartels J, Koblyakova Y, Gläser R, et al. Flagellin delivery by Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipids induces the antimicrobial protein psoriasin in human skin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16433 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that presence of the P. aeruginosa derived biosurfactant rhamnolipid was indispensable for flagellin-induced psoriasin expression in human skin, contrary to in vitro conditions...
  49. Bahar O, Levi N, Burdman S. The cucurbit pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax citrulli requires a polar flagellum for full virulence before and after host-tissue penetration. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:1040-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report a negative effect of polar flagellum impairment on T4P-mediated twitching motility of A. citrulli and discuss a possible co-regulation of these two motility machineries in this bacterium...
  50. Yoshino Y, Kitazawa T, Ikeda M, Tatsuno K, Yanagimoto S, Okugawa S, et al. Clostridium difficile flagellin stimulates toll-like receptor 5, and toxin B promotes flagellin-induced chemokine production via TLR5. Life Sci. 2013;92:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile associated diseases remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated whether C. difficile flagellin is involved in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases. C...
  51. Eom J, Kim J, Jang J, Kim H, Bang I, Park Y. Effect of iacP mutation on flagellar phase variation in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strain UK-1. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:4332-41 pubmed publisher
    Flagella are surface appendages that are important for bacterial motility and invasion of host cells. Two flagellin subunits in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, FliC and FljB, are alternatively expressed by a site-specific DNA ..
  52. Pan Z, Cong Q, Geng S, Fang Q, Kang X, You M, et al. Flagellin from recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveals a fundamental role in chicken innate immunity. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, very little is known about the innate immune responses, particularly the role of flagellin, in the induction of innate immunity triggered by recombinant attenuated Salmonella in chickens...
  53. Lai M, Quarles E, Lopez Yglesias A, Zhao X, Hajjar A, Smith K. Innate immune detection of flagellin positively and negatively regulates salmonella infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72047 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial flagellin is required for motility and also a prime target of the innate immune system...