serum albumin


Summary: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.

Top Publications

  1. Minchiotti L, Galliano M, Caridi G, Kragh Hansen U, Peters T. Congenital analbuminaemia: molecular defects and biochemical and clinical aspects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:5494-502 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin.
  2. Aljhni R, Ibrahim F, Guillaume Y, Andre C. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide effect on the steroid hormone binding with serum albumin. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;62:129-34 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of a series of steroid hormones (DHEA, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol) with serum albumin immobilized on porous silica particles and the effect of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide on this interaction were ..
  3. Cordes A, Carpenter J, Randolph T. Selective domain stabilization as a strategy to reduce human serum albumin-human granulocyte colony stimulating factor aggregation rate. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:2009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A fusion protein of human serum albumin (HSA) and human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF; HSA-GCSF) was used as a model to test the ..
  4. Poór M, Kunsági Máté S, Czibulya Z, Li Y, Peles Lemli B, Petrik J, et al. Fluorescence spectroscopic investigation of competitive interactions between ochratoxin A and 13 drug molecules for binding to human serum albumin. Luminescence. 2013;28:726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined 13 different drug molecules to determine their competing abilities to displace OTA from human serum albumin (HSA)...
  5. Sitar M, Aydin S, Cakatay U. Human serum albumin and its relation with oxidative stress. Clin Lab. 2013;59:945-52 pubmed
    Human serum albumin, a negative acute phase reactant and marker of nutritive status, presents at high concentrations in plasma. Albumin has always been used in many clinical states especially to improve circulatory failure...
  6. Lu J, Stewart A, Sleep D, Sadler P, Pinheiro T, Blindauer C. A molecular mechanism for modulating plasma Zn speciation by fatty acids. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:1454-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Albumin may be a molecular device to "translate" certain aspects of the organismal energy state into global zinc signals. ..
  7. Wang Y, Yu H, Shi X, Luo Z, Lin D, Huang M. Structural mechanism of ring-opening reaction of glucose by human serum albumin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15980-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide mechanistic insights to understand the glucose ring-opening reaction and the glycation of proteins by monosaccharides. ..
  8. Vallianatou T, Lambrinidis G, Tsantili Kakoulidou A. In silico prediction of human serum albumin binding for drug leads. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2013;8:583-95 pubmed publisher
    Binding of drugs to human serum albumin (HSA) strongly influences their pharmacokinetic behavior and is associated with drug safety issues, low clearance, low brain penetration, as well as drug-drug interactions...
  9. Torres M, Turell L, Botti H, Antmann L, Carballal S, Ferrer Sueta G, et al. Modulation of the reactivity of the thiol of human serum albumin and its sulfenic derivative by fatty acids. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;521:102-10 pubmed publisher
    The single cysteine residue of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. HSA transports fatty acids (FA), a cargo that increases under conditions of diabetes, exercise or adrenergic stimulation...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Yang F, Yue J, Ma L, Ma Z, Li M, Wu X, et al. Interactive associations of drug-drug and drug-drug-drug with IIA subdomain of human serum albumin. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:3259-65 pubmed publisher
    Owing to advantageous biochemical and pharmacological properties of human serum albumin (HSA), HSA-based drug carrier is playing an increasing role in the clinical setting...
  2. Garg A, Manidhar D, Gokara M, Malleda C, Suresh Reddy C, Subramanyam R. Elucidation of the binding mechanism of coumarin derivatives with human serum albumin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63805 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the binding of synthesized coumarin derivatives with human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological pH 7...
  3. Wang F, Huang W, Miao X, Tang B. Characterization and analytical application of Morin - bovine serum albumin system by spectroscopic approaches. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;99:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0001-0.1000 g·L(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.0005-0.1000 g·L(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA)...
  4. Ahmad E, Rabbani G, Zaidi N, Ahmad B, Khan R. Pollutant-induced modulation in conformation and ?-lactamase activity of human serum albumin. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38372 pubmed publisher
    Structural changes in human serum albumin (HSA) induced by the pollutants 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 8-quinolinol were analyzed by circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering...
  5. Divsalar A, Saboury A, Nabiuni M, Zare Z, Kefayati M, Seyedarabi A. Characterization and side effect analysis of a newly designed nanoemulsion targeting human serum albumin for drug delivery. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;98:80-4 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in plasma, plays an important role in the transportation of metabolic and exogenous compounds, particularly drugs...
  6. Morais M, Fossey J, James T, van den Elsen J. Analysis of protein glycation using phenylboronate acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;869:93-109 pubmed publisher
    ..This new cost-effective methodology will aid the detection of unwanted glycation products in processed foods and may lead to new diagnostics and therapeutics for age-related chronic diseases and glycosylation disorders. ..
  7. Seneviratne C, Narayanan R, Liu W, Dain J. The in vitro inhibition effect of 2 nm gold nanoparticles on non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:447-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study monitored the extent of non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in order to estimate the formation of HSA related AGEs in the presence of 2 nm gold nanoparticles...
  8. Condezo Hoyos L, Arribas S, Abderrahim F, Somoza B, Gil Ortega M, Díaz Gil J, et al. Liver growth factor treatment reverses vascular and plasmatic oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects might be linked to the cardiovascular regenerative actions of LGF. ..
  9. Krenzel E, Chen Z, Hamilton J. Correspondence of fatty acid and drug binding sites on human serum albumin: a two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance study. Biochemistry. 2013;52:1559-67 pubmed publisher
    The ability of human serum albumin (HSA) to bind fatty acids (FA) in multiple sites has been revealed by many studies...
  10. Jin Y, Zhao L, Peng F. Prognostic impact of serum albumin levels on the recurrence of stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68:686-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test the prognostic value of serum albumin levels on tumor recurrence in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer...
  11. Son S, Song S, Lee S, Min S, Kim S, Yhee J, et al. Self-crosslinked human serum albumin nanocarriers for systemic delivery of polymerized siRNA to tumors. Biomaterials. 2013;34:9475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we utilized human serum albumin (HSA), which is the most abundant of the plasma proteins, as a siRNA carrier for systemic tumor-targeted siRNA ..
  12. Sharma R, Choudhary S, Kishore N. Insights into the binding of the drugs diclofenac sodium and cefotaxime sodium to serum albumin: calorimetry and spectroscopy. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;46:435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..DCF) and an antibiotic drug, cefotaxime sodium (CFT) belonging to the family of cephalosporins with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been examined using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning ..
  13. Hong K, Jin H, Song D, Kwak H, Kim S, Kim Y. Genome-wide association study of serum albumin:globulin ratio in Korean populations. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:174-7 pubmed publisher
    ..association studies (GWASs) have been identifying genetic variants associated with total serum protein, serum albumin and globulins, but A/G ratio has never been considered the target phenotype...
  14. Freedman B. A critical evaluation of glycated protein parameters in advanced nephropathy: a matter of life or death: time to dispense with the hemoglobin A1C in end-stage kidney disease. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1621-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the counterpoint narrative following Dr. Freedman's contribution, Dr. Kalantar-Zadeh defends the use of A1C as the unquestioned gold standard for glycemic management in dialysis subjects. ..
  15. Myers R, Shaheen A, Faris P, Aspinall A, Burak K. Revision of MELD to include serum albumin improves prediction of mortality on the liver transplant waiting list. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e51926 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to assess revisions to MELD and MELDNa that include serum albumin for predicting waiting list mortality...
  16. Cho H, Kim H, Lee J, Oh S, Choi D, Suh I. The association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome in a rural population of Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45:98-104 pubmed publisher
    A positive association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome has been reported in observation studies, but it has not been established in the Korean population...
  17. Furusyo N, Koga T, Ai M, Otokozawa S, Kohzuma T, Ikezaki H, et al. Plasma glycated albumin level and atherosclerosis: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS). Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..024 and P=0.001, respectively). Increased IMT and hs-CRP levels were associated with a high GA level, especially for obese participants, suggesting that GA would be as a useful biomarker for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. ..
  18. Feroz S, Mohamad S, Bakri Z, Malek S, Tayyab S. Probing the interaction of a therapeutic flavonoid, pinostrobin with human serum albumin: multiple spectroscopic and molecular modeling investigations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76067 pubmed publisher
    ..important flavonoid, pinostrobin (PS) with the major transport protein of human blood circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) has been examined using a multitude of spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking studies...
  19. Asensi Bernardi L, Martín Biosca Y, Sagrado S, Medina Hernández M. Electrokinetic chromatographic estimation of the enantioselective binding of nomifensine to human serum albumin and total plasma proteins. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:1357-63 pubmed publisher
    This report is the first evidence of enantioselective binding of nomifensine to human serum albumin (HSA) and plasma proteins...
  20. Leung E, Scott H, McMillan D. Clinical utility of the pretreatment glasgow prognostic score in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The pretreatment mGPS is a useful and important predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with inoperable NSCLC. Basing clinical assessment on the mGPS has implications for the routine monitoring and treatment of the patients. ..
  21. Tomita D, Kimura T, Hosaka H, Daijima Y, Haruki R, Ludwig K, et al. Covalent core-shell architecture of hemoglobin and human serum albumin as an artificial O2 carrier. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:1816-25 pubmed publisher
    Covalent core-shell structured protein clusters of hemoglobin (Hb) and human serum albumin (HSA) (HbX-HSAm) (m = 2, 3) with novel physiological properties were generated by linkage of Hb surface lysins to HSA cysteine-34 via an ?-..
  22. Yang F, Ma Z, Zhang Y, Li G, Li M, Qin J, et al. Human serum albumin-based design of a diflunisal prodrug. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2013;84:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of diflunisal is unavailable for reaction with the target enzyme, because diflunisal strongly binds to human serum albumin (HSA)...
  23. Guerin Dubourg A, Catan A, Bourdon E, Rondeau P. Structural modifications of human albumin in diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2012;38:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Human serum albumin (HSA) was purified from diabetic patients and control subjects using affinity chromatography, and oxidation ..
  24. Hall M, Jorgensen W, Whitehead L. Automated ligand- and structure-based protocol for in silico prediction of human serum albumin binding. J Chem Inf Model. 2013;53:907-22 pubmed publisher
    ..a comprehensive and cross-validated in silico workflow for the prediction of small-molecule binding to Human Serum Albumin (HSA), the most ubiquitous plasma protein...
  25. Fanali G, di Masi A, Trezza V, Marino M, Fasano M, Ascenzi P. Human serum albumin: from bench to bedside. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:209-90 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule, representing the main determinant of plasma oncotic pressure and the main modulator of fluid distribution between body ..
  26. Sankaranarayanan S, de la Llera Moya M, Drazul Schrader D, Phillips M, Kellner Weibel G, Rothblat G. Serum albumin acts as a shuttle to enhance cholesterol efflux from cells. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The previously observed negative association of albumin with coronary artery disease might be linked to reduced cholesterol shuttling that would occur when serum albumin levels are low.
  27. Ascenzi P, Gioia M, Fanali G, Coletta M, Fasano M. Pseudo-enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate by human serum albumin: pH-dependence of rates of individual steps. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:451-5 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA) displays esterase activity reflecting multiple irreversible chemical modifications rather than turnover. Here, kinetics of the pseudo-enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate (NphOAc) are reported...
  28. Zhang Q, Yu H, Zhang F, Shen Z. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013;14:867-74 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA)...
  29. Arif B, Ashraf J, Moinuddin -, Ahmad J, Arif Z, Alam K. Structural and immunological characterization of Amadori-rich human serum albumin: role in diabetes mellitus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;522:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantization of EGPs of HSA by authentic antibodies against HSA-EGPs can be used as marker for early detection of the initiation/progression of secondary complications of diabetes. ..
  30. Lee M, Jung J, Kwon S, Lee S, Morita K, Her S. TIMP-2 fusion protein with human serum albumin potentiates anti-angiogenesis-mediated inhibition of tumor growth by suppressing MMP-2 expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35710 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effects of a TIMP-2 fusion protein conjugated with human serum albumin (HSA/TIMP-2)...
  31. Barnett J, Blindauer C, Kassaar O, Khazaipoul S, Martin E, Sadler P, et al. Allosteric modulation of zinc speciation by fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:5456-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Serum albumin is the major protein component of blood plasma and is responsible for the circulatory transport of a range of small molecules that include fatty acids, hormones, metal ions and drugs...
  32. Ishima Y, Hara M, Kragh Hansen U, Inoue A, Suenaga A, Kai T, et al. Elucidation of the therapeutic enhancer mechanism of poly-S-nitrosated human serum albumin against multidrug-resistant tumor in animal models. J Control Release. 2012;164:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant circulating protein and its S-nitrosated form serves as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO)...
  33. Fidan E, Mentese A, Kavgaci H, Orem A, Fidan S, Uzun A, et al. Increased ischemia-modified albumin levels in patients with gastric cancer. Neoplasma. 2012;59:393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..842 for IMA and 0.708 for MDA. Increased levels of IMA, MDA and oxidative stress index were detected and this condition is associated with the impairment of oxidant-antioxidant balance. ..
  34. Moon J, Chae M, Kim K, Kim H, Cha B, Lee H, et al. Decreased endothelial progenitor cells and increased serum glycated albumin are independently correlated with plaque-forming carotid artery atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients without documented ischemic disease. Circ J. 2012;76:2273-9 pubmed
  35. Gui R, Jin H. Aqueous synthesis of human serum albumin-stabilized fluorescent Au/Ag core/shell nanocrystals for highly sensitive and selective sensing of copper(II). Analyst. 2013;138:7197-205 pubmed publisher
    Utilizing human serum albumin as a reducing plus stabilizing agent, fluorescent Au/Ag core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared in water at pH 9.0 and at physiological temperature (37 °C)...
  36. Zsila F. Subdomain IB is the third major drug binding region of human serum albumin: toward the three-sites model. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:1668-82 pubmed publisher
    According to the conventional view, noncovalent association of small molecules with human serum albumin (HSA) occurs principally at the so-called Sudlow's sites located in subdomain IIA and IIIA...
  37. Wolf J, Rivera J, Casadevall A. Serum albumin disrupts Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacillus anthracis extracellular vesicles. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..with macrophages resulted in rapid vesicle instability, a phenomenon that was ultimately associated with serum albumin. Additionally, albumin, along with mouse serum and murine immunoglobulin destabilized Bacillus anthracis ..
  38. Sudfeld C, Isanaka S, Aboud S, Mugusi F, Wang M, Chalamilla G, et al. Association of serum albumin concentration with mortality, morbidity, CD4 T-cell reconstitution among tanzanians initiating antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1370-8 pubmed publisher
    Prospective studies of serum albumin concentration measurement as a low-cost predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression are needed for individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited ..
  39. Bao W, Holt L, Prince R, Jones G, Aravindhan K, Szapacs M, et al. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Domain antibodies to serum albumin (AlbudAbs) have been developed to extend the serum half-life of short lived therapeutic proteins, peptides and ..
  40. Anraku M, Chuang V, Maruyama T, Otagiri M. Redox properties of serum albumin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:5465-72 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative damage results in protein modification, and is observed in numerous diseases. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant circulating protein in the plasma, exerts important antioxidant activities against oxidative damage...
  41. Ha C, Bhagavan N. Novel insights into the pleiotropic effects of human serum albumin in health and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:5486-93 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin is the principal protein in human serum. It participates in regulation of plasma oncotic pressure and transports endogenous and exogenous ligands such as thyroxine, free fatty acids, bilirubin, and various drugs...
  42. Piao L, Li H, Teng L, Yung B, Sugimoto Y, Brueggemeier R, et al. Human serum albumin-coated lipid nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA to breast cancer. Nanomedicine. 2013;9:122-9 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA)-coated lipid nanoparticles (HSA-LNPs) loaded with phrGFP-targeted siRNA (HSA-LNPs-siRNA) were prepared and evaluated for gene downregulation effect in phrGFP-transfected breast cancer cells and the corresponding ..
  43. Frahm G, Cameron B, Smith J, Johnston M. Generation of fatty acids from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cardiolipin liposomes that stabilize recombinant human serum albumin. J Liposome Res. 2013;23:101-9 pubmed publisher
    At elevated temperatures, studies have shown that serum albumin undergoes irreversible changes to its secondary structure...
  44. Shafi T, Sozio S, Plantinga L, Jaar B, Kim E, Parekh R, et al. Serum fructosamine and glycated albumin and risk of mortality and clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:1522-33 pubmed publisher
    ..75 (1.01-3.02); glycated albumin 1.39 (0.94-2.06)]. Serum fructosamine and glycated albumin are risk factors for mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis patients. ..
  45. Dong S, Wang X, Xiao F, Wang J, Li Y, Li Y. Detection of perioperative myocardial infarction with ischemia-modified albumin. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2012;20:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Perioperative serum ischemia-modified albumin levels might be helpful in predicting perioperative myocardial infarction. ..
  46. Poór M, Kunsági Máté S, Bencsik T, Petrik J, Vladimir Knežević S, Koszegi T. Flavonoid aglycones can compete with Ochratoxin A for human serum albumin: a new possible mode of action. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is well known that natural flavonoids can also bind to human serum albumin (HSA) at the same binding site as OTA does (site I, subdomain IIA)...
  47. Bibi A, Jouini L, Sahli C, Hadj Fredj S, Abidi K, Gharsallah L, et al. Detection of a novel splicing mutation causing analbuminemia in a Libyan family. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:1183-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe in this report two new cases of analbuminemia in Libyans. The 14 coding exons of the human serum albumin (HSA) gene and their intron-exon junctions were PCR amplified...
  48. Monkos K. A viscometric approach of pH effect on hydrodynamic properties of human serum albumin in the normal form. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2013;32:67-78 pubmed publisher
    The paper presents the results of viscosity determinations on aqueous solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) at isoelectric point over a wide range of concentrations and at temperatures ranging from 5°C to 45°C...
  49. Furusyo N, Hayashi J. Glycated albumin and diabetes mellitus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:5509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..GA is a ketoamine formed via a non-enzymatic glycation reaction of serum albumin and it reflects mean glycemia over two to three weeks...
  50. Yang F, Lee P, Ma Z, Ma L, Yang G, Wu X, et al. Regulation of amantadine hydrochloride binding with IIA subdomain of human serum albumin by fatty acid chains. J Pharm Sci. 2013;102:84-92 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a major protein component of blood plasma that has been exploited to bind and transport a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds...
  51. Ishima Y, Chen D, Fang J, Maeda H, Minomo A, Kragh Hansen U, et al. S-Nitrosated human serum albumin dimer is not only a novel anti-tumor drug but also a potentiator for anti-tumor drugs with augmented EPR effects. Bioconjug Chem. 2012;23:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, recombinant human serum albumin dimer (AL-Dimer), which was designed by linking two human serum albumin (HSA) molecules with the amino acid ..
  52. Oh B, Seo M, Kim H. Insignificant role of the N-terminal cobalt-binding site of albumin in the assessment of acute coronary syndrome: discrepancy between the albumin cobalt-binding assay and N-terminal-targeted immunoassay. Biomarkers. 2012;17:394-401 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the N-terminus of human serum albumin (HSA) has a role in the cobalt binding detected using albumin cobalt-binding (ACB) assay...
  53. Kohzuma T, Yamamoto T, Uematsu Y, Shihabi Z, Freedman B. Basic performance of an enzymatic method for glycated albumin and reference range determination. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5:1455-62 pubmed
    ..The method was specific for measuring glycated amino acids in albumin and had good basic performance characteristics. The reference range in Americans was 11.9-15.8%. This method may be a useful indicator for diabetes control. ..