Summary: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.

Top Publications

  1. Fung S, Webster M, Sivagnanasundaram S, Duncan C, Elashoff M, Weickert C. Expression of interneuron markers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the developing human and in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether specific interneuron subpopulations are altered or whether common or distinct upstream pathways are responsible for interneuron deficits in schizophrenia. ..
  2. Murray A, Sauer J, Riedel G, McClure C, Ansel L, Cheyne L, et al. Parvalbumin-positive CA1 interneurons are required for spatial working but not for reference memory. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:297-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that parvalbumin-positive interneurons are dispensable for spatial reference, but are essential for spatial working memory. ..
  3. Royer S, Zemelman B, Losonczy A, Kim J, Chance F, Magee J, et al. Control of timing, rate and bursts of hippocampal place cells by dendritic and somatic inhibition. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that perisomatic and dendritic inhibition have distinct roles in controlling the rate, burst and timing of hippocampal pyramidal cells. ..
  4. Gittis A, Hang G, LADOW E, Shoenfeld L, Atallah B, Finkbeiner S, et al. Rapid target-specific remodeling of fast-spiking inhibitory circuits after loss of dopamine. Neuron. 2011;71:858-68 pubmed publisher
  5. Carlen M, Meletis K, Siegle J, Cardin J, Futai K, Vierling Claassen D, et al. A critical role for NMDA receptors in parvalbumin interneurons for gamma rhythm induction and behavior. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:537-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence for the critical role of NMDAR in PV interneurons for expression of normal gamma rhythms and specific cognitive behaviors. ..
  6. Gulyás A, Szabó G, Ulbert I, Holderith N, Monyer H, Erdélyi F, et al. Parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking basket cells generate the field potential oscillations induced by cholinergic receptor activation in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15134-45 pubmed publisher
  7. Daw M, Pelkey K, Chittajallu R, McBain C. Presynaptic kainate receptor activation preserves asynchronous GABA release despite the reduction in synchronous release from hippocampal cholecystokinin interneurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that presynaptic KARs preserve and act in concert with asynchronous release to switch CCK interneurons from a phasic inhibition mode to produce prolonged inhibition during periods of intense activity. ..
  8. Kvitsiani D, Ranade S, Hangya B, Taniguchi H, Huang J, Kepecs A. Distinct behavioural and network correlates of two interneuron types in prefrontal cortex. Nature. 2013;498:363-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these observations bolster the hope that functional response diversity during behaviour can in part be explained by cell-type diversity. ..
  9. Gonzalez Burgos G, Fish K, Lewis D. GABA neuron alterations, cortical circuit dysfunction and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neural Plast. 2011;2011:723184 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations of GABA signaling that impair gamma oscillations and, as a result, cognitive function suggest paths for novel therapeutic interventions. ..

More Information


  1. Ma W, Liu B, Li Y, Huang Z, Zhang L, Tao H. Visual representations by cortical somatostatin inhibitory neurons--selective but with weak and delayed responses. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14371-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Runyan C, Schummers J, Van Wart A, Kuhlman S, Wilson N, Huang Z, et al. Response features of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons suggest precise roles for subtypes of inhibition in visual cortex. Neuron. 2010;67:847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that subsets of parvalbumin interneurons are components of specific cortical networks and that perisomatic inhibition contributes to the generation of precise response properties. ..
  3. Powell S, Sejnowski T, Behrens M. Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of cortical oxidative stress on parvalbumin-interneuron maturation in rodent models of schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:1322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, oxidative stress during the maturation window for PV+ interneurons by alteration of normal brain development, leads to the emergence of schizophrenia-like behavioral dysfunctions when subjects reach early adulthood. ..
  4. Shamir A, Kwon O, Karavanova I, Vullhorst D, Leiva Salcedo E, Janssen M, et al. The importance of the NRG-1/ErbB4 pathway for synaptic plasticity and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important to better understand ErbB4's role in complex behaviors and warrant further analysis of ErbB4 mutant mice lacking the receptor in distinct neuron types. ..
  5. Hughes D, Sikander S, Kinnon C, Boyle K, Watanabe M, Callister R, et al. Morphological, neurochemical and electrophysiological features of parvalbumin-expressing cells: a likely source of axo-axonic inputs in the mouse spinal dorsal horn. J Physiol. 2012;590:3927-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a loss of normal function in parvalbumin positive dorsal horn neurons may result in the development of tactile allodynia, where non-painful stimuli gain the capacity to evoke the sensation of pain. ..
  6. Atallah B, Bruns W, Carandini M, Scanziani M. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly transform cortical responses to visual stimuli. Neuron. 2012;73:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PV cells are ideally suited to modulate cortical gain and establish a causal relationship between a select neuron type and specific computations performed by the cortex during sensory processing. ..
  7. Lewis D, Curley A, Glausier J, Volk D. Cortical parvalbumin interneurons and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci. 2012;35:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This compensation is thought to rebalance cortical excitation and inhibition, but at a level insufficient to generate the gamma oscillation power required for high levels of cognitive control. ..
  8. Korotkova T, Fuchs E, Ponomarenko A, von Engelhardt J, Monyer H. NMDA receptor ablation on parvalbumin-positive interneurons impairs hippocampal synchrony, spatial representations, and working memory. Neuron. 2010;68:557-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, NR1(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited impaired spatial working as well as spatial short- and long-term recognition memory but showed no deficits in open field exploratory activity and spatial reference learning. ..
  9. Li Y, Ma W, Li L, Ibrahim L, Wang S, Tao H. Broadening of inhibitory tuning underlies contrast-dependent sharpening of orientation selectivity in mouse visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16466-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results suggest that modulation of synaptic inhibition in the mouse V1 cortical circuit preserves the sharpness of response selectivity during changes of stimulus strength. ..
  10. Franconville R, Revet G, Astorga G, Schwaller B, Llano I. Somatic calcium level reports integrated spiking activity of cerebellar interneurons in vitro and in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the [Ca²?](i) signal appears to reflect the integral of the spiking activity in MLIs. We propose that the muscimol silencing strategy can be extended to other tonically spiking neurons with similar [Ca²?](i) homeostasis. ..
  11. De Jongh H, Taylor S, Koppelman S. Controlling the aggregation propensity and thereby digestibility of allergens by Maillardation as illustrated for cod fish parvalbumin. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:204-11 pubmed publisher
  12. Oswald A, Reyes A. Development of inhibitory timescales in auditory cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the changes in the timescales of inhibitory recruitment coincide with the development of the tuning and temporal response properties of auditory cortical networks. ..
  13. Whittington A, Moerland T. Resurrecting prehistoric parvalbumins to explore the evolution of thermal compensation in extant Antarctic fish parvalbumins. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3281-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Parvalbumins (PVs) from Antarctic notothenioid fishes display a pattern of thermal adaptation that likely reflects evolutionary changes in protein conformational flexibility...
  14. Lovett Barron M, Turi G, Kaifosh P, Lee P, Bolze F, Sun X, et al. Regulation of neuronal input transformations by tunable dendritic inhibition. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:423-30, S1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons. ..
  15. Hofer S, Ko H, Pichler B, Vogelstein J, Ros H, Zeng H, et al. Differential connectivity and response dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in visual cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1045-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, feedforward and recurrent network influences determine the activity of excitatory and inhibitory ensembles in fundamentally different ways. ..
  16. Kerlin A, Andermann M, Berezovskii V, Reid R. Broadly tuned response properties of diverse inhibitory neuron subtypes in mouse visual cortex. Neuron. 2010;67:858-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the sensory responses of layer 2/3 GABAergic neurons reflect the pooled activity of the surrounding population--a principle that may generalize across species and sensory modalities. ..
  17. Packer A, Yuste R. Dense, unspecific connectivity of neocortical parvalbumin-positive interneurons: a canonical microcircuit for inhibition?. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13260-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the microcircuit architecture for PV+ interneurons, and probably neocortical inhibition in general, is an unspecific, densely homogenous matrix covering all nearby pyramidal cells. ..
  18. Wilson N, Runyan C, Wang F, Sur M. Division and subtraction by distinct cortical inhibitory networks in vivo. Nature. 2012;488:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct evidence that inhibitory neuronal subclasses have distinct and complementary roles in cortical computations. ..
  19. Perez Gordo M, Cuesta Herranz J, Maroto A, Cases B, Ibanez M, Vivanco F, et al. Identification of sole parvalbumin as a major allergen: study of cross-reactivity between parvalbumins in a Spanish fish-allergic population. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:750-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common fish allergens are parvalbumins. In our area, the most widely consumed fish species are lean, such as whiff (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) and ..
  20. Lee S, Kwan A, Zhang S, Phoumthipphavong V, Flannery J, Masmanidis S, et al. Activation of specific interneurons improves V1 feature selectivity and visual perception. Nature. 2012;488:379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide the first demonstration that visual coding and perception can be improved by increased spiking of a specific subtype of cortical inhibitory interneurons. ..
  21. Kuhlman S, Tring E, Trachtenberg J. Fast-spiking interneurons have an initial orientation bias that is lost with vision. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1121-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that experience-dependent broadening of inhibition is a candidate for initiating the critical period of excitatory binocular plasticity in developing visual cortex. ..
  22. Tiong S, Polgár E, van Kralingen J, Watanabe M, Todd A. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord. Mol Pain. 2011;7:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II. ..
  23. Jenkins T, Harte M, Reynolds G. Effect of subchronic phencyclidine administration on sucrose preference and hippocampal parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2010;471:144-7 pubmed publisher
  24. Ayhan Y, Abazyan B, Nomura J, Kim R, Ladenheim B, Krasnova I, et al. Differential effects of prenatal and postnatal expressions of mutant human DISC1 on neurobehavioral phenotypes in transgenic mice: evidence for neurodevelopmental origin of major psychiatric disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:293-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiple and diverse abnormalities detected in mutant DISC1 mice are reminiscent of findings in major mental diseases. ..
  25. Hashimoto T, Bazmi H, Mirnics K, Wu Q, Sampson A, Lewis D. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:479-89 pubmed publisher
  26. Sletten G, Van Do T, Lindvik H, Egaas E, Florvaag E. Effects of industrial processing on the immunogenicity of commonly ingested fish species. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:223-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of these findings remains to be established. ..
  27. Sohal V, Zhang F, Yizhar O, Deisseroth K. Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance. Nature. 2009;459:698-702 pubmed publisher
  28. Lodge D, Behrens M, Grace A. A loss of parvalbumin-containing interneurons is associated with diminished oscillatory activity in an animal model of schizophrenia. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2344-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Such information is central to gaining a better understanding of the disease pathophysiology and alternate pharmacotherapeutic approaches...
  29. Xu Q, Guo L, Moore H, Waclaw R, Campbell K, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron. 2010;65:328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that cortical interneuron diversity, a major determinant of cortical function, is critically influenced by differential levels of SHH signaling within the ventral telencephalon. ..
  30. Belforte J, Zsiros V, Sklar E, Jiang Z, Yu G, Li Y, et al. Postnatal NMDA receptor ablation in corticolimbic interneurons confers schizophrenia-like phenotypes. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that early postnatal inhibition of NMDAR activity in corticolimbic GABAergic interneurons contributes to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related disorders. ..
  31. Schiavone S, Sorce S, Dubois Dauphin M, Jaquet V, Colaianna M, Zotti M, et al. Involvement of NOX2 in the development of behavioral and pathologic alterations in isolated rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:384-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a molecular mechanism for the coupling between social stress and brain oxidative stress, as well as potential new therapeutic avenues. ..
  32. Mascagni F, McDonald A. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain project to the rat basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience. 2009;160:805-12 pubmed publisher
  33. Wulff P, Ponomarenko A, Bartos M, Korotkova T, Fuchs E, Bähner F, et al. Hippocampal theta rhythm and its coupling with gamma oscillations require fast inhibition onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar alterations in rhythmic activity were obtained in a computational hippocampal network model mimicking the genetic modification, suggesting that intrahippocampal networks might contribute to these effects. ..
  34. Lucas E, Markwardt S, Gupta S, Meador Woodruff J, Lin J, Overstreet Wadiche L, et al. Parvalbumin deficiency and GABAergic dysfunction in mice lacking PGC-1alpha. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings indicate that PGC-1alpha is a novel regulator of interneuron gene expression and function and a potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders associated with interneuron dysfunction. ..
  35. Behrens M, Ali S, Dao D, Lucero J, Shekhtman G, Quick K, et al. Ketamine-induced loss of phenotype of fast-spiking interneurons is mediated by NADPH-oxidase. Science. 2007;318:1645-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NADPH oxidase may represent a novel target for the treatment of ketamine-induced psychosis. ..
  36. Meyer U, Nyffeler M, Yee B, Knuesel I, Feldon J. Adult brain and behavioral pathological markers of prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:469-86 pubmed
  37. Behrens M, Sejnowski T. Does schizophrenia arise from oxidative dysregulation of parvalbumin-interneurons in the developing cortex?. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in individuals with genetic predisposition, the persistent activation of the IL-6/Nox2 pathway may be an environmental factor that tips the redox balance leading to schizophrenia symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. ..
  38. Shen S, Lang B, Nakamoto C, Zhang F, Pu J, Kuan S, et al. Schizophrenia-related neural and behavioral phenotypes in transgenic mice expressing truncated Disc1. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..These abnormalities in Disc1(tr) transgenic mice are consistent with findings in severe schizophrenia. ..
  39. Mascagni F, Muly E, Rainnie D, McDonald A. Immunohistochemical characterization of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the monkey basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that PV+ neurons are a discrete interneuronal subpopulation in the monkey BLC and undoubtedly play a unique functional role in the inhibitory circuitry of this brain region...
  40. Wouterlood F, Boekel A, Aliane V, Belien J, Uylings H, Witter M. Contacts between medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers and parvalbumin expressing neurons in the subiculum of the rat. Neuroscience. 2008;156:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the medial and lateral subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex similarly tune the firing of principal neurons in the subiculum by way of parvalbumin positive interneurons in their respective terminal zones. ..
  41. Nissen W, Szabo A, Somogyi J, Somogyi P, Lamsa K. Cell type-specific long-term plasticity at glutamatergic synapses onto hippocampal interneurons expressing either parvalbumin or CB1 cannabinoid receptor. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1337-47 pubmed publisher
  42. Day S, Coutu P, Wang W, Herron T, Turner I, Shillingford M, et al. Cardiac-directed parvalbumin transgene expression in mice shows marked heart rate dependence of delayed Ca2+ buffering action. Physiol Genomics. 2008;33:312-22 pubmed publisher
  43. Wang C, Yang S, Xia Y, Johnson K. Postnatal phencyclidine administration selectively reduces adult cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:2442-55 pubmed
    ..The developmental dependence and neuronal specificity of this effect of PCP provides further evidence that this model may be valuable in exploring the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. ..
  44. Sugiyama S, Di Nardo A, Aizawa S, Matsuo I, Volovitch M, Prochiantz A, et al. Experience-dependent transfer of Otx2 homeoprotein into the visual cortex activates postnatal plasticity. Cell. 2008;134:508-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the experience-dependent transfer of a homeoprotein may establish the physiological milieu for postnatal plasticity of a neural circuit. ..
  45. Balmer T, Carels V, Frisch J, Nick T. Modulation of perineuronal nets and parvalbumin with developmental song learning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12878-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental song learning shares key characteristics with sensory critical periods, suggesting shared underlying mechanisms...
  46. Permyakov S, Bakunts A, Permyakova M, Denesyuk A, Uversky V, Permyakov E. Metal-controlled interdomain cooperativity in parvalbumins. Cell Calcium. 2009;46:163-75 pubmed publisher
    Conformational behavior of five homologous proteins, parvalbumins (PAs) from northern pike (alpha and beta isoforms), Baltic cod, and rat (alpha and beta isoforms), was studied by scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and bis-ANS ..
  47. Bernacer J, Prensa L, Gimenez Amaya J. Chemical architecture of the posterior striatum in the human brain. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2008;115:67-75 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate a chemical architecture in the posterior striatum that is heterogeneous and slightly different from that found in the more anterior striatum. ..
  48. Van De Werd H, Rajkowska G, Evers P, Uylings H. Cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic characterization of the prefrontal cortical areas in the mouse. Brain Struct Funct. 2010;214:339-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Each cytoarchitectonically defined boundary is corroborated by one or more chemoarchitectonic stainings, i.e., acetylcholine esterase, SMI32, SMI311, dopamine, parvalbumin, calbindin and myelin staining. ..
  49. Wen L, Lu Y, Zhu X, Li X, Woo R, Chen Y, et al. Neuregulin 1 regulates pyramidal neuron activity via ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1211-6 pubmed publisher
  50. Tanahira C, Higo S, Watanabe K, Tomioka R, Ebihara S, Kaneko T, et al. Parvalbumin neurons in the forebrain as revealed by parvalbumin-Cre transgenic mice. Neurosci Res. 2009;63:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thalamic relay nucleus and a neocortical area for the same modality corresponded and seemed to contain a characteristic amount of PV-positive excitatory neurons. ..
  51. Wouterlood F, Aliane V, Boekel A, Hur E, Zaborszky L, Barroso Chinea P, et al. Origin of calretinin-containing, vesicular glutamate transporter 2-coexpressing fiber terminals in the entorhinal cortex of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:359-70 pubmed
    ..VGluT2 expression is linked to the synaptic transmission of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, so these thalamic CR-VGluT2 projection neurons and entorhinal CR-VGluT2 interneurons should be regarded as excitatory...
  52. Hartwich K, Pollak T, Klausberger T. Distinct firing patterns of identified basket and dendrite-targeting interneurons in the prefrontal cortex during hippocampal theta and local spindle oscillations. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinct classes of GABAergic interneuron in the prefrontal cortex contribute differentially to the synchronization of pyramidal cells during network oscillations. ..
  53. Karson M, Tang A, Milner T, Alger B. Synaptic cross talk between perisomatic-targeting interneuron classes expressing cholecystokinin and parvalbumin in hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4140-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of CCK and PV networks in other brain regions suggests that internetwork interactions could be generally important. ..